The Burchardi Flood was a storm tide that struck the North Sea coast of North Frisia and Dithmarschen on the night between 11 and 12 October 1634. Overrunning dikes, it shattered the coastline and caused thousands of deaths (8,000 to 15,000 people drowned).
New Hampshire/Maine Flood of October 1785. In New Hampshire, a significant flood struck the Cocheco, Baker, Pemigewasset, Contoocook and Merrimack rivers on 23 October which established records at Lowell which held until 1902. The Androscoggin River flooded significantly, which destroyed many homesteads in what would become Bethel, Maine. Those that survived the flood moved uphill into less valuable, 100-acre (0.40 km2) plots. Turner's first mill was destroyed during this inundation.
Great Pumpkin Flood of October 1786. Central Pennsylvania flood. Received its name due to the pumpkins that were washed away in the flood on 5 October. It was a major flood in the Susquehanna River basin.
Mississippi River Flood of July 1788. Severe flooding of the Mississippi River resulted from a hurricane landfall
Red River of the South Flood of 1800. According to the Caddo tribe, a "great flood" moved down the river and reinforced the "Great Log Raft" on the river. This raft was a natural dam that increased water levels on some of the Red River tributaries. This process formed Caddo Lake.
Mississippi River Flood of 1809. All of the lower Mississippi River was inundated by flooding.
Mississippi River Flood of 1825. The flood of 1825 is the last known inundation of New Orleans due to spring flooding
Great Mississippi River Flood of 1844. The largest flood ever recorded on the Missouri River and Upper Mississippi River in terms of discharge. This flood was particularly devastating since the region had few if any levees at the time. Among the hardest hit were the Wyandot who lost 100 people in the diseases that occurred after the flood. The flood also is the highest recorded for the Mississippi River at St. Louis. After the flood, Congress in 1849 passed the Swamp Act providing land grants to build stronger levees.
Great Mississippi River Flood of 1851. The flood occurred after record-setting rainfalls across the U.S. Midwest and Plains from May to August 1851. The State of Iowa experienced significant flooding extending to the Lower Mississippi River basin. Historical evidence suggest flooding occurred in the eastern Plains, from Nebraska to the Red River basin, but these areas were sparsely settled in 1851. Heavy rainfall also occurred in the Ohio River basin. In June, major flooding on the Mississippi River was experienced.
The 1872 Baltic Sea flood was a storm surge that affected the Baltic Sea coast from Denmark to Pomerania on the night of 12/13 November 1872. The flood cost the lives of at least 271 people on the Baltic Sea coast; 2,850 houses were destroyed or at least badly damaged and 15,160 people left homeless as a result.
Great Mississippi River Flood of 1874. Heavy spring rains caused the Mississippi River to overflow, breaching levees and flooding enormous swathes of the Lower Mississippi Valley. The flooding began in February and only began to recede on 20 May. According to the New Orleans Daily Picayune of 3 May, thirty-one of Louisiana's fifty-three parishes (home to some 375,000 people) were entirely or partially underwater. The Picayune also reported that breaches at Hushpakana[sic.] and Bolivar, Mississippi, had "transformed the Yazoo Valley into an inland lake." Mayor Louis A. Wiltz of New Orleans published a circular on 30 May addressed to "the Mayors of thirty-four large American cities" seeking contributions of cash and provisions for relief efforts. In the circular, the Flood of 1874 was described as the highest on record. It also included the observations of former U.S. Surveyor General for Louisiana William J. McCulloh, who estimated that a total of 12,565,060 acres had been flooded across Louisiana (8,065,000), Mississippi (2,500,000), and Arkansas (2,000,000).
In 1920, The Great Flood of Tokyo, when 3700 houses, were swept away, 2200, partially destroyed and nearly 400,000 damaged.
The Great Flood of 1913, which included the Great Dayton Flood, killed 650 people and destroyed 20,000 homes in the United States. It also damaged historic photographic plates belonging to Wilbur and Orville Wright. It ended canal transportation in Ohio.
