List of floods

This is a list of major floods.

List of Floods By Year

14th century

15th century

16th century

17th century

  • The California Flood of 1605 was caused nby heavy rains and covered many parts of California in water.[1]
  • The Burchardi Flood was a storm tide that struck the North Sea coast of North Frisia and Dithmarschen on the night between 11 and 12 October 1634. Overrunning dikes, it shattered the coastline and caused thousands of deaths (8,000 to 15,000 people drowned).

18th century floods

  • Christmas Flood of 1717 – Flood in Netherlands, Germany, and Scandinavia. 14,000 drowned.
  • Mississippi River Flood of December 1734 to June 1735. New Orleans was inundated by the flooding.
  • New Hampshire Flood of 1740. The Merrimack River flooded in December. It is the first recorded flood in New Hampshire history.
  • New Hampshire/Maine Flood of October 1785. In New Hampshire, a significant flood struck the Cocheco, Baker, Pemigewasset, Contoocook and Merrimack rivers on 23 October which established records at Lowell which held until 1902.[2] The Androscoggin River flooded significantly, which destroyed many homesteads in what would become Bethel, Maine. Those that survived the flood moved uphill into less valuable, 100-acre (0.40 km2) plots. Turner's first mill was destroyed during this inundation.
  • Great Pumpkin Flood of October 1786. Central Pennsylvania flood. Received its name due to the pumpkins that were washed away in the flood on 5 October. It was a major flood in the Susquehanna River basin.
  • Mississippi River Flood of July 1788. Severe flooding of the Mississippi River resulted from a hurricane landfall
  • Storofsen Norway Flood of July 1789
  • Red River of the South Flood of 1800. According to the Caddo tribe, a "great flood" moved down the river and reinforced the "Great Log Raft" on the river. This raft was a natural dam that increased water levels on some of the Red River tributaries. This process formed Caddo Lake.

19th century

  • Mississippi River Flood of 1809. All of the lower Mississippi River was inundated by flooding.
  • Mississippi River Flood of 1825. The flood of 1825 is the last known inundation of New Orleans due to spring flooding
  • Great Mississippi River Flood of 1844. The largest flood ever recorded on the Missouri River and Upper Mississippi River in terms of discharge. This flood was particularly devastating since the region had few if any levees at the time. Among the hardest hit were the Wyandot who lost 100 people in the diseases that occurred after the flood. The flood also is the highest recorded for the Mississippi River at St. Louis. After the flood, Congress in 1849 passed the Swamp Act providing land grants to build stronger levees.
  • Great Mississippi River Flood of 1851. The flood occurred after record-setting rainfalls across the U.S. Midwest and Plains from May to August 1851. The State of Iowa experienced significant flooding extending to the Lower Mississippi River basin. Historical evidence suggest flooding occurred in the eastern Plains, from Nebraska to the Red River basin, but these areas were sparsely settled in 1851. Heavy rainfall also occurred in the Ohio River basin. In June, major flooding on the Mississippi River was experienced.
  • The Great Flood of 1862 struck the west coast of North America in December 1861 and January 1862. An atmospheric river from the tropics brought 43 days of rain to the U.S. states of California, Utah and Oregon as well as the Mexican state of Sonora. It was the worst disaster ever to strike California; the state's California was effectively an inland sea for months afterwards. State government temporarily moved to San Francisco because the capital, Sacramento, was under 10 feet (3.3 m) of water; the damage and the ensuing shortfall in tax revenues nearly bankrupted the state.
  • The 1872 Baltic Sea flood was a storm surge that affected the Baltic Sea coast from Denmark to Pomerania on the night of 12/13 November 1872. The flood cost the lives of at least 271 people on the Baltic Sea coast; 2,850 houses were destroyed or at least badly damaged and 15,160 people left homeless as a result.
  • Great Mississippi River Flood of 1874. Heavy spring rains caused the Mississippi River to overflow, breaching levees and flooding enormous swathes of the Lower Mississippi Valley. The flooding began in February and only began to recede on 20 May. According to the New Orleans Daily Picayune of 3 May, thirty-one of Louisiana's fifty-three parishes (home to some 375,000 people) were entirely or partially underwater. The Picayune also reported that breaches at Hushpakana[sic.] and Bolivar, Mississippi, had "transformed the Yazoo Valley into an inland lake."[3] Mayor Louis A. Wiltz of New Orleans published a circular on 30 May addressed to "the Mayors of thirty-four large American cities" seeking contributions of cash and provisions for relief efforts. In the circular, the Flood of 1874 was described as the highest on record. It also included the observations of former U.S. Surveyor General for Louisiana William J. McCulloh, who estimated that a total of 12,565,060 acres had been flooded across Louisiana (8,065,000), Mississippi (2,500,000), and Arkansas (2,000,000).
  • Mississippi River Flood of 1882. Intense spring rain storms beginning on 19 February 1882, led to a rapid rise of the Ohio River and flooding along the river from Cincinnati to St. Louis. The effects were much more devastating in the Lower Mississippi Valley, with an estimated 20,000 people made homeless in Arkansas alone. Such was the devastation that, in its wake, Southern Democrats and Midwestern Republicans in Congress hailing from those states afflicted by the flooding made common cause to increase appropriations for the Rivers and Harbor Act to $19 million, $5.4 million of which was earmarked for internal improvements and federal aid to the flooded areas. While not opposed to internal improvements on principle, President Chester A. Arthur nonetheless vetoed the Act on 1 August 1882. Congress overrode his veto the following day.
  • In 1889, the South Fork Dam broke, causing the massive Johnston Flood of 1889 that took 2,209 lives in Johnstown, Pennsylvania.
  • On 8 September 1900, in Galveston, TX, the storm made landfall, leaving about 7,000 to 12,000 dead. It remains to the present day the deadliest single day event in US history.[4]

