List of important publications in philosophy
This is a
list of important publications in , organized by field. The publications on this list are regarded as important because they have served or are serving as one or more of the following roles:
Foundation – A publication whose ideas would go on to be the foundation of a topic or field within philosophy.
Breakthrough – A publication that changed or added to philosophical knowledge significantly. Influence – A publication that has had a significant impact on the academic study of philosophy or the world. Historical philosophical texts European and Islamic philosophy Ancient philosophy
Parmenides ( c. early 5th century). On Nature. 
Plato (early period, c. 399 – c. 387 BC ).  . Apology Plato (early period).
. Crito Plato (early period).
. Euthyphro Plato (early period).
. Gorgias Plato (early period).
. Protagoras Plato (early transitional period, c.
387 – c. 380 BC). . Cratylus Plato (early transitional period).
. Meno Plato (middle period, c.
380 – c. 360 BC). . Phaedo Plato (middle period).
. Symposium Plato (late transitional period, c.
360 – c. 355 BC). . Parmenides Plato (late transitional period).
. Theaetetus Plato (late transitional period).
. Phaedrus Plato (late period, c.
355 – c. 347 BC). . Laws Plato (late period).
. Timaeus Plato (Bk. 1, early period. Bks. 2-10, late period).
. The Republic
Aristotle ( fl. 384 – 322 BC). . Organon Aristotle.
. Physics Aristotle.
. Metaphysics Aristotle.
. On the Soul Aristotle.
. Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle.
. Politics Aristotle.
. Rhetoric Aristotle.
Lucretius (fl. 99 – 55 BC). . On the Nature of Things
(4BC – 65AD). Lucius Annaeus Seneca Letters from a Stoic
Marcus Aurelius (161 – 180 AD). . Meditations
Epictetus (125 AD). . Enchiridion
Sextus Empiricus (c. 160 – 210 AD), Outlines of Pyrrhonism
Plotinus (270 AD). . Enneads
Porphyry (c. 234 – 305 AD), Isagoge Hermes Trismegistus, Corpus Hermeticum  Medieval philosophy
Augustine of Hippo, , c. AD 397 Confessions Augustine of Hippo,
, early 5th century The City of God
Proclus, The Elements of Theology
Boethius, , c. 500 Consolation of Philosophy
Avicenna, The Book of Healing Avicenna,
Proof of the Truthful
Maimonides, Guide for the Perplexed Maimonides,
Yehuda Halevi, Kuzari
Saadia Gaon, Emunoth ve-Deoth
Al-Ghazali, The Incoherence of the Philosophers
Averroes, The Incoherence of the Incoherence
Thomas Aquinas, , c. 1260 Summa contra Gentiles Thomas Aquinas,
Duns Scotus, Ordinatio (aka Opus Oxoniense)  William of Ockham, Suma Logicae Early modern philosophy
Desiderius Erasmus, 1509 (printed 1511) The Praise of Folly,
Niccolò Machiavelli, 1513 (printed 1532) The Prince,
Michel de Montaigne, , 1570-1592 (printed 1580-1595) Essays
Sir Francis Bacon, , 1620 Novum Organum
Hugo Grotius, , 1625 De iure belli ac pacis
René Descartes, , 1628 Rules for the Direction of the Mind René Descartes,
, 1637 Discourse on the Method René Descartes,
, 1641 Meditations on First Philosophy René Descartes,
, 1644 Principles of Philosophy René Descartes,
, 1649 Passions of the Soul
Thomas Hobbes, , 1651 Leviathan
Blaise Pascal, , 1670 Pensées
Baruch Spinoza, , 1677 Ethics
Baruch Spinoza, , 1677 Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
John Locke, , 1689 Two Treatises of Government John Locke,
, 1689 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Gottfried Leibniz, , 1686 Discourse on Metaphysics Gottfried Leibniz,
, 1704 (printed 1765) New Essays Concerning Human Understanding Gottfried Leibniz,
, 1710 Théodicée Gottfried Leibniz,
, 1714 (printed 1720) Monadology
George Berkeley, , 1710 Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
David Hume, , 1738–1740 A Treatise of Human Nature David Hume,
, 1748 An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding David Hume,
, 1751 An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1750 Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
Emile: or, On Education, 1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
, 1762 The Social Contract
Adam Smith, , 1759 The Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith,
, 1776 The Wealth of Nations
Immanuel Kant, , 1781 Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant,
, 1785 Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals Immanuel Kant,
, 1788 Critique of Practical Reason