The Ohio River flood of 1937 occurred in late January and February 1937, causing damage along the Ohio River and several smaller tributaries from Pittsburgh, Illinois, to Cairo, Illinois. This flood left close to one million people homeless, 385 dead, and $50,000,000 worth of damage.
The Great Hanshin flood of 1938 occurred in July 1938 in Kobe area in Japan, causing 925 lost lives as exceptionally heavy seasonal raining caused landsides at Rokko mountains.
The 1948 Berwickshire flood occurred on 12 August, when extremely heavy rain for the preceding six days caused the rivers Tweed, Blackadder, Whiteadder, Till and Eye Water in southern Scotland to rise more than 10 feet and wash away 20 bridges. Railway service was interrupted for months.
The Lynmouth flood of 1952 killed 34 people, more than any other British flood up to then, it was also very destructive and destroyed over 80 buildings in the town of Lynmouth, Devon, United Kingdom.
The North Sea flood of 1962 killed almost 330 people along the coasts of southeastern England, Germany, and southern Denmark. 318 of the deaths occurred in Hamburg, Germany, and many millions of pounds' worth of damage was done.
In August 1975, the Banqiao Dam in China breaks apart under excess rainfall and damage from Typhoon Nina, drowning about 26,000 and caused the lives of another 140,000 in resulting epidemics.
During the 1980s, the Great Salt Lake reached record high water levels due to a large amount of rain and its lack of an outlet. Places such as Saltair were inundated.
The South African town of Laingsburg was basically destroyed on 25 January 1981, when 104 of its 900 inhabitants died during a flood that swept through the town and left only about 25 houses standing
In 1982, the river Jucar in Spain breaks the Tous Reservoir, flooding the surrounding land in a deluge of 16,000 m3/s of water, and killing 30 people.
In the winter of 1983, the Pacific Northwest of the United States saw one of the worst floods on record for that region, and some states recorded their wettest winter ever. Damage estimates are as high as $1.1 billion.
January 1992 saw severe floods in South America, most notably Brazil.
In Alaska, United States, from May to September 1992 it was unusually wet, causing the 100 year flood. Snow melt only made the floods worse.
Ethiopia saw one of its worst floods ever in August 2006.
Surat a 5 million populated city of India witnessed huge flood in its history during 4 to 10 August 2006. 10 lac cusec water discharge for 30 hours from Ukai dam flooded city. 1 Lac evacuated on first day, many human and animal lost their lives.
Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sabah suffered floods between December 2006 and January 2007. It killed hundreds and forced 100,000 people to be evacuated in Johor alone. Floods hit the country's capital Kuala Lumpur in January 2007, killing 80. It was the worst flood in Malaysia for over 100 years.
The 2007 Hunter Floods inundated large areas of the cities of Maitland and Newcastle in Australia in June 2007, claimed 11 lives and forced the evacuation of 4,000 people in Central Maitland.
Between late May 2007 and early August 2007, severe flash floods hit most of the United Kingdom, with the most affected area in the country being Yorkshire. The city of Sheffield (in Yorkshire) was the worst affected city in the country, a month's worth of rain fell on the city in just 18 hours on 25 June 2007, bursting the banks of the River Don in that city. There were also fears that the Ulley Reservoir in Sheffield would fail, if it did it would have killed hundreds. 6 people were killed across the country.
The 2007 Africa Floods was one of the worst and most destructive floods in recorded history on the continent of Africa with 14 countries affected.
The 2008 Indian floods affected several states in India between July 2008 and September 2008 during an unusually wet monsoon season. The floods caused severe damage, and killed an estimated 2404 people.
In June 2009, minor flooding hit parts of Sheffield City Centre in Sheffield, England. Waters reached only about half a foot deep as the River Don broke its banks, but considerable damage was still caused.
On 4 August 2010, at 9:25 am EST a major thunderstorm producing large hail and winds in excess of 60 mph (97 km/h) advanced at the leading edge of a cold front moving across the American Midwest, causing a flash flood that struck Louisville, Kentucky, and portions of the surrounding Kentuckiana region.
In November 2010, many areas of Cornwall, UK, were struck by floods. The worst hit area was the town of Par.