20th century


  • In 1910, large areas of Paris were flooded when the river burst its banks.
  • In 1920, The Great Flood of Tokyo, when 3700 houses, were swept away, 2200, partially destroyed and nearly 400,000 damaged.
  • The Great Flood of 1913, which included the Great Dayton Flood, killed 650 people and destroyed 20,000 homes in the United States. It also damaged historic photographic plates belonging to Wilbur and Orville Wright. It ended canal transportation in Ohio.
  • The 1916 Clermont, Queensland flood was the worst flood in Clermont history.
  • The Hatfield Flood of San Diego, United States, of 1916 destroyed the Lower Otay Dam,[5] damaged the Sweetwater Dam,[6] and caused 22 deaths and $4.5 million in damages.



  • The 1931 Yellow River flood caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths in China, one of a series of disastrous floods on the Yellow River. It was one of the worst floods in history.
  • The Ohio River flood of 1937 occurred in late January and February 1937, causing damage along the Ohio River and several smaller tributaries from Pittsburgh, Illinois, to Cairo, Illinois. This flood left close to one million people homeless, 385 dead, and $50,000,000 worth of damage.
  • The Los Angeles flood of 1938 occurred from late February to early March 1938, causing the Los Angeles River and the Santa Ana River to overflow, causing $40,000,000 worth of damage and causing 115 lives to be lost.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy seasonal raining caused landsides at Rokko mountains.


  • The 1948 Berwickshire flood occurred on 12 August, when extremely heavy rain for the preceding six days caused the rivers Tweed, Blackadder, Whiteadder, Till and Eye Water in southern Scotland to rise more than 10 feet and wash away 20 bridges. Railway service was interrupted for months.[7]




  • On the night of 9 June 1972 the people of Rapid City, South Dakota in the United States were struck by a deadly flood that lasted two days. It took 238 lives and caused millions of dollars in damage.
  • In 1974, the dying cyclone Wanda triggered major flooding in Brisbane, Australia killing 6 people and leaving hundreds homeless.
  • In 2 July 1975, many areas of Romanian Cuverture Charpatinas (e.g. Buzau, Prahova County), were struck by major flooding.
  • In August 1975, the Banqiao Dam in China breaks apart under excess rainfall and damage from Typhoon Nina, drowning about 26,000 and caused the lives of another 140,000 in resulting epidemics.


  • During the 1980s, the Great Salt Lake reached record high water levels due to a large amount of rain and its lack of an outlet. Places such as Saltair were inundated.
  • The South African town of Laingsburg was basically destroyed on 25 January 1981, when 104 of its 900 inhabitants died during a flood that swept through the town and left only about 25 houses standing
  • In 1982, the river Jucar in Spain breaks the Tous Reservoir, flooding the surrounding land in a deluge of 16,000 m3/s of water, and killing 30 people.
  • In the winter of 1983, the Pacific Northwest of the United States saw one of the worst floods on record for that region, and some states recorded their wettest winter ever. Damage estimates are as high as $1.1 billion.


