In addition, some islands in inland waters are also listed.
|#||Island||Sea||Federal State||Area (km2)|
|2||Usedom||Baltic||Mecklenburg-Vorpommern||373 (445 km²[a])|
The East Frisian Islands (German: Ostfriesische Inseln, West Frisian: Eastfryske eilannen) are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of East Frisia in Lower Saxony, Germany. The islands extend for some 90 kilometres (56 mi) from west to east between the mouths of the Ems and Jade / Weser rivers and lie about 3.5 to 10 km offshore. Between the islands and the mainland are extensive mudflats, known locally as Watten, which form part of the Wadden Sea. In front of the islands are Germany's territorial waters, which occupy a much larger area than the islands themselves. The islands, the surrounding mudflats and the territorial waters (The Küstenmeer vor den ostfriesischen Inseln nature reserve) form a close ecological relationship. The island group makes up about 5% of the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park.
The largest island by surface area is Borkum, located at the western end of the chain; the other six inhabited islands are from west to east: Juist, Norderney with the largest town in the islands, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog and Wangerooge. There are also four other small, uninhabited islands: Lütje Hörn east of Borkum, Memmert and Kachelotplate southwest of Juist, Minsener Oog, a dredged island southeast of Wangerooge, and Mellum at the eastern end of the island chain which, following the boundary revision by the Federal Office for Nature Conservation, no longer belongs to the East Frisian Islands, but to the mudflats of the Elbe-Weser Triangle (Watten im Elbe-Weser-Dreieck).Geography of Germany
Germany is a country in west-central Europe, that stretches from the Alps, across the North European Plain to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Germany has the second largest population in Europe (after the European part of Russia) and is seventh largest in area. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of waters.
Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres (9,718 ft)) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. Between lie the forested uplands of central Germany and the low-lying lands of northern Germany (lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande at 3.54 metres (11.6 ft) below sea level), traversed by some of Europe's major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.Germany shares borders with nine European countries, second only to Russia: Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Switzerland (its only non-EU neighbor) and Austria in the south, France in the southwest and Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands in the west. Germany's position in Europe, including bordering countries, have put it at a significant disadvantage in numerous wars, including World War I and World War II.Halligen
The Halligen (German) or the halliger (Danish, singular Hallig) are small islands without protective dikes. There are ten German halligen in the North Frisian Islands on Schleswig-Holstein's Wadden Sea-North Sea coast in the district of Nordfriesland and one hallig at the west coast of Denmark (Danish Wadden Sea Islands).
The name is cognate to Old-English halh, meaning "slightly raised ground isolated by marsh". The very existence of the Halligen is a result of frequent floods and poor coastal protection. The floods were much more common in the Middle Ages and coastal protection was much poorer.
The Halligen have areas ranging from 7 to 956 ha, and are often former parts of the mainland, separated therefrom by storm tide erosion. Some are also parts of once much bigger islands sundered by the same forces. Sometimes, owing to sediment deposition, islands have actually grown together to form larger ones. Langeneß (or Langeness) includes a former island by that same name, and two others that were called Nordmarsch and Butwehl.
Dwellings and commercial buildings are built upon metre-high, man-made mounds, called Warften in German or Værft in Danish, to guard against storm tides. Some Halligen also have overflow dikes.
Not very many people live on the Halligen. Their livelihoods are mainly based on tourism, coastal protection, and agriculture. This last activity mainly involves raising cattle in the fertile, often flooded, salt meadows.
The Halligen are to be found in the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer National Park. The commercially developed Halligen Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde, Oland, Langeneß, and Hooge are surrounded by the protected area, but not an integral part of it. The smaller Halligen Habel, Südfall, Süderoog, and Norderoog as well as the Hamburger Hallig are parts of the national park. Walks on the tidal flats and informational meetings are offered by tourist boards and the park administration.
In the west the German Halligen are protected from the open sea by the North Frisian Barrier Island.
The island of Mandø in the Danish Wadden Sea Islands is also technically one of the Halligen, although it is far away from the other ten, which are quite near each other. Mandø can be reached from the mainland over the mudflats at low tide, when a tidal pathway (ebbevej in Danish, meaning "ebb-way") is above water.Hiddensee
Hiddensee [ˈhɪdn̩zeː] (listen) is a car-free island in the Baltic Sea, located west of Germany's largest island, Rügen, on the German coast.
The island has about 1,300 inhabitants. It was a holiday destination for East German tourists during German Democratic Republic (GDR) times, and continues to attract tourists today. It is the location of the University of Greifswald's ornithological station. Gerhart Hauptmann and Walter Felsenstein are buried there.List of islands in the Baltic Sea
This is a list of islands in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea proper is bordered to the north by the Bothnian Sea and, further north, the Gulf of Bothnia, neither being part of the Baltic Sea proper. The eastern basins the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga are likewise not considered part of the Baltic Sea proper. Whether islands situated in, or on the borders to, these basins (Åland Islands, Hailuoto and Kotlin) shall be included in the list is therefore a matter of definition.
The Danish islands Zealand (7,000km² 2,200,000 people), Funen (2,984km² 400,000 people), Als (312 km² 51,300 people), and Langeland (284 km² 13,300 people) lie in the Danish straits connecting the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat.List of the largest islands in the North Sea
This is a list of the 50 largest islands in the North Sea.Lists of islands of the European Union
European Union has several member states that have a significant number of islands.
List of islands of Bulgaria
List of islands of Cyprus
List of islands of Denmark
List of islands of Estonia
List of islands of Finland
List of islands of France
List of islands of Germany
List of islands of Greece
List of islands of Hungary
List of islands of Ireland
List of islands of Italy
List of islands of Latvia
List of islands of Lithuania
List of islands of Malta
List of islands of the Netherlands
List of islands of Poland
List of islands of Portugal
List of islands of Romania
List of islands of Slovakia
List of islands of Slovenia
List of islands of Spain
List of islands of Sweden
List of islands of the United KingdomNorth Frisian Islands
The North Frisian Islands are the Frisian Islands off the coast of North Frisia.
The term covers both the North Frisian Islands in the narrow sense (in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) and the Danish Wadden Sea Islands (in Denmark). However, culturally and linguistically, the Danish islands are usually not reckoned as being part of North Frisia, since they are not inhabited by native speakers of the North Frisian language. Occasionally, the remote island of Heligoland is also included in this group for reasons of administrative convenience, despite not being located in the Wadden Sea, since the island is home to its own unique dialect of Frisian.
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