List of glaciers

A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ GLAY-shər) or (UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. Because glacial mass is affected by long-term climate changes, e.g., precipitation, mean temperature, and cloud cover, glacial mass changes are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. There are about 198000 to 200000 glaciers in the world.[1]

List of glaciers
Connes glacier
Conness Glacier on Mount Conness

Glaciers by continent

Africa

Glacier at summit of Mt Kilimanjaro 001
Furtwängler Glacier (foreground) as it appeared in August 2014. Behind the glacier are snowfields and the Northern Icefield.

Africa, specifically East Africa, has contained glacial regions, possibly as far back as the last glacier maximum 10 to 15 thousand years ago. Seasonal snow does exist on the highest peaks of East Africa[2][3] as well as in the Drakensberg Range of South Africa, the Stormberg Mountains, and the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Currently, the only remaining glaciers on the continent exist on Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, and the Rwenzori.[4]

Antarctica

Fryxellsee Opt
Canada Glacier in Antarctica

There are many glaciers in the Antarctic. This set of lists does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice. The lists include outlet glaciers, valley glaciers, cirque glaciers, tidewater glaciers and ice streams. Ice streams are a type of glacier[5] and many of them have "glacier" in their name, e.g. Pine Island Glacier. Ice shelves are listed separately in the List of Antarctic ice shelves. For the purposes of these lists, the Antarctic is defined as any latitude further south than 60° (the continental limit according to the Antarctic Treaty System).[6]

There are also glaciers in the subantarctic. This includes one snow field (Murray Snowfield). Snow fields are not glaciers in the strict sense of the word, but they are commonly found at the accumulation zone or head of a glacier.[7] For the purposes of this list, Antarctica is defined as any latitude further south than 60° (the continental limit according to the Antarctic Treaty).[8]

Asia

Europe

The majority of Europe's glaciers are found in the Alps, Caucasus and the Scandinavian Mountains (mostly Norway) as well as in Iceland. Iceland has the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull glacier, that covers between 8,100-8,300 km² in area and 3,100 km³ in volume. Norway alone has more than 2500 glaciers (including very small ones) covering an estimated 1% of mainland Norway's surface area. Several of mainland Europe's biggest glaciers are found here including; Jostedalsbreen(the largest in mainland Europe at 487 km2), Vestre Svartisen(221 km2), Søndre Folgefonna(168 km2) and Østre Svartisen(148 km2). The two Svartisen glaciers used to be one connected entity during the Little Ice Age but has since separated.[9][10]

North America

Chenega Glacier, an active glacier in Prince William Sound, Alaska
Chenega Glacier, an active glacier in Alaska

There are a number of glaciers existing in North America, currently or in recent centuries. In the United States, these glaciers are located in nine states, all in the Rocky Mountains or further west. The southernmost named glacier among them is the Lilliput Glacier in Tulare County, east of the Central Valley of California.

Mexico has about two dozen glaciers, all of which are located on Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl, the three tallest mountains in the country.[11]

South America

Glaciers in South America develop exclusively on the Andes and are subject of the Andes various climatic regimes namely the Tropical Andes, Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Apart from this there is a wide range of latitudes on which glaciers develop from 5000 m in the Altiplano mountains and volcanoes to reaching sealevel as tidewater glaciers from San Rafael Lagoon (45° S) and southwards. South America hosts two large ice fields, the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields, of which the second is the largest contiguous body of glaciers in extrapolar regions.

The glaciers of Chile cover 2.7% (20,188 km2[13]) of the land area of the country, excluding Antártica Chilena, and have a considerable impact on its landscape and water supply. By surface 80% of South America’s glaciers lie in Chile. Glaciers develop in the Andes of Chile from 27˚S southwards and in a very few places north of 18°30'S in the extreme north of the country:[14] in between they are absent because of extreme aridity, though rock glaciers formed from permafrost are common. The largest glaciers of Chile are the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields. From a latitude of 47° S and south some glaciers reach sea level.

Apart from height and latitude, the settings of Chilean glaciers depend on precipitation patterns; in this sense two different regions exist: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes.

The glaciers of Venezuela are located in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida. In 1910, maps made by the explorer Alfredo Jahn showed the Sierra Nevada glaciers covering about 2,500 acres. An ice trade at that time saw ice men or hieleros transporting glacier ice by mule or on foot to Mérida for sale, a six hour journey.[15]

Venezuela's glacier coverage shrank to about 700 acres in 1952, and 200 acres in 1985.