  • January 1992 saw severe floods in South America, most notably Brazil.
  • In Alaska, United States, from May to September 1992 it was unusually wet, causing the 100 year flood. Snow melt only made the floods worse.
  • The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most destructive floods in United States history.
  • March 1993 the "No Name" storm, silently brought major flooding to Citrus County, Florida.
  • The summer of 1993 was unusually wet for the United States, causing flooding in the southwest.
  • 1994 South Georgina floods
  • On 8 May 1995, severe floods caused extensive damage in Louisiana, United States.
  • A dying typhoon hit Kyushu, Japan, in September 1996, causing severe floods in that region.
  • July 1996 saw severe floods in Central Honshū, Japan.
  • In August 1996, 86 people died due to a flood in Las Nieves camping, in Biescas, Spain.[9][10]
  • 1997 Central European flood, the worst flood in Polish history hits the country in July 1997, killing 65 and causing extensive damage to Wroclaw and Opole.
  • The Red River Flood of 1997 (also called the Red River of the North Flood of 1997 in the United States) occurred in April and May 1997 along the Red River of the North in North Dakota, Minnesota (United States) and Manitoba. It was the most severe flooding of the river since 1826, causing so much water or camping down (?) water or not draining it all.
  • Bangladesh was flooded in 1998, with millions of people affected and hundreds killed.
  • The 1999 Pentecost flood (German: Pfingsthochwasser) was a 100-year flood around the Pentecost season in 1999 that mostly affected Bavaria, Vorarlberg and Tirol. It was caused by heavy rainfall coinciding with the regular Alpine meltwater. These were caused because of the low-lying area and they are replacing concrete with soil which affects the flow of water and can cause flash flooding.
  • The 2000 Mozambique flood, caused by heavy rains followed by a cyclone, covered much of the country for three weeks, killing thousands, leaving the country devastated for years afterwards.

21st century


  • Korea (both North Korea and South Korea) saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
  • The Mid-Atlantic States flood of 2006 in the eastern United States is considered to be the worst in that region since the flooding caused by Hurricane David in 1979.
  • Ethiopia saw one of its worst floods ever in August 2006.
  • Surat a 5 million populated city of India witnessed huge flood in its history during 4 to 10 August 2006. 10 lac cusec water discharge for 30 hours from Ukai dam flooded city. 1 Lac evacuated on first day, many human and animal lost their lives.
  • Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sabah suffered floods between December 2006 and January 2007. It killed hundreds and forced 100,000 people to be evacuated in Johor alone. Floods hit the country's capital Kuala Lumpur in January 2007, killing 80. It was the worst flood in Malaysia for over 100 years.
  • The 2007 Hunter Floods inundated large areas of the cities of Maitland and Newcastle in Australia in June 2007, claimed 11 lives and forced the evacuation of 4,000 people in Central Maitland.
  • Between late May 2007 and early August 2007, severe flash floods hit most of the United Kingdom, with the most affected area in the country being Yorkshire. The city of Sheffield (in Yorkshire) was the worst affected city in the country, a month's worth of rain fell on the city in just 18 hours on 25 June 2007, bursting the banks of the River Don in that city. There were also fears that the Ulley Reservoir in Sheffield would fail, if it did it would have killed hundreds. 6 people were killed across the country.
  • The 2007 Africa Floods was one of the worst and most destructive floods in recorded history on the continent of Africa with 14 countries affected.
  • In November 2007, Cyclone Guba, a slow moving storm caused deadly flooding in Papua New Guinea.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected several states in India between July 2008 and September 2008 during an unusually wet monsoon season. The floods caused severe damage, and killed an estimated 2404 people.
  • The January 2011 Brazil floods are considered the worst in the country's history. As of 18 January 2011, the floods had taken about 700 lives and 14,000 people were homeless mainly due to landslides.
  • The Mississippi River floods in April and May 2011 were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway.
  • In June 2011, flooding in China affected more than 4.8 million people, with 100,000 evacuated and 54 reported dead.
  • In late July, the 2011 Thailand floods spread through the provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins and persisted in some areas until mid-January 2012.
  • In August–September 2011, there was floods in Khammouane Province in Laos, and then in northeastern Thailand, then came to Cambodia, and was drained via Mekong river to Vietnam then South China Sea.
  • On 18 October 2011, Pulau Tioman of Malaysia was flooded in Kampung Tekek, and the jungle near the village, then came up to Salang on 23 October 2011, the drain was started in November.
  • Around November 2011, northern part of Malaysia was flooded, and then to Narathiwat Province in Thailand.
  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing.
  • In 2012 Great Britain and Ireland floods caused many floods in the United Kingdom, in April floods and gales hit most of England causing flooding and power outages, on 28 June 2012 there were two severe supercell thunderstorms which traveled across the West Midlands causing flash flooding, on 6 July 2012 heavy rainfall brought floods to the South West of England with the Met Office issuing red rain warnings, flooding later returned to the UK on 21 November 2012, as heavy persistent rainfall fell in South West England which caused rivers to burst their banks, the rain later pushed into the Midlands overnight causing more flooding, on 24 November 2012 another band of rain pushed into South West England, The Environment Agency issued three severe flood warnings for the South West England and 90 flood warnings, the following day the Environment Agency issued 110 flood warning for the Midlands, most of which were for the River Avon and the River Severn.

