List of heads of state of Yugoslavia

This article lists the heads of state of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a monarchy ruled by the House of Karađorđević from 1918 up until World War II. The SFR Yugoslavia was headed first by Ivan Ribar, the President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (president of the parliament), and then by President Josip Broz Tito from 1953 up until his death in 1980. Afterwards, the Presidency of Yugoslavia assumed the role of the collective head of state, rotating the presidency among representatives of republics and autonomous provinces. However, until 1990 the position of President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was usually the most powerful position (the position often coincided with the position of President). With the introduction of multi-party system in 1990, individual republics elected their own heads of state, but the country's head of state continued to rotate among appointed representatives of republics and autonomous provinces until the country's dissolution.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

King of Yugoslavia
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (variant), 1920s to 1937
Peter II Karadordevic
Details
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchPeter I
Last monarchPeter II
Formation1 December 1918
Abolition29 November 1945
ResidenceRoyal Compound, Belgrade
AppointerHereditary
Pretender(s)Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). He officially renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929 and, although granted the 1931 Constitution, continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied on 17 April 1941 after the German invasion. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.

All monarchs were members of the House of Karađorđević. Peter I, previously King of Serbia (since 1903), was proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states. The royal family continued through his son (Alexander I) and his grandson (Peter II).

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right Note
Peter I
1 December 1918–
16 August 1921
Peter I of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 29 June 1844
Belgrade
son of Alexander Karađorđević, Prince of Serbia and Persida Nenadović
Princess Zorka of Montenegro
1883
5 children
16 August 1921
Belgrade
aged 77
previously King of Serbia,
proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states
Held the title "King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes". Prince Alexander served as regent in his final years.
Alexander I
16 August 1921–
9 October 1934
Alexander I of Yugoslavia 16 December 1888
Cetinje
son of Peter I and Princess Zorka of Montenegro
Maria of Yugoslavia
8 June 1922
3 children
9 October 1934
Marseilles
aged 45
son of the preceding Changed title to "King of Yugoslavia" in 1929.
Assassinated in Marseilles.
Paul
9 October 1934–
27 March 1941
Prince Paul of Yugoslavia 27 April 1893
Saint Petersburg
son of Prince Arsen of Yugoslavia and Aurora Pavlovna Demidova
Olga of Greece and Denmark
22 October 1923
3 children
14 September 1976
Paris
aged 83
cousin of the preceding Prince Regent for Peter II.
Peter II
9 October 1934–
29 November 1945
Peter II of Yugoslavia 6 September 1923
Belgrade
son of Alexander I and Maria of Yugoslavia
Alexandra of Greece and Denmark
20 March 1944
1 child
3 November 1970
Denver
aged 47
son of the preceding Prince Paul acted as regent until ousted on 27 March 1941; exiled on 17 April 1941 and deposed on 29 November 1945.

SFR Yugoslavia

President of Yugoslavia
Flag of the President of Yugoslavia (1963–1993)
Formation29 December 1945
First holderIvan Ribar
Final holderStjepan Mesić
Abolished5 December 1991
SuccessionCroatia Franjo Tuđman
Serbia and Montenegro Dobrica Ćosić
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1998).svg Alija Izetbegović
Republic of Macedonia Kiro Gligorov
Slovenia Milan Kučan

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, partisans formed the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 a AVNOJ conference proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. After the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October 1944, the Communist-led government on 29 November 1945 declared King Peter II deposed and proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.

From 1945 to 1953, the President of the Presidium of the National Assembly was the office of the Yugoslav head of state. The post was held by Ivan Ribar.

From 1953 to 1963, Josip Broz Tito simultaneously held the offices of the President of the Republic (head of state) and the President of the Federal Executive Council (head of government). The 1963 Constitution renamed the state as Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and divided the office of the President of the Republic from the Presidency of the Federal Council, even if the President of the Republic retained the power to preside over the Government when it met, on the French model.[1]

The 1974 Constitution provided for a collective federal presidency, consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists, with a Chairman in rotation. Notwithstanding, this constitutional provision was suspended because Tito was declared President for Life, thus chaired the collective presidency on a permanent basis. After his death in 1980, one member was annually elected President of the Presidency and acted as head of state.