The last remaining glacier, located on Pico Humboldt, was estimated to cover 25 acres in 2011.[15]

Oceania

Puncak Jaya glaciers 1850-2003 evolution map-fr
Animated map of the extent of the glaciers of the Carstens Range from 1850 to 2003

No glaciers remain on the Australia mainland or Tasmania. A few, like the Heard Island glaciers are located in the territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands in the southern Indian Ocean.

New Guinea has the Puncak Jaya glacier.

New Zealand contains many glaciers, mostly located near the Main Divide of the Southern Alps in the South Island. They are classed as mid-latitude mountain glaciers. There are eighteen small glaciers in the North Island on Mount Ruapehu.[16]

An inventory of South Island glaciers compiled in the 1980s indicated there were about 3,155 glaciers with an area of at least one hectare (2.5 acres).[17] Approximately one sixth of these glaciers covered more than 10 hectares. These include:

Isolates

List of longest glaciers in world in non-polar regions

The following is the list of longest glaciers in the non-polar regions, generally regarded as between 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south latitude, though some definitions [18] expand it slightly.

  1. Fedchenko Glacier, Tajikistan - 77 km (48 mi) [19]
  2. Siachen Glacier, Karakoram range, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends - 76 km (47 mi) using the longest route as is done when determining river lengths or 70 km (43 mi) if measuring from Indira Col [20]
  3. Biafo Glacier, Pakistan - 67 km (42 mi)
  4. Brüggen Glacier, Chile - 66 km (41 mi)
  5. Baltoro Glacier, Pakistan - 63 km (39 mi)
  6. South Inylchek Glacier, Kyrgyzstan and China - 60.5 km (37.6 mi)
  7. Batura Glacier, Pakistan - 57 km (35 mi)

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/glacier-recession/mapping-worlds-glaciers/
  2. ^ Kaser, Georg; Noggler, Bernd (1991). "Observations on Speke Glacier, Ruwenzori Range, Uganda". Journal of Glaciology. 37 (127): 313–318. Bibcode:1991JGlac..37..313K. doi:10.1017/S0022143000005736.
  3. ^ Hastenrath, Stefan (1984). The Glaciers of Equatorial East Africa. Solid Earth Sciences Library. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-277-1572-2.
  4. ^ "East African Highlands | ICCI – International Cryosphere Climate Initiative". Iccinet.org. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  5. ^ National Snow and Ice Data Center. "Types of Glacier". Archived from the original on 2010-04-17.
  6. ^ The text of the Antarctic Treaty Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine, article VI ("Area covered by Treaty") states: "The provisions of the present Treaty shall apply to the area south of 60° South latitude"
  7. ^ Dr. Sue Ferguson, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. "Types of Glacier". University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  8. ^ Office of Polar Programs (OPP) (26 April 2010). "The Antarctic Treaty". The National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia. Archived from the original on 28 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  9. ^ "Bre - NVE". www.nve.no. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Saltfjellet-Svartisen - Norske Naturperler". naturperler.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  11. ^ White, Sidney E. (2001). "Glaciers of Mexico" (PDF). Glaciers of North America. United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  12. ^ Rignot E., Kanagaratnam P. (2006). "Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet". Science. 311 (5763): 986–990. Bibcode:2006Sci...311..986R. doi:10.1126/science.1121381. PMID 16484490.
  13. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2014-03-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future Archived 2012-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b Rodríguez, Jeanfreddy Gutiérrez and María Fernanda (2019-01-15). "Watching Venezuela's Last Glacier Disappear". The Atlantic. ISSN 1072-7825. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  16. ^ Chinn, Trevor J.H., (1988),Glaciers of New Zealand Archived 2008-07-06 at the Wayback Machine, in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world, U.S. Geological Survey professional paper; 1386, ISBN 0-607-71457-3.
  17. ^ Chinn, Trevor J.H., (1988), Glaciers of New Zealand, in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world, U.S. Geological Survey professional paper; 1386, ISBN 0-607-71457-3.
  18. ^ "NASA - Earth's Non-polar Glaciers and Ice Caps". www.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 23 May 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  19. ^ Exact lengths are relatively easy to determine with modern maps and imagery so as to include recent glacial retreat. Measurements are from recent imagery, supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as the 1990 "Orographic Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheet 2", Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich.
  20. ^ Dinesh Kumar (13 April 2014). "30 Years of the World's Coldest War". Chandigarh, India: The Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
Glaciers of Georgia

The glaciers of Georgia are mainly located along the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range.