Floods by region


  • The 2000 Mozambique flood, caused by heavy rains followed by a cyclone, covered much of the country for three weeks, killing thousands, leaving the country devastated for years afterwards.
  • Ethiopia saw one of its worst floods in August 2006.
  • The 2005 African floods hit over 14 countries in Africa, affecting 2.5 million people and 250 deaths.
  • The 2007 Mozambican flood affected 121,000 people and resulted in between 29 and 40 deaths.
  • The 2008 Namibia floods affected 250,000 people, killing 42.
  • The 2008 Benin floods affected 150,000 people in Benin.
  • The 2009 Angola, Namibia and Zambia floods affected some 445,000 people across three countries and resulted in the deaths of at least 131 people.
  • The 2009 West Africa floods affected close to one million people across twelve countries, and caused the deaths of at least 193 people.
  • The 2011 in Rwanda of the Nyabugogo River causing 5 death and five million Rwandan francs
  • The 2010 Rwandan flood of the Mwogo River affected two hundred people across nyanza district, and causing the loss of six million of Rwandan francs.
  • The 2015 Southeast Africa Floods
  • The 2015 Accra floods in Ghana affected thousands of people in the city, killing about 200.
  • The 2016–17 Zimbabwe floods
  • The 2018 East Africa floods


East Asia

Fighting the 1954 Yangtze Flood, as depicted on a monument in Wuhan
Sirakawa zosui
Picture show at heavy rain, following flood in Shira River, Kumamoto, Kyushu, July 2012
  • In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing. Later in August incessant rains and storm caused floods in Kinki region, causing one casualty.
  • In July 1996 a flood hit Central Honshū and 48 people died.
  • On 21 September 1996, a typhoon hit Kyushu causing flooding along the coasts as huge waves crashed onshore and flooding onshore when the typhoon dumped lots of rain on the area.
  • In 1953, the 1953 North Kyushu Flood killed 759 people and the killed and missing amounted to 1,001 in the northern area of Kyushu of Japan.
  • The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy torrential raining caused landsides at Rokko mountain.
  • 2018 Japan floods
  • North Korea saw one of its worst floods ever in May 2006.
  • South Korea was also flooded at the same time but its floods continued through to the end of June 2006.