The November 2010 Colombia floods and associated landslides killed 138 people. 1.3 million were left homeless.
The January 2011 Brazil floods are considered the worst in the country's history. As of 18 January 2011, the floods had taken about 700 lives and 14,000 people were homeless mainly due to landslides.
The Mississippi River floods in April and May 2011 were among the largest and most damaging recorded along the U.S. waterway.
In June 2011, flooding in China affected more than 4.8 million people, with 100,000 evacuated and 54 reported dead.
In late July, the 2011 Thailand floods spread through the provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins and persisted in some areas until mid-January 2012.
In July 2012, heavy torrential rains caused floods in Kyushu, Japan, leaving 32 people dead or missing.
In 2012 Great Britain and Ireland floods caused many floods in the United Kingdom, in April floods and gales hit most of England causing flooding and power outages, on 28 June 2012 there were two severe supercell thunderstorms which traveled across the West Midlands causing flash flooding, on 6 July 2012 heavy rainfall brought floods to the South West of England with the Met Office issuing red rain warnings, flooding later returned to the UK on 21 November 2012, as heavy persistent rainfall fell in South West England which caused rivers to burst their banks, the rain later pushed into the Midlands overnight causing more flooding, on 24 November 2012 another band of rain pushed into South West England, The Environment Agency issued three severe flood warnings for the South West England and 90 flood warnings, the following day the Environment Agency issued 110 flood warning for the Midlands, most of which were for the River Avon and the River Severn.
The 2013 North India floods and landslides caused by heavy rainfall. The floods struck the state of uttarakhand. These floods killed 5,700 people.
Many parts of the United Kingdom experienced flooding at the start of this year. In January and then again in February the River Thames breached its banks resulting in severe flooding to many homes and properties in heavily populated parts of the Thames Valley area.
Between 2 and 30 April 2014, flood events in the United-States, caused by an important tornado outbreak.
In May 2014, multiple floods affected a large area of Southeastern Europe. A low-pressure area named "Yvette" brought flooding from 14–16 May. Bosnia, Serbia and Romania were hit by the biggest flood in their modern history. Several cities were left behind without fresh water or food.
In October 2009, flooding occurred across many parts of South India. It was one of the worst flood in the area in the last 100 years, killing at least 299 people and making 500,000 homeless.
The Leh floods occurred on 6 August 2010 in Leh, the largest town in Ladakh, a region of the northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. At least 193 people are reported to have died, five of whom were foreign tourists, after a cloudburst and heavy overnight rains triggered flash floods and mudslides. A further 200 people were reported missing and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
The 2014 South India floods in Visakhapatnam which destroyed many things and landslides caused by heavy rainfall and thousands more were rendered homeless after the flooding caused extensive damage to property and infrastructure.
The floods that occurred in Chennai due to the heavy rain fall of northeast monsoons in 2015 is considered one of the major disasters in the state of Tamil Nadu.It occurred from November end till the mid of second week of December.
In 2010, from Mid-July till Mid-August – Pakistan's four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Southern Punjab and Sindh) were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed, killing at least 1,750 people, injuring 2,500 and affecting 23 million people. The flood is considered the worst in Pakistan's history, affecting people of all four provinces and Asad Jamu and Kashmir Region of Pakistan. (see 2010 Pakistan floods)
Jakarta suffered floods that killed 80 people in January 2007.
Floods in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sumatra in December 2006 and January 2007 were considered to be the worst in the area for 100 years, resulting in evacuation of over 100,000 people in the worst-hit state of Johor at its peak.
2011 Thailand floods started from July 2011 until January 2012 resulted in a total of 815 deaths, 13.6 million people affected, 65 provinces were declared flood disaster zones, over 20,000 square kilometers of farmland was damaged and 7 industrial estates was temporarily shut down causing over US$45.7 billion (1.4 trillion Baht) of over all damage.
One of France's worst floods of the 20th century occurred in 1910. The end of 1909 and early 1910 saw a period of heavy rain and snow fall over a period of 3 months. The level of the Seine began to rise rapidly from 18 to 20 January, rising to a maximum of 8.62 meters above normal on the 28th. Some 4 billion cubic meters of river water, contaminated with river sediment and municipal sewage, flooded over 5 square kilometers of Paris. There were over 150,000 casualties and over 20,000 buildings flooded.