Glaciers of New Zealand

New Zealand contains many glaciers, mostly located near the Main Divide of the Southern Alps in the South Island. They are classed as mid-latitude mountain glaciers. There are eighteen small glaciers in the North Island on Mount Ruapehu.

An inventory of South Island glaciers compiled in the 1980s indicated there were about 3,155 glaciers with an area of at least one hectare (2.5 acres). Approximately one sixth of these glaciers covered more than 10 hectares. These include:

Fox Glacier

Franz Josef Glacier

Hooker Glacier

Mueller Glacier

Murchison Glacier

Tasman Glacier

Volta GlacierNew Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica, the Ross Dependency, also contains many glaciers.

Kafni Glacier

The Kafni Glacier is located in the upper reaches of the Kumaon Himalayas, to the southeast of Nanda Devi. The glacier gives rise to the Kafni River, which is a tributary of the Pindar River. The Pinder River is a tributary to Alaknanda River, which eventually is one of the two headstreams of the Ganges. This is relatively small glacier but a popular trekking destination along with Pindari Glacier.

List of glaciers in Africa

Africa, specifically East Africa, has contained glacial regions, possibly as far back as the last glacial maximum 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. Seasonal snow does exist on the highest peaks of East Africa as well as in the Drakensberg Range of South Africa, the Stormberg Mountains, and the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Currently, the only remaining glaciers on the continent exist on Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, and the Rwenzori.

List of glaciers in Asia

This is a list of glaciers in Asia.

List of glaciers in Canada

This is a list of glaciers in Canada.

List of glaciers in Greenland

This is a list of glaciers in Greenland. Details on the size and flow of some of the major Greenlandic glaciers are listed by Eric Rignot and Pannir Kanagaratnam (2006)

List of glaciers in Iceland

The glaciers and ice caps of Iceland cover 69./. of the land area of the country (about 11,400 km² out of the total area of 103,125 km²) and have a considerable impact on its landscape and meteorology. An ice cap is a mass of glacial ice that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area covering a highland area and they feed outlet glaciers. Glaciers are also contributing to the Icelandic economy, with tourists flocking to the country to see glaciers on snowmobiles and on glacier hiking tours.

Many Icelandic ice caps and glaciers lie above volcanoes, such as Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga, which lie under the largest ice cap, Vatnajökull. The caldera of Grímsvötn is 100 km² in area, and Bárðarbunga is 60 km².

When volcanic activity occurs under the glacier, the resulting meltwater can lead to a sudden glacial lake outburst flood, known in Icelandic as jökulhlaup, but jökulhlaups are most often caused by accumulation of meltwater due to geothermal activity underneath the glacier. Such jökulhlaups have occasionally triggered volcanic eruptions through the sudden release of pressure.

Iceland is losing ice due to climate change. Okjökull glacier in Borgarfjörður, West Iceland, has lost its glacier title and is now simply known as "Ok." In order to fit the criteria glaciers need to be thick enough to sink and move under their own weight, which Okjökull is not. Okjökull is the first Icelandic glacier to lose its title.The Icelandic word for glacier is jökull.

List of glaciers in Norway

These are the largest glaciers on mainland Norway. However, the 18 largest glaciers in the Kingdom of Norway are on Svalbard, including the second largest glacier in Europe, Austfonna on Nordaustlandet. In total, Norway has around 1,600 glaciers - 900 of these are in North Norway, but 60% of the total glacier area is south of Trøndelag. 1% of mainland Norway is covered by glaciers.

List of glaciers in Russia

This is a list of glaciers in Russia. It includes glaciers, ice caps and ice domes located in the Russian Federation.

List of glaciers in South America

Glaciers in South America develop exclusively on the Andes and are subject to the Andes various climatic regimes namely the Tropical Andes, Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Apart from this there is a wide range of altitudes on which glaciers develop from 5000 m in the Altiplano mountains and volcanoes to reaching sealevel as tidewater glaciers from San Rafael Lagoon (45° S) and southwards. South America hosts two large ice fields, the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields, of which the second is the largest contiguous body of glaciers in extrapolar regions. By surface about 80% of South America's glaciers lie in Chile.