South Asia

  • Bangladesh has been victim of numerous floods throughout the years, the major ones being in 1954, 1955, 1970, 1985, 1988, 1998, 2004, 2007 and 2012.
  • Assam has been suffering floods regularly since 1998.
  • Flooding in Mumbai in July 2005 left over 700 dead. Some areas went under 5 m of water.
  • The 2008 Indian floods affected most of India throughout 2008.
  • In October 2009, flooding occurred across many parts of South India. It was one of the worst flood in the area in the last 100 years, killing at least 299 people and making 500,000 homeless.
  • The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 in Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, a region of the northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. At least 193 people are reported to have died, five of whom were foreign tourists, after a cloudburst and heavy overnight rains triggered flash floods and mudslides. A further 200 people were reported missing and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
  • The 2013 North India floods in Uttarakhand which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall.
  • The 2014 South India floods in Visakhapatnam which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
  • The floods that occurred in Chennai due to the heavy rain fall of northeast monsoons in 2015 is considered one of the major disasters in the state of Tamil Nadu.It occurred from November end till the mid of second week of December.
  • 2017 Gujarat flood
  • August 2017 Nepal and Darshan India floods
  • The flood occurred in Kerala in 2018 late August causing tremendous damage of equipment. More than 448 deaths of people were recorded and a loss of more than 4 billion was recorded.
  • In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected due to monsoon rains causing damages in billions.
  • In 2007, Cyclone Yemyin submerged lower part of Balochistan Province in sea water killing 380 people. Before that it killed 213 people in Karachi on its way to Balochistan.
  • In 2009, Karachi was flooded. (see 2009 Karachi floods)
  • In 2010, from Mid-July till Mid-August – Pakistan's four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Southern Punjab and Sindh) were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed, killing at least 1,750 people, injuring 2,500 and affecting 23 million people. The flood is considered the worst in Pakistan's history, affecting people of all four provinces and Asad Jamu and Kashmir Region of Pakistan.[48] (see 2010 Pakistan floods)
  • The 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods.

Southeast Asia

  • Jakarta suffered floods that killed 80 people in January 2007.[49]
  • The 2010 Thailand floods.
  • 2011 Thailand floods started from July 2011 until January 2012 resulted in a total of 815 deaths, 13.6 million people affected, 65 provinces were declared flood disaster zones, over 20,000 square kilometers of farmland was damaged and 7 industrial estates was temporarily shut down causing over US$45.7 billion (1.4 trillion Baht) of over all damage.[50]


Czech Republic


  • One of France's worst floods of the 20th century occurred in 1910. The end of 1909 and early 1910 saw a period of heavy rain and snow fall over a period of 3 months. The level of the Seine began to rise rapidly from 18 to 20 January, rising to a maximum of 8.62 meters above normal on the 28th. Some 4 billion cubic meters of river water, contaminated with river sediment and municipal sewage, flooded over 5 square kilometers of Paris. There were over 150,000 casualties and over 20,000 buildings flooded.[53]





  • In February 2010, severe floods and mudslides hit the Portuguese island of Madeira, killing at least 50.[55]


  • 13–14 October 1957, in Valencia, torrential rain results in a devastating flood, at least 81 people lose their lives.[56]
  • In 1982, the river Jucar (Valencia, Spain) broke the Tous Reservoir causing a flood that killed 30 people.[57]

United Kingdom

  • 2002 Glasgow floods – 200 people immediately evacuated, but the water supply of 140 thousand people was affected.
  • December 2015 – Flooding of Conwy River.
Llanrwst from the air during December 2015 flooding.

North America


United States



Flood comparison
On the left is a photo taken during the 1998 floods in Swifts Creek in Australia. On the right is the same location 8 years later


New Zealand

  • The 1858 Hutt River flood kills 14 people
  • The 1878 of the Clutha River
  • The 1897 flooding at Clive in Hawke's Bay kills 12 people
  • Severe flooding badly affected the city of Dunedin in 1929
  • In 1938, a flash-flood at a railway workers' camp at Kopuawhara kills 21 people
  • The 1978 flood of the Clutha River, known as the "Hundred years flood" hit one day before the 100th anniversary of the great flood of 1878
  • The 1984 Southland flood
  • In 1988, extensive flooding is caused in several parts of the North Island due to Cyclone Bola
  • The 2004 Manawatu flood inundated the town of Feilding