On 22 October 1951, there were numerous casualties due to floods in the neighbourhoods of Benevento, Campania.
On 14 November 1951, the Poriver delta was hit by floods; there were 84 casualties and 180,000 people lost their homes.
From 24 to 28 November 1959, rivers flooded under excess of rainfall causing hundreds people homeless and storm tide destroyed houses in Metaponto. One person death drowned in Policoro. Heavy rainfall caused also landslides in Pisticci.
In the summer 1987, heavy precipitation caused the Valtellina disaster in the Valtellina valley in Lombardy, killing 53 people and inflicting serious damage to infrastructures, landscape, towns and economy.
On 6 November 1994, the southern part of Piedmont was hit by floods from the Po and Tanaro rivers; there were 70 casualties and 2,226 people lost their homes.
2007 United Kingdom floods – 6 people killed. Whole country affected, with Yorkshire the worst hit county. Yorkshire suffers many road and rail closures, power cuts and evacuations with Sheffield the worst hit place in the country.
Winter storms of 2013-2014 in the United Kingdom – A continuous stream of major storms and heavy rain falls primarily on the southern British Isles, Somerset Devon and Cornwall worst affected. Loss of large areas of agricultural land, many flood records broken. Main Railway line to Cornwall severed at Dawlish.
2002 Glasgow floods – 200 people immediately evacuated, but the water supply of 140 thousand people was affected.
December 2015 – Flooding of Conwy River.
Llanrwst from the air during December 2015 flooding.
On 14 July 1987, a series of strong thunderstorms crossed the Island of Montreal, between the noon hour and 2:30 p.m. causing the Montreal Flood of 1987. Over 100 millimetres (3.9 inches) of rain fell during this very short period of time. The sewer systems were overwhelmed by the deluge and the city was paralyzed by the flooded roads. Autoroute 15, a sunken highway also known as the Decarie Expressway, soon filled with water trapping motorists. Some 350,000 houses lost electricity, and tens of thousands had flooded basements. Two people died, one in a submerged car and another who was electrocuted.
On 19 July 1996 The worst flood in the Quebec province, in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean
One of Canada's most devastating floods occurred in southern Alberta in June 2005. The flooding affected many major metropolitan areas including Calgary. Four deaths resulted from the three-week flood.
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 killed 360 people and destroyed 20,000 homes in the United States. It also damaged historic photographic plates belonging to Wilbur and Orville Wright. It caused the end of canal transportation in Ohio.
The 1916 Hatfield Flood of San Diego, California, destroyed the Sweetwater and Lower Otay Dams, and caused 22 deaths and $4.5 million in damages.
The Vermont flood of 1927 is probably the worst flood in Vermont history doing $30 million in damages, which would be $270 million today, killed over 83 people and left 9,000 homeless.
The Ohio River flood of 1937 took place in late January and February 1937. With damage stretching from Pittsburgh to Cairo, Illinois, one million were left homeless, with 385 dead and property losses reaching $500 million.
In 1957, storm surge flooding from Hurricane Audrey killed about 400 people in southwest Louisiana.
The floods of January 2011 in Brazil were considered the worst in the country's history. As of 18 January, the floods had taken about 700 lives and 14,000 people were homeless mainly due to landslides.
A one-hundred-year flood is a flood event that has a 1 in 100 chance (1% probability) of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.The 100-year flood is also referred to as the 1% flood, since its annual exceedance probability is 1%. For coastal or lake flooding, the 100-year flood is generally expressed as a flood elevation or depth, and may include wave effects. For river systems, the 100-year flood is generally expressed as a flowrate. Based on the expected 100-year flood flow rate, the flood water level can be mapped as an area of inundation. The resulting floodplain map is referred to as the 100-year floodplain. Estimates of the 100-year flood flowrate and other streamflow statistics for any stream in the United States are available. In the UK The Environment Agency publishes a comprehensive map of all areas at risk of a 1 in 100 year flood. Areas near the coast of an ocean or large lake also can be flooded by combinations of tide, storm surge, and waves. Maps of the riverine or coastal 100-year floodplain may figure importantly in building permits, environmental regulations, and flood insurance.