  League of Communists of Yugoslavia   Socialist Party of Serbia   Croatian Democratic Union   Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro

No. Head of State Lifespan Took office Left office Party Representing Note
President of the Presidium of the National Assembly
1945–1953
N/A Ivan Ribar Ivan Ribar 1881–1968 29 December 1945 14 January 1953 Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(party renamed)
N/A The office of the President of the Presidium of the National Assembly (the Parliament) was the office of the head of state 1945–1953. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was reorganized and renamed into the League of Communists of Yugoslavia on November 2, 1952.
League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(party renamed)
President
1953–1980
1 Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz Tito 1892–1980 14 January 1953 4 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia N/A Office of the President of Yugoslavia instituted in 1953. Josip Broz Tito declared president for life in 1974. Office of President of the Presidency instituted to take effect upon Broz's death.
Presidents of the Presidency
1980–1992
1 Lazar Koliševski Lazar Koliševski 1914–2000 4 May 1980 15 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia Chairman of the collective head of state. Succeeded Broz after his death as the then sitting Vice President of the Presidency.
2 Cvijetin Mijatović Cvijetin Mijatović 1913–1993 15 May 1980 15 May 1981 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina Chairman of the collective head of state.
3 Sergej Kraigher Sergej Kraigher 1914–2001 15 May 1981 15 May 1982 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Slovenia Chairman of the collective head of state.
4 Petar Stambolić Petar Stambolić 1912–2007 15 May 1982 15 May 1983 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Serbia Chairman of the collective head of state.
5 Mika Špiljak Mika Špiljak 1916–2007 15 May 1983 15 May 1984 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatia Chairman of the collective head of state.
6 Veselin Đuranović Veselin Đuranović 1925–1997 15 May 1984 15 May 1985 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Montenegro Chairman of the collective head of state.
7 Radovan Vlajković Radovan Vlajković 1922–2001 15 May 1985 15 May 1986 League of Communists of Yugoslavia SAP Vojvodina Chairman of the collective head of state.
8 Sinan Hasani Sinan Hasani 1922–2010 15 May 1986 15 May 1987 League of Communists of Yugoslavia SAP Kosovo Chairman of the collective head of state.
9 Lazar Mojsov Lazar Mojsov 1920–2011 15 May 1987 15 May 1988 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia Chairman of the collective head of state.
10 Raif Dizdarević Raif Dizdarević 1926– 15 May 1988 15 May 1989 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina Chairman of the collective head of state.
11 Janez Drnovšek Janez Drnovšek 1950–2008 15 May 1989 15 May 1990 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Slovenia Chairman of the collective head of state.
12 Borisav Jović Borisav Jović 1928– 15 May 1990 15 May 1991 League of Communists of Yugoslavia (until January 1990) Serbia Chairman of the collective head of state. League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved into six separate parties. In Serbia the party was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Serbia.
Socialist Party of Serbia
(from January 1990)
N/A No image Sejdo Bajramović
(acting)
1927–1993 16 May 1991 30 June 1991 Socialist Party of Serbia AP Kosovo Acting president.
13 Stjepan Mesić Stjepan Mesić 1934– 30 June 1991 5 December 1991 Croatian Democratic Union Croatia Chairman of the collective head of state. Last President of Yugoslavia.
N/A Branko Kostić Branko Kostić
(acting)
1939– 5 December 1991 15 June 1992 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro Acting president. Installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also

References

  1. ^ Constitution of 1963
List of Deputy Heads of State of Yugoslavia

This article lists the Deputy Heads of State of Yugoslavia.

List of Presidents of Montenegro

This article lists the Presidents of Montenegro.

The list includes the heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and heads of state of the Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006), a constituent country of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia / State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Prior to 1974, Montenegro's head of state was the speaker of the Montenegrin parliament.

The President (Predsjednik) is directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the President has the procedural duty of appointing the Prime Minister with the consent of the Parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. His official residence is located in the former royal capital Cetinje.

List of Presidents of Serbia

This article lists the Presidents of Serbia.

The list includes the heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and heads of state of the Republic of Serbia (1992–2006), a constituent country of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia / State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Prior to 1974, Serbia's head of state was the speaker of the Serbian parliament.

The President of the Republic (Predsednik Republike, Председник Републике) is directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the President has the procedural duty of appointing the Prime Minister with the consent of the National Assembly, and has some influence on foreign policy. The President's office is located in Novi Dvor.

Lists of rulers of Serbia

This is a list of lists of rulers and office-holders of Serbia throughout history.