List of glaciers in Switzerland

This is a non-exhaustive list of the major glaciers in Switzerland. It contains their surface area, their lengths since the start of measurement and the most current year, their height and their outflow. Most of them are retreating and many will vanish.All glaciers are located within the Swiss Alps. Most of them are situated in the Pennine and Bernese Alps. The Jungfrau-Aletsch protected area includes the largest glaciers of the Alps.

There are glaciers in the four major drainage basins of Switzerland. The Rhine and Rhône basins are located on the northern side of the Alps while the Po basin is located on the south side of the Alps. The Danube basin is located on the east side of the Alps. There are no glaciers in the Swiss portion of the Adige basin.

List of glaciers in the Antarctic

There are many glaciers in the Antarctic. This set of lists does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice. The lists include outlet glaciers, valley glaciers, cirque glaciers, tidewater glaciers and ice streams. Ice streams are a type of glacier and many of them have "glacier" in their name, e.g. Pine Island Glacier. Ice shelves are listed separately in the List of Antarctic ice shelves. For the purposes of these lists, the Antarctic is defined as any latitude further south than 60° (the continental limit according to the Antarctic Treaty System).

List of glaciers in the United States

This is a list of glaciers existing in the United States, currently or in recent centuries. These glaciers are located in nine states, all in the Rocky Mountains or farther west. The southernmost named glacier among them is the Lilliput Glacier in Tulare County, east of the Central Valley of California.

List of glaciers of Chile

The glaciers of Chile cover 2.7% (20,188 km2) of the land area of the country, excluding Antártica Chilena, and have a considerable impact on its landscape and water supply. By surface 80% of South America’s glaciers lie in Chile. Glaciers develop in the Andes of Chile from 27˚S southwards and in a very few places north of 18°30'S in the extreme north of the country: in between they are absent because of extreme aridity, though rock glaciers formed from permafrost are common. The largest glaciers of Chile are the Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Fields. From a latitude of 47° S and south some glaciers reach sea level.

Apart from height and latitude, the settings of Chilean glaciers depend on precipitation patterns; in this sense two different regions exist: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes.

List of glaciers of India

Himalayan region of India is home of some of the most notable glaciers in the world. This is a list of the notable glaciers in India. Most glaciers lie in the states of Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Few glaciers are also found in Arunachal Pradesh.

List of glaciers of Pakistan

Following is list of glaciers of Pakistan: Almost all of them are present in Gilgit-Baltistan

Support Force Glacier

Support Force Glacier is a major glacier in the Pensacola Mountains, draining northward between the Forrestal Range and Argentina Range to the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. Mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and US Navy air photos, 1956-66. Named by US-ACAN for the U.S. Naval Support Force Antarctica, which provided logistical support for the United States Antarctic Program during this period.

Taylor Glacier

The Taylor Glacier is an Antarctic glacier about 54 kilometres (34 mi) long, flowing from the plateau of Victoria Land into the western end of Taylor Valley, north of the Kukri Hills, south of the Asgard Range. The middle part of the glacier is bounded on the north by the Inland Forts and on the south by Beacon Valley.

The glacier was discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) and at that time thought to be a part of Ferrar Glacier. The Western Journey Party of the British Antarctic Expedition 1910 determined that the upper and lower portions of what was then known as Ferrar Glacier are apposed, i.e., joined in Siamese-twin fashion north of Knobhead. With this discovery Scott named the upper portion for Griffith Taylor, geologist and leader of the Western Journey Party.

The Taylor Glacier has been the focus of a measurement and modeling effort carried out by researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Texas at Austin.

Like other glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Taylor Glacier is “cold-based,” meaning its bottom is frozen to the ground below. The rest of the world’s glaciers are “wet-based,” meaning they scrape over the bedrock, picking up and leaving obvious piles of debris (moraines) along their edges.

Cold-based glaciers flow more like putty, pushed forward by their own weight. Cold-based glaciers pick up minimal debris, cause little erosion, and leave only small moraines. They also look different from above. Instead of having surfaces full of crevasses, cold-based glaciers are comparatively flat and smooth.

Types
Anatomy
Processes
Measurements
Volcanic relations
Landforms

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