Severe flooding in Myanmar began in July 2015 and continued into September, affecting 12 of the country's 14 states, resulting in about 103 deaths and affecting up to 1,000,000 people. Most of the casualties were reported from the Irrawaddy Delta. Torrential rains that began on 16 July destroyed farmland, roads, rail tracks, bridges and houses, leading the government to declare a state of emergency on 30 July in the four worst-hit regions in the west—Magway Division, Sagaing Division, Chin State and Rakhine State.Myanmar's Ministry of Agriculture reported that more than 1.29 million acres of farm land have been inundated and 687,200 acres damaged. Moreover, 15,239 houses were destroyed, according to OCHA figures.
Deadly floods hit Ethiopia, leaving at least 28 people dead and over 200,000 people without a home dead as seasonal rains come early to the country. The majority of these deaths occurred in the city of Jijiga while elsewhere, heavy downpours of rain were reported with more floods expected in the next few days. The floods are reportedly at higher levels than other flood travesties than that of previous years.
In August 2016, several rainstorms hit the western and northwestern parts of the Republic of Macedonia. On 6 August 2016, a storm with strong winds and flooding hit Skopje and the western parts of the country, leaving at least 21 people dead and dozens injured or missing.
Flooding in Niger in the summer and early autumn of 2016 killed at least 38 people and left more than 92,000 people displaced, according to estimates by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). Initial estimates by the country's government in June put the death toll at 14. Authorities are also struggling with 300,000 refugees and internally displaced people who have fled the Boko Haram insurgency in Niger’s southeast and in neighbouring Nigeria. More than 26,000 livestock have been lost and more than 9,000 homes destroyed, the UN said, citing government figures. The flooding was caused by heavy summer rains beginning sometime in June and lasting until at least August. UNOCHA also stated that Niger was not the only country affected by flooding caused by El Niño weather patterns, supported in part by humanitarian aid from numerous international donors. The downpours in 2016 marked the worst flooding that Niger had seen in over 100 years. Some of the heaviest rainfall came between the 25th of July to the 1st of August 2016, a rise of 1.90 m was recorded in the Sirba station in Garbé Kourou. There was also a two week span from the 16th of July to the 30th, a rise of 2.90 metres was recorded at the Gorouol station in Alcongui.List of floods
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.
Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.
Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.
Some floods develop slowly, while others can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins.
The history of flooding in Canada includes floods caused by snowmelt runoff or freshet flooding, storm-rainfall and "flash flooding", ice jams during ice formation and spring break-up, natural dams, coastal flooding on ocean or lake coasts from storm surges, hurricanes and tsunamis. Urban flooding can be caused by stormwater runoff, riverine flooding and structural failure when engineered flood management structures, including dams and levees, prove inadequate to manage the quantities and force of flood waters. Floods can also occur when groundwater levels rise entering buildings cracks in foundation, floors and basements.(Sandink, 2010 & 7). Flooding is part of the natural environmental process. Flooding along large river systems is more frequent in spring where peak flows are often governed by runoff volume due to rainfall and snowmelt, but can take place in summer with flash floods in urban systems that respond to short-duration, heavy rainfall. Flooding due to hurricanes, or downgraded severe storms, is a concern from August to October when tropical storms can affect Eastern North America. Flood events have had a significant effect on various regions of the country. Flooding is the costliest natural disaster for Canadians. Most home insurance claims in Canada deal with water damage due to sewer back-up, not fire.Floods occur five times as often as wildfires, the second most frequent natural hazard in Canada.(Sandink, 2010 & 6) Between 1900 and 2005 there were 241 flood disasters in Canada.(Sandink, 2010 & 6)The 1894 Fraser River flood had a return period of slightly more than 500 years and the 1948 flood was close to a 200-year event.(NHC, 2008 & 21) The 1997 Red River flood was named the 'flood of the century'. The International Joint Commission (IJC)'s 1998 report warned that although the 1997 Red River flood had a "return interval ranging from 100 to 500 years, depending on the location", there was a "statistical probability of a similar flood each year." The 2011 Assiniboine River Flood was estimated to have a return interval of 300 years.The Calgary flood had a return interval ranging from 70 to 100 years. A 100-year flood has a 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood. with a flow of the Bow River in Calgary measured at c.1,740 m3/s (61,000 cu ft/s) when the flood reached its peak level on June 21, 2013.