Presidency of Yugoslavia

The Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Predsedništvo SFRJ, Председништво СФРЈ; Croatian: Predsjedništvo SFRJ; Slovene: Predsedstvo SFRJ; Macedonian: Председателство на СФРЈ), also known as the Presidium, was the collective head of state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was established in 1971 according to amendments to the 1963 Constitution and reorganized by the 1974 Constitution. Up to 1974, the Presidency had 23 members – three from each republic, two from each autonomous province and President Josip Broz Tito. In 1974 the Presidency was reduced to 9 members – one from each republic and autonomous province and, until 1988, President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia ex officio.

President of Montenegro

The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore, Predśednik Crne Gore, Предсједник Црне Горе) is the head of state of Montenegro. The current president is Milo Đukanović, who was elected in the first round of the 2018 presidential election with 53.90% of the vote. The official residence of the President is the Blue Palace located in the former royal capital Cetinje.

President of Serbia and Montenegro

The President of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе) was the head of state of Serbia and Montenegro. From its establishment in 1992 until 2003, when the country was reconstituted as a confederacy (state union) via constitutional reform, the head of state was known as the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Председник Савезне Републике Југославије). With the constitutional reforms of 2003 and the merging of the offices of head of government and head of state, the full title of the president was President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе / Председник Савета министара Србије и Црне Горе). In 2006 the office was abolished as the state union was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro becoming independent countries. Kosovo then became an independent country in 2008.

President of Yugoslavia

The President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or the President of the Republic for short, was the head of state of that country from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980. Josip Broz Tito was the only person to occupy the office. Broz was also concurrently President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Broz was eventually declared president for life and with his death in 1980 the office was discontinued and the new office of President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia took its place.

The 1946 constitution defined the government of Yugoslavia headed by a president (commonly known as prime minister) as the highest administrative authority in the country. Broz served as Prime Minister during the entire period up to adoption of the 1953 constitution. This law proclaimed the country to be a socialist republic and removed all previous references to a government, ministries, etc. Instead it defined the office of President and the Federal Executive Council (FEC) in place of the government. The President was to serve as both head of state and would also preside over the FEC, a body of 30-40 members some of whom would be selected to be federal secretaries. Broz moved from the position of Prime Minister to President on 14 January 1953 and was subsequently re-elected on 29 January 1954 and 19 April 1958.

The 1963 constitution specifically gave Broz an unlimited number of terms. It also defined a new office of President of the Federal Executive Council which would head that institution rather than the President. Broz could still convene the Federal Executive Council, remained head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and concurrently still served as head of the communist party. He was re-elected by the Federal Assembly under this system again in 1963 and 1968.

Constitutional amendments in 1971 created a new collective presidency consisting of republican representatives, still presided over by the President of the Republic. The 1974 constitution gave the then 82-year old Broz an unlimited mandate, making him president-for-life. It also created a new rotating office of President of the Presidency which would take effect in the event of Broz's death. The sitting Vice President of the Presidency would succeed him in this case. This eventually occurred on 4 May 1980 when Lazar Koliševski became the first President of the Presidency upon Broz's death.

President of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croatian: Sekretar Centralnog komiteta Saveza komunista Bosne i Hercegovine) was the head of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, heading the Central Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in May 1982 from "Secretary of the Central Committee" to President of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predsednik Predsedništva Centralnog komiteta Saveza komunista Bosne i Hercegovine).

The League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Between December 1943 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Kosovo

The Secretary of the Provincial Committee of the League of Communists of Kosovo (Albanian: Sekretari i Komitetit Krahinor të Lidhja e Komunistëve të Kosovës) was the head of the League of Communists of Kosovo, heading the Provincial Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia within Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in June 1982 from "Secretary of the Provincial Committee" to President of the Presidency of the Provincial Committee of the League of Communists of Kosovo (Kryetari i Kryesisë së Komitetit Krahinor të Lidhja e Komunistëve të Kosovës).

The League of Communists of Kosovo was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia and the republic-level League of Communists of Serbia. Between September 1944 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Kosovo (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Macedonia

The Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia (Macedonian: Секретар на Централниот комитет на Сојузот на комунистите на Македонија) was the head of the League of Communists of Macedonia, heading the Central Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in May 1982 from "Secretary of the Central Committee" to President of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia (Претседател на Президиумот на Централниот комитет на Сојузот на комунистите на Македонија).