Jeremy Bentham, , 1789 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Immanuel Kant,
, 1790 Critique of Judgement
Mary Wollstonecraft, , 1792 A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, , 1794 Foundations of the Science of Knowledge
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, , 1807 Phenomenology of Spirit Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
, 1812–1817 Science of Logic Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
, 1820 The Philosophy of Right Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
, printed 1837 The Philosophy of History
Arthur Schopenhauer, , 1819–1859 The World as Will and Representation
Auguste Comte, , 1830-1842 Course of Positive Philosophy
Søren Kierkegaard, , 1843 Either/Or Søren Kierkegaard,
, 1843 Fear and Trembling Søren Kierkegaard,
, 1844 The Concept of Anxiety
Max Stirner, , 1844 The Ego and Its Own
Karl Marx, , 1848 The Communist Manifesto Karl Marx,
, 1867–1894 Das Kapital
John Stuart Mill, , 1859 On Liberty John Stuart Mill,
, 1861–1863 Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill,
Harriet Taylor Mill, , 1869 The Subjection of Women
Herbert Spencer, System of Synthetic Philosophy, 1862-1892
Henry Sidgwick, , 1874 The Methods of Ethics
Friedrich Nietzsche, , 1883–1891 Thus Spoke Zarathustra Friedrich Nietzsche,
, 1886 Beyond Good and Evil Friedrich Nietzsche,
, 1887 On the Genealogy of Morals
Henri Bergson, 1889 Time and Free Will, Henri Bergson, 1896 Matter and Memory, Asian philosophy Indian philosophy
Thirukkural Chinese philosophy Japanese philosophy Contemporary philosophical texts Phenomenology and existentialism Hermeneutics and deconstruction Structuralism and post-structuralism Critical theory and Marxism Epistemology
Bertrand Russell, (1912) The Problems of Philosophy
G. E. Moore, " A Defence of Common Sense" (1925)
Edmund Gettier, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" (1963)
Richard Rorty, (1979) Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature
Stanley Cavell, The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy (1979,1999)
Roderick Chisholm, A Theory of Knowing
Alvin Goldman, Epistemology and Cognition
Alvin Goldman, "What is Justified Belief?"
John McDowell, Mind and World
Susan Haack, Evidence and Enquiry
Laurence Bonjour, The Structure of Empirical Knowledge
Stephen Stich, The Fragmentation of Reason
Timothy Williamson, Knowledge and its Limits
Keith DeRose, The Case for Contextualism
Jason Stanley, Knowledge and Practical Interest
Hilary Kornblith, Knowledge and its Place in Nature
Jonathan Kvanvig, The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding
David K. Lewis, Elusive Knowledge
Willard van Orman Quine, "Epistemology Naturalized" Peter Unger, Ignorance: A Case for Scepticism Metaphysics
John Dewey, Experience and Nature, 1929
William James, Pragmatism
G. E. Moore, The Refutation of Idealism, 1903
Ludwig Wittgenstein, (a.k.a. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus The Tractatus)
Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality
A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth, and Logic
Rudolf Carnap, Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology
D.M. Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism
W. V. O. Quine, " Two Dogmas of Empiricism" W. V. O. Quine, "On What There Is"
Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity
Derek Parfit, Reasons and Persons
David Kellogg Lewis, On the Plurality of Worlds
John McDowell, Mind and World
Timothy Williamson, Modal Logic as Metaphysics
Stephen Mumford, Dispositions
Theodore Sider, Writing the Book of the World
David Chalmers, Constructing the World James Ladyman, Don Ross, David Spurrett, John Collier, Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized Philosophy of biology Philosophy of chemistry Philosophy of mind
David Chalmers, and The Conscious Mind The Character of Consciousness
Daniel Dennett, Consciousness Explained
Thomas Nagel, " What Is it Like to Be a Bat?" Thomas Nagel,
The View From Nowhere
Hilary Putnam, The Meaning of Meaning
Gilbert Ryle, , 1949 The Concept of Mind
Wilfrid Sellars, Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind, 1956
John Searle, Intentionality
Roger Penrose, The Emperor's New Mind
Ruth Millikan, Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories.