Solomon Islands

Papua New Guinea

South America





See also


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  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference NH was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "The Inundation: Its Extent and its Consequences". The Daily Picayune. 3 May 1874.
  4. ^ Moellman, Mark (29 June 2017). "Seven Worst Floods in US History".
  5. ^ Fetzer, Leland (2005). San Diego County Place Names A to Z. San Diego: Sunbelt Publications. p. 107. Lower Otay Dam washed out completely in the 1916 Hatfield flood.
  6. ^ Fetzer, Leland (2005). San Diego County Place Names A to Z. San Diego: Sunbelt Publications. p. 144. Sweetwater Dam was damaged in the 1916 Hatfield Flood but did not fail.
  7. ^ Rinaldi, Giancarlo (12 August 2008). "A flood which swept away bridges". BBC News.
  8. ^ Canada
  9. ^ Un experto asegura en el juicio que la tragedia era "previsible" Archived 28 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  10. ^ La tragedia de Biescas, el infierno que cayó del cielo on YouTube (in Spanish)
  11. ^ a b "Cumbria: Year in Review 2005". BBC News. 31 December 2005.
  12. ^ a b Franklin, Michael; Schmidt, Colleen (20 June 2013). "Cougar Creek Bursts Its Banks in Canmore". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  13. ^ a b Franklin, Michael; Schmidt, Colleen (20 June 2013). "High Water Floods Out High River". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  14. ^ a b Franklin, Michael; Schmidt, Colleen (20 June 2013). "Floods Force Residents Out of Southern Alberta Communities". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  15. ^ a b Franklin, Michael (20 June 2013). "Storms Knock Out Power in Many Alberta Communities". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  16. ^ Schmidt, Colleen (20 June 2013). "Road and Highway Closures Due to Flooding". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
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  31. ^ a b CNN, Joe Sutton, Madison Park and Mayra Cuevas -. "Seven dead after record-setting floods in Texas, Kansas". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  32. ^ a b "Texas and Oklahoma Set All-Time Record Wet Month; Other May Rain Records Shattered in Arkansas, Nebraska". Retrieved 3 June 2016.
  33. ^ "2 Maryland Flood Victims Identified; 'Total Devastation' in Ellicott City – The Weather Channel". Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Flash flood kills 2, devastates Maryland city's historic downtown". Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  35. ^ "38 dead, over 92,000 left homeless by Niger floods". The New Indian Express. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  36. ^ "PressTV-Niger floods kill 38, displace thousands". 8 September 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  37. ^ "38 dead, 92,000 left homeless by Niger floods". 7 September 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  38. ^ "Nigerian Newspapers Headlines Today |". 3 December 2016. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^ a b News, ABC. "ABC News". ABC News. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
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  42. ^ "You are being redirected..." Retrieved 31 March 2018.
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  44. ^ a b "Flooding, Mudslides Strike Peru, Killing 72; Thousands Homeless – The Weather Channel". Retrieved 31 March 2018.
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  48. ^ Archived 3 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Media Indonesia Online
  50. ^ "The World Bank Supports Thailand's Post-Floods Recovery Effort". World Bank. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  51. ^ a b c "Nynější povodně jsou třetí nejtragičtější v historii ČR" [Current floods are third most tragic in the history of the Czech Republic]. (in Czech). 2 July 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  52. ^ "Déšť ustal, hladiny řek zvolna klesají" [Rain has stopped, river levels slowly decreasing]. (in Czech). 19 May 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  53. ^ Olivier's Site – L'inondation de Paris – Flood in Paris 1910 Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ "WebGIS of flooding and exceptional rainfall in Metapontino".
  55. ^ "Kashmiri flash flooding kills 50". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  56. ^ Hasta aquí llegó la riada, ABC, 13 August 2007
  57. ^ Diluvio en el País Valenciano, La Vanguardia, 21 October 1982, p1
  58. ^ Staff (2 December 2010). "Flooding Events in Canada – Quebec". Environment Canada. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  59. ^ Schmidt, Colleen (20 June 2013). "Road and Highway Closures Due to Flooding". CTV News. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  60. ^ "Vermont's Greatest Natural Disaster". Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  61. ^ "The Flood of 1927". 1 August 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
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External links

100-year flood

A one-hundred-year flood is a flood event that has a 1 in 100 chance (1% probability) of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.The 100-year flood is also referred to as the 1% flood, since its annual exceedance probability is 1%. For coastal or lake flooding, the 100-year flood is generally expressed as a flood elevation or depth, and may include wave effects. For river systems, the 100-year flood is generally expressed as a flowrate. Based on the expected 100-year flood flow rate, the flood water level can be mapped as an area of inundation. The resulting floodplain map is referred to as the 100-year floodplain. Estimates of the 100-year flood flowrate and other streamflow statistics for any stream in the United States are available. In the UK The Environment Agency publishes a comprehensive map of all areas at risk of a 1 in 100 year flood. Areas near the coast of an ocean or large lake also can be flooded by combinations of tide, storm surge, and waves. Maps of the riverine or coastal 100-year floodplain may figure importantly in building permits, environmental regulations, and flood insurance.

1983–84 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1983–84 South Pacific tropical cyclone season was a slightly below-average season.

