The Russian College of War (or War Collegium) was created in the course of Government reform of Peter I 11 December 1717.
Collegiums were replaced by Ministries as part of the Government reform of Alexander I.
On 17 December 1815 the Ministry of Land Forces was renamed to the Ministry of War.
On 17 December 1815 the Ministry of Sea Forces was renamed, becoming the Ministry of the Navy.
Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Ме́ншиков; 26 August 1787 – 2 May 1869) was a Finno-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman. He was made adjutant general in 1817 and admiral in 1833.
A great-grandson of Alexander Danilovich Menshikov, Duke of Ingria, and a cognatic descendant of the Princely House of Golitsyn (another of his great-grandfathers was Prince Mikhail Golitsyn, the military governor of Åbo during the Russian occupation in the Great Northern War). Menshikov entered the Russian service as attaché to the embassy at Vienna in 1809. He became close with Tsar Alexander I and accompanied him throughout his campaigns against Napoleon. In 1817 Menshikov was appointed acting Quartermaster general of the General Staff. In 1823, he was transferred to the ministry of foreign affairs. Menshikov retired from army service in 1824.During the initiation of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 and the success of Abbas Mirza's initiative in Tehran, Menshikov was placed under house arrest. He was appointed head of the Naval Headquarters and cabinet minister by Tsar Nicholas I. He distinguished himself at the Siege of Varna in 1828 when an exploding Turkish cannon shell emasculated him. In 1830 he became a member of the State Council. In 1831 Menshikov held the post of Governor-General of Finland. He mainly devoted himself to naval matters. His bad influence on the development of the Russian Navy stalled its technical progress and combat training.
In 1853, Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Istanbul, and when the Crimean War broke out he was appointed commander-in-chief on land and sea. He commanded the Russian army at Alma and Inkerman and showed incompetence and lack of military talent. On 15 February 1855 Menshikov was removed from command and replaced by Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov. Between December 1855 and April 1856, he held the post of Governor General of Kronstadt and then retired. He died in St. Petersburg.
He was created Prince (Fürst) in the Finnish nobility, being the only person of the rank of prince to be registered in the Finnish House of Nobility.
The first Finnish steamship Furst Menschikoff was named after him.College of War
The College of War (sometimes War Collegium, or similar, but not to be confused with other institutions of the same name) was a Russian executive body (or collegium), created in the government reform of 1717. It was the only one of the six original and three later colleges to survive the decentralising reforms of Catherine II of Russia. Under Paul I, it became the model for a newly centralised government.
The College of War contained several functional departments which operated independently, but under the overall supervision of the college and its President; after 1798 there were to be seven sections. In 1802 it became the Ministry of Land Forces, although this resulted in no fundamental change to the nature of the institution.Minister of Defence (Soviet Union)
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.Ministry of War of the Russian Empire
Ministry of War of the Russian Empire, (Russian: Военное министерство, Military Ministry) was an administrative body in the Russian Empire from 1802 to 1917.
It was established in 1802 as the Ministry of ground armed forces (Russian: Министерство военно-сухопутных сил) taking over responsibilities from the College of War during the Government reform of Alexander I. It was renamed to the Ministry of War in 1815.