Jerry Fodor, The Language of Thought
Jerry Fodor, The Modularity of Mind
Andy Clark, Supersizing the Mind
Tyler Burge, Anti-Individualism and the Mental
Paul Churchland, Eliminative Materialism and Propositional Attitudes
Stephen Stich, From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science David K. Lewis, An Argument for the Identity Theory Philosophy of physics Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of religion
Alvin Plantinga, , 1967 God and Other Minds Alvin Plantinga, 'Is Belief in God Properly Basic', 1981
Richard Swinburne, The Existence of God, 1979
William Lane Craig, The Kalam Cosmological Argument, 1979
J. L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism, 1982 Dewi Zephaniah Phillips, 'Religion Without Explanation'
J. L. Schellenberg, Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason, 1993 William Rowe, 'The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look', 1996 Philosophy of science
Karl Pearson, , 1892 The Grammar of Science
Nelson Goodman, , 1954 Fact, Fiction, and Forecast
Karl Popper, , 1959 The Logic of Scientific Discovery
Thomas Samuel Kuhn, , 1962 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Hans Reichenbach, The Rise of Scientific Philosophy
Paul Feyerabend, , 1975 Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge
David K. Lewis, 'How to Define Theoretical Terms', 1970.
Bas C. van Fraassen, , 1980 The Scientific Image Larry Laudan, 'The Demise of the Demarcation Problem', 1983 Aesthetics Ethics and value theory Ethics
G. E. M. Anscombe, Modern Moral Philosophy
Philippa Foot, and Virtues and Vices Natural Goodness
David Gauthier, Morals by Agreement
Alan Gewirth, Reason and Morality
Allan Gibbard, Thinking How to Live
Susan Hurley, Natural Reasons
Shelly Kagan, The Limits of Morality
Christine Korsgaard, The Sources of Normativity
John McDowell, Values and Secondary Qualities
Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue
J. L. Mackie, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong
G. E. Moore, Principia Ethica
Martha Nussbaum, The Fragility of Goodness
Derek Parfit, Reasons and Persons
Derek Parfit, On What Matters
Peter Railton, Facts, Values, and Norms
W. D. Ross, The Right and the Good
Thomas M. Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other
Samuel Scheffler, The Rejection of Consequentialism
Peter Singer, Practical Ethics
Michael A. Smith, The Moral Problem Bernard Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy Meta-ethics Bioethics Business ethics Tibor R. Machan, The Morality of Business: A Profession for Human Wealthcare (2007) Identity Social philosophy Philosophy of economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of law Political philosophy Logic, language, and mathematics Logic and philosophy of logic Philosophy of language
Gottlob Frege, " On Sense and Reference"
Bertrand Russell, " On Denoting"
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations
Willard Van Orman Quine, Word and Object
J. L. Austin, "A Plea for Excuses"
J. L. Austin, " How To Do Things With Words"
Saul Kripke, Naming and Necessity
H. P. Grice, " Logic and Conversation"
Michael Dummett, Frege: Philosophy of Language
Stanley Cavell, Must We Mean What We Say? (1969)
John Searle, Speech Acts
Cora Diamond, What Nonsense Might Be
Robert Brandom, Making it Explicit
David K. Lewis, 'General Semantics' David Chalmers, 'Two Dimensional Semantics' Philosophy of mathematics Chinese and Japanese thought
Feng Youlan, A History of Chinese Philosophy, 1934 Feng Youlan,
New Rational Philosophy, 1939
A Manifesto for a Re-appraisal of Sinology and Reconstruction of Chinese Culture , 1958 
Kitaro Nishida, , 1911 An Inquiry into the Good Kitaro Nishida,
From the Acting to the Seeing, 1923–27
Suzuki Daisetsu Teitaro, , 1934 An Introduction to Zen Buddhism Nishitani Keiji, , 1961 Religion and Nothingness See also Notes
Palmer, John (2 August 2016). "Parmenides (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University . Retrieved . 2018-12-06
Brickhouse, Thomas; Smith, Nicholas. "Plato (427—347 B.C.E.)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002 . Retrieved . 2018-12-06
^ Hermeticism has philosophical as well as a religious and esoteric aspect.
Ordinatio, is taken to be Scotus' premier work.
'New Confucianism is perhaps the most influential form of Confucian philosophy in the twentieth century: The following essay, published on New Year’s Day 1958, is often referred to as the "New Confucian Manifesto" (even though that particular phrase never occurs in it). https://www.hackettpublishing.com/mou_zongsan_manifesto References Further reading Index of philosophical literature
This is a list of philosophical literature articles.
List of important publications in pedagogy
This is a list of important publications in pedagogy, organized by field.
Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important:
Topic creator – A publication that created a new topic
Breakthrough – A publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly
Influence – A publication which has significantly influenced the world or has had a massive impact on the teaching of pedagogy.
Lists of important publications in science
This is a list of lists of important publications in different fields of science.
The publications are organized by field.
Outline of philosophy
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to philosophy:
Philosophy – study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing fundamental questions (such as mysticism, myth, or the arts) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "Philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia (φιλοσοφία), which literally means "love of wisdom".
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570 – 495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will?Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity"), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.
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