1988–89 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1988–89 South Pacific cyclone season was an active tropical cyclone season with an above average number of tropical cyclones observed.

2013 Pakistan–Afghanistan floods

In August 2013, Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan experienced heavy rain that led to flash flooding. More than 180 died as a result of the floods.

2015 Myanmar floods

Severe flooding in Myanmar began in July 2015 and continued into September, affecting 12 of the country's 14 states, resulting in about 103 deaths and affecting up to 1,000,000 people. Most of the casualties were reported from the Irrawaddy Delta. Torrential rains that began on 16 July destroyed farmland, roads, rail tracks, bridges and houses, leading the government to declare a state of emergency on 30 July in the four worst-hit regions in the west—Magway Division, Sagaing Division, Chin State and Rakhine State.Myanmar's Ministry of Agriculture reported that more than 1.29 million acres of farm land have been inundated and 687,200 acres damaged. Moreover, 15,239 houses were destroyed, according to OCHA figures.

2016 Ethiopia flood

Deadly floods hit Ethiopia, leaving at least 28 people dead and over 200,000 people without a home dead as seasonal rains come early to the country. The majority of these deaths occurred in the city of Jijiga while elsewhere, heavy downpours of rain were reported with more floods expected in the next few days. The floods are reportedly at higher levels than other flood travesties than that of previous years.

2016 Macedonian floods

In August 2016, several rainstorms hit the western and northwestern parts of the Republic of Macedonia. On 6 August 2016, a storm with strong winds and flooding hit Skopje and the western parts of the country, leaving at least 21 people dead and dozens injured or missing.

2016 Niger flood

Flooding in Niger in the summer and early autumn of 2016 killed at least 38 people and left more than 92,000 people displaced, according to estimates by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). Initial estimates by the country's government in June put the death toll at 14. Authorities are also struggling with 300,000 refugees and internally displaced people who have fled the Boko Haram insurgency in Niger’s southeast and in neighbouring Nigeria. More than 26,000 livestock have been lost and more than 9,000 homes destroyed, the UN said, citing government figures. The flooding was caused by heavy summer rains beginning sometime in June and lasting until at least August. UNOCHA also stated that Niger was not the only country affected by flooding caused by El Niño weather patterns, supported in part by humanitarian aid from numerous international donors. The downpours in 2016 marked the worst flooding that Niger had seen in over 100 years. Some of the heaviest rainfall came between the 25th of July to the 1st of August 2016, a rise of 1.90 m was recorded in the Sirba station in Garbé Kourou. There was also a two week span from the 16th of July to the 30th, a rise of 2.90 metres was recorded at the Gorouol station in Alcongui.List of floods


A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.

Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.

Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.

Some floods develop slowly, while others can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins.

History of flooding in Canada

The history of flooding in Canada includes floods caused by snowmelt runoff or freshet flooding, storm-rainfall and "flash flooding", ice jams during ice formation and spring break-up, natural dams, coastal flooding on ocean or lake coasts from storm surges, hurricanes and tsunamis. Urban flooding can be caused by stormwater runoff, riverine flooding and structural failure when engineered flood management structures, including dams and levees, prove inadequate to manage the quantities and force of flood waters. Floods can also occur when groundwater levels rise entering buildings cracks in foundation, floors and basements.(Sandink, 2010 & 7). Flooding is part of the natural environmental process. Flooding along large river systems is more frequent in spring where peak flows are often governed by runoff volume due to rainfall and snowmelt, but can take place in summer with flash floods in urban systems that respond to short-duration, heavy rainfall. Flooding due to hurricanes, or downgraded severe storms, is a concern from August to October when tropical storms can affect Eastern North America. Flood events have had a significant effect on various regions of the country. Flooding is the costliest natural disaster for Canadians. Most home insurance claims in Canada deal with water damage due to sewer back-up, not fire.Floods occur five times as often as wildfires, the second most frequent natural hazard in Canada.(Sandink, 2010 & 6) Between 1900 and 2005 there were 241 flood disasters in Canada.(Sandink, 2010 & 6)The 1894 Fraser River flood had a return period of slightly more than 500 years and the 1948 flood was close to a 200-year event.(NHC, 2008 & 21) The 1997 Red River flood was named the 'flood of the century'. The International Joint Commission (IJC)'s 1998 report warned that although the 1997 Red River flood had a "return interval ranging from 100 to 500 years, depending on the location", there was a "statistical probability of a similar flood each year." The 2011 Assiniboine River Flood was estimated to have a return interval of 300 years.The Calgary flood had a return interval ranging from 70 to 100 years. A 100-year flood has a 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood. with a flow of the Bow River in Calgary measured at c.1,740 m3/s (61,000 cu ft/s) when the flood reached its peak level on June 21, 2013.