The League of Communists of Macedonia was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Between March 1943 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Macedonia (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Serbia

The Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (Serbo-Croatian: Sekretar Centralnog komiteta Saveza komunista Srbije) was the head of the League of Communists of Serbia, heading the Central Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in May 1982 from "Secretary of the Central Committee" to President of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (Predsednik Predsedništva Centralnog komiteta Saveza komunista Srbije).

The League of Communists of Serbia was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Between 1941 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Serbia (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Slovenia

The Secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Slovenia (Slovene: Sekretar Centralnega komiteja Zveze komunistov Slovenije) was the head of the League of Communists of Slovenia, heading the Central Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in October 1966 to "President of the Central Committee" and in 1982 to President of the Presidency of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Slovenia (Predsednik predsedstva Centralnega komiteja Zveze komunistov Slovenije).

The League of Communists of Slovenia was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia. Between April 1937 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Slovenia (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Vojvodina

The Secretary of the Provincial Committee of the League of Communists of Vojvodina (Serbo-Croatian: Sekretar Pokrajinskog komiteta Saveza komunista Vojvodine) was the head of the League of Communists of Vojvodina, heading the Provincial Committee of the Party. The holder of the office was, for a significant period, the de facto most influential politician in the Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, an autonomous province of Serbia within Yugoslavia. The official name of the office was changed in April 1982 from "Secretary of the Provincial Committee" to President of the Presidency of the Provincial Committee of the League of Communists of Vojvodina (Predsednik Predsedništva Pokrajinskog komiteta Saveza komunista Vojvodine).

The League of Communists of Vojvodina was also an organization subordinate to the federal-level League of Communists of Yugoslavia and the republic-level League of Communists of Serbia. Between 1943 and September 1952, the former was named the Communist Party of Vojvodina (being part of the larger Communist Party of Yugoslavia), until both parties were renamed "League of Communists" in 1952.

President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia

The President of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, formerly the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the head of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. As the leader of the Central Committee, the President was the leader of Yugoslavia. The longest serving officeholder was Josip Broz Tito, serving from 1939 to his death in 1980.

President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia

The office of the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from the death of the President of the Republic for life Josip Broz Tito on 4 May 1980 until the dissolution of the country by 1992.

A collective presidency existed in Yugoslavia since amendments to the 1963 Constitution in 1971. In 1974 a new Constitution was adopted which reaffirmed the collective federal presidency consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists. The 1974 Constitution defined the office of President of the Presidency, but only coming into effect with the disestablishment of the office of President of the Republic. A separate article affirmed Josip Broz Tito with an unlimited mandate which ensured the new President of the Presidency would not come into effect until after his death. Simultaneously an office of Vice President of the Presidency had been in place since 1971 on a rotating annual basis between republican and provincial representatives. When Tito died on 4 May 1980, the then Vice President of the Presidency Lazar Koliševski acceded to the role of President of the Presidency. Subsequent to this the role of President of the Presidency would rotate on an annual basis with each President serving as Vice President the year prior.

Prime Minister of Croatia

The Prime Minister of Croatia (Croatian: Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government. Following the first-time establishment of the office in 1945, the 1990-2001 semi-presidential period is the only exception where the President of Croatia held de facto authority. In the formal Croatian order of precedence, however, the position of prime minister is the third highest state office, after the President of the Republic and the Speaker of the Parliament.

The Constitution of Croatia prescribes that "Parliament supervises the Government" (Article 81) and that "the President of the Republic ensures the regular and balanced functioning and stability of government" (as a whole; Article 94), while the Government is introduced in Article 108. Since 2000, the prime minister has had various added constitutional powers and is mentioned before the Government itself in the text of the Constitution, in Articles 87, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104. The current Prime Minister of Croatia is Andrej Plenković. The Government of Croatia meets in Banski dvori, a historical building located on the west side of St. Mark's Square in Zagreb.

Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

The Prime Minister of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

Vice President of Yugoslavia

The office of Vice President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from April 1963 to June 1967. It was established by the new Yugoslav Constitution adopted on 7 April 1963. The first to serve in the role was Aleksandar Ranković who assumed office on 30 June 1963. Due to an affair involving wire-tapping of Yugoslav president and general secretary of the League of Communists Josip Broz Tito, Ranković was forced to resign from the Central Committee and from the vice presidency on 1 July 1966. He was subsequently replaced by Koča Popović two weeks later who served out the remainder of Ranković's four-year term. On 26 April 1967 new amendments to the 1963 constitution were approved which disestablished the vice presidency once Ranković and Popović's combined four-year term was up. The office ceased to exist on 30 June 1967.

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