Kłodzko ([ˈkwɔt͡skɔ] (listen); Czech: Kladsko; German: Glatz; Latin: Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia. It is situated in the centre of the Kłodzko Valley, on the Eastern Neisse river.
Kłodzko is the seat of Kłodzko County (and of the rural Gmina Kłodzko, although the town itself is a separate urban gmina), and is situated in Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 it was in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship). With 28,250 inhabitants (2006), Kłodzko is the main commercial centre as well as an important transport and tourist node for the area.
For its historical monuments it is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" (Polish: Mała Praga, German: Klein-Prag). Initially established as a settlement in the 10th century, it is one of the oldest towns in Poland, having been granted city rights in 1233. Culturally and traditionally a part of Bohemia, administratively it has been a part of Silesia since 1763.
• In 1995 heavy monsoon rains occurred in mid July. Due to this River Indus and other rivers and canals started to flood. The rains stopped in time. Otherwise they would have caused more damage.
In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected when above normal monsoon rainfall caused flooding in the province; urban flooding also hit Karachi where two days of rainfall of 284.5 millimetres (11.20 in) created havoc in the city, while Thatta district was the worst hit where 404 millimetres (15.9 in) rainfall caused flash floods in the district. At least 484 people died and some 4,476 villages in the province were affected.
In 2007, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and coastal Balochistan were badly affected due to monsoon rainfall. Sindh and coastal Balochistan were affected by Cyclone Yemyin in June and then torrential rains in July and August, while Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa was affected by melting glaciers and heavy rainfall in July and August. At least 130 people died and 2,000 were displaced in Khyber-Pakhtunkwain in July and 22 people died in August, while 815 people died in Balochistan and Sindh due to flash floods.
In 2010, almost all of Pakistan was affected when massive flooding caused by record breaking rains hit Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. The number of individuals affected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. At least 2,000 people died in this flood and almost 20 million people were affected by it.
In September 2011, at least 361 people were killed, some 5.3 million people and 1.2 million homes affected as well 1.7 million acres of arable land inundated when massive floods swept across the province of Sindh as a result of monsoon rains (see 2011 Sindh floods).
In September 2012, more than 100 people died, and thousands of homes destroyed, with thousands of acres of arable land affected when intense rainfall battered Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Southern Punjab and Upper Sindh. As a result of monsoon rains (see 2012 Pakistan Floods).
In September 2013, more than 80 people died (see 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods).
In September 2014 Due to massive rain in Jammu and Kashmir as well as in Punjab Constituted flood situation in River Chanab and River Jhelum.
The Neva (Russian: Нева́, IPA: [nʲɪˈva])) (Finnish: Nëvii) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast (historical region of Ingria) to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge (after the Volga, the Danube and the Rhine).The Neva is the only river flowing from Lake Ladoga. It flows through the city of Saint Petersburg, three smaller towns of Shlisselburg, Kirovsk and Otradnoye, and dozens of settlements. The river is navigable throughout and is part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and White Sea – Baltic Canal. It is a site of numerous major historical events, including the Battle of the Neva in 1240 which gave Alexander Nevsky his name, the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, and the Siege of Leningrad by the German army during World War II. The Neva river played a vital role between the trade of Byzantium and Scandinavia.
The North Sea flood of 1962 was a natural disaster affecting mainly the coastal regions of Germany and in particular the city of Hamburg in the night from 16 February to 17 February 1962. In total, the homes of about 60,000 people were destroyed, and the death toll amounted to 315 in Hamburg. In addition, three people were killed in the United Kingdom by high winds, which damaged around 175,000 houses in the worst affected city, Sheffield.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology:
Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction.
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