Kłodzko ([ˈkwɔt͡skɔ] (listen); Czech: Kladsko; German: Glatz; Latin: Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. It is situated in the centre of the Kłodzko Valley, on the Eastern Neisse river.

Kłodzko is the seat of Kłodzko County (and of the rural Gmina Kłodzko, although the town itself is a separate urban gmina), and is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship). With 28,250 inhabitants (2006), Kłodzko is the main commercial centre as well as an important transport and tourist node for the area.

For its historical monuments it is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" (Polish: Mała Praga, German: Klein-Prag). Initially established as a settlement in the 10th century, it is one of the oldest towns in Poland, having been granted city rights in 1233. Culturally and traditionally a part of Bohemia, administratively it has been a part of Silesia since 1763.

List of deadliest floods

This is a list consisting of the deadliest floods worldwide with a minimum of 50 deaths.

List of floods in Europe

This is a list of notable recorded floods that have occurred in Europe.

List of floods in Pakistan

The following is a list of floods in Pakistan.

• In 1995 heavy monsoon rains occurred in mid July. Due to this River Indus and other rivers and canals started to flood. The rains stopped in time. Otherwise they would have caused more damage.

In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected when above normal monsoon rainfall caused flooding in the province; urban flooding also hit Karachi where two days of rainfall of 284.5 millimetres (11.20 in) created havoc in the city, while Thatta district was the worst hit where 404 millimetres (15.9 in) rainfall caused flash floods in the district. At least 484 people died and some 4,476 villages in the province were affected.

In 2007, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and coastal Balochistan were badly affected due to monsoon rainfall. Sindh and coastal Balochistan were affected by Cyclone Yemyin in June and then torrential rains in July and August, while Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa was affected by melting glaciers and heavy rainfall in July and August. At least 130 people died and 2,000 were displaced in Khyber-Pakhtunkwain in July and 22 people died in August, while 815 people died in Balochistan and Sindh due to flash floods.

In 2010, almost all of Pakistan was affected when massive flooding caused by record breaking rains hit Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. The number of individuals affected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. At least 2,000 people died in this flood and almost 20 million people were affected by it.

In September 2011, at least 361 people were killed, some 5.3 million people and 1.2 million homes affected as well 1.7 million acres of arable land inundated when massive floods swept across the province of Sindh as a result of monsoon rains (see 2011 Sindh floods).

In September 2012, more than 100 people died, and thousands of homes destroyed, with thousands of acres of arable land affected when intense rainfall battered Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Southern Punjab and Upper Sindh. As a result of monsoon rains (see 2012 Pakistan Floods).

In September 2013, more than 80 people died (see 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods).

In September 2014 Due to massive rain in Jammu and Kashmir as well as in Punjab Constituted flood situation in River Chanab and River Jhelum.

List of floods in Sheffield

This is a list of floods in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.

Lists of disasters

The following are lists of disasters.

Neva River

The Neva (Russian: Нева́, IPA: [nʲɪˈva])) (Finnish: Nëvii) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge (after the Volga, the Danube and the Rhine).The Neva is the only river flowing from Lake Ladoga. It flows through the city of Saint Petersburg, three smaller towns of Shlisselburg, Kirovsk and Otradnoye, and dozens of settlements. The river is navigable throughout and is part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and White Sea – Baltic Canal. It is a site of numerous major historical events, including the Battle of the Neva in 1240 which gave Alexander Nevsky his name, the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, and the Siege of Leningrad by the German army during World War II. The Neva river played a vital role between the trade of Byzantium and Scandinavia.

North Sea flood of 1962

The North Sea flood of 1962 was a natural disaster affecting mainly the coastal regions of Germany and in particular the city of Hamburg in the night from 16 February to 17 February 1962. In total, the homes of about 60,000 people were destroyed, and the death toll amounted to 315 in Hamburg. In addition, three people were killed in the United Kingdom by high winds, which damaged around 175,000 houses in the worst affected city, Sheffield.

Outline of meteorology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology:

Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction.



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