List of extant papal tombs

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.[1]

For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments.[2] Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.[3]

A-Procession-in-the-Catacomb-of-Callistus
A procession in the Catacomb of Callixtus, a site of several ancient papal tombs. By Alberto Pisa, 1905

Note on non-extant tombs

Many early tombs no longer exist due to repeated translations or destruction. This list does not include non-extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain. Locations of destroyed or lost papal tombs include:

Other tombs not included in this list are:

1st–5th centuries

1st century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
30–67
(as Head of the Church)
Saint Peter by Grão Vasco Peter
Saint Peter
Het Baldakijn van Bernini - The Baldachinno Rom, Vatikan, Petrusgrab unterhalb des Papstaltars des Petersdoms in den Vatikanischen Grotten Gian Lorenzo Bernini (baldachin) St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (Rome) See Saint Peter's tomb
post 42 / ante 57–64/67(?)
(as Bishop of Rome)

2nd century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
c. 157-168 Papa Aniceto cropped Anicetus
Saint Anicetus
R-Anicet-Altemps Altemps Palace (Piazza Navona), Rome Remains transferred from Vatican Hill to the Cemetery of Callixtus and possibly again thereafter;[9] sarcophagus which may have once contained remains is extant in the Altemps Palace[10]

3rd century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 253 – 5 March 254 Lucius I Lucius I
Saint Lucius
Cripta Santa Cecilia 05 Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome Transferred from the Catacomb of Callixtus to one or more of: Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, San Silvestro in Capite, and Santa Prassede;[11] sarcophagus that once held remains is extant in the crypt of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere[10]
17 December 283 – 22 April 296 PCaius Caius
Saint Caius
Barberini chapel Sant'Andrea della Valle (Barberini chapel), Rome Translated from the crypt of St. Eusebius in the Cemetery of Callixtus to San Silvestre in Capite, then to another church, then to the private chapel of the Barberini princes in Sant'Andrea della Valle[12]

4th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
18 January 336 – 7 October 336 Marcus (papa) Mark
Saint Mark
Tomb of Pope Mark San Marco Evangelista al Campidoglio, Rome Translated from the Catacomb of Balbina, one of the Catacombs of Rome, to an urn below the main altar of San Marco[13]

5th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
29 September 440 – 10 November 461 Greatleoone Leo I
Saint Leo
Leo the Great
Expulsão de átila Alessandro Algardi (relief) St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti First pope buried on the porch of Old St. Peter's Basilica; translated multiple times, combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855; removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila (pictured)[14]

6th–10th centuries

6th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
3 September 590 – 12 March 604 Gregorythegreat Gregory I, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Gregory the Great
Tomb of pope Gregorius I Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's, partly transferred to Soissons; during the demolition of St. Peter's, transferred to Sant'Andrea della Valle then Cappella Clementina, near the entrance of the modern St. Peter's[15]

7th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
13 September 604 – 22 February 606 Sabinian Sabinian
Saint Sabinian
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the atrium of Old St. Peter's destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[16] small fragment of the original epitaph remains in the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica[17]
25 August 608 – 8 May 615 Boniface IV Boniface IV, O.S.B.
Saint Boniface
Unknown St. Peter's Baslica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's; translated to the interior; one arm translated to Santa Maria in Cosmedin; other relics translated to the Chapel of St. Sylvester beside the Church of the Quattro Coronati; remainder translated to another chapel of St. Peter's;[18] oratory which once contained the tomb is extant, as well as a sketch of the tomb by Ciampini[17]
December 681 – 3 July 683 Leo II
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; translated under the altar of the Chapel of the Madonna della Colonna; combined with Leo I in the early seventeenth century; for centuries believed to be under the altar of the Church of San Stefano in Ferrara; combined remains of Leos I, II, and IV found during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[19]

8th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 February 772 – 26 December 795 Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I Adrian I Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the Oratory of Cathedra Petri destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[20] inscription, composed by Charlemagne, remains in the portico of modern St. Peter's[21][22]
26 December 795 – 12 June 816 Leo III Mosaic Leo III
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo II and IV by Pope Paschal II; combined sarcophagus destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo I in 1601 and placed in a sarcophagus under the altar of our Savior della Colonna in new St. Peter's[23]

9th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
January 847 – 17 July 855 Pope St. Leo IV Leo IV, O.S.B.
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Combined with Leos I, II, and III[24]
24 April 858 – 13 November 867 Pope Nicholas I Nicholas I
Saint Nicholas
Nicholas the Great
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the atrium of Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, extant in the Vatican grottoes[25]
14 December 867 – 14 December 872 Adrian II Adrian II Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, still visible in the Vatican grottoes[25]
17 May 884 – c.September 885 Papa Adriano III Adrian III
Saint Adrian
Abbazia di nonantola, interno, cripta 03 Unknown Nonantola Abbey, Modena Crypt altar[26]

10th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 May 964 – 23 June 964 Pope Benedict V Illustration Benedict V Scherbe 2 vom Grab Benedikt V Unknown Hamburg Cathedral. Germany Destroyed; possibly translated back to Old St. Peter's (but no trace has been found);[27] cenotaph, not tomb, remains[28]
October 974 – 10 July 983 Pope Benedict VII Illustration Benedict VII Santa croce di gerusalemme Unknown Santa Croce in Gerusalemme Funerary inscription embedded in the wall near the entrance[29]
3 May 996 – 18 February 999 Otto III wird von Papst Gregor V. zum Kaiser gesalbt Gregory V 59-Gregorio-V Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Tomb discovered on August 14, 1607 under the pavement of St. Peter's; exhumed and reburied on January 15, 1609 in a fourth/fifth century sarcophagus[30]
2 April 999 – 12 May 1003 Silvester II Sylvester II San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, cenotafio di silvestro II, m. 1003, 01 Gzila Nalder and Giuseppe Damko Basilica of St. John Lateran Destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308; charred remains were collected and buried in a polyandrum in the same basilica; epitaph reingraved on a cenotaph in the same basilica; modern monument created in 1910[31]

11th–15th centuries

11th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
31 July 1009 – 12 May 1012 Sergius IV Sergius IV San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, sepolcro settecentesco di sergio IV, m. 1012 Francesco Borromini Basilica of St. John Lateran Original destroyed in a fire in either 1308 or 1361; remains collected in a polyandrum in the same basilica; new cenotaph placed on the right side of the main nave by Borromini in the seventeenth century[32]
24 December 1046 – 9 October 1047 Pope clement II Clement II Papstgrab "Reims workshop"[33] Bamberg Cathedral Only extant papal tomb outside of Italy and France;[34][35][36] original completed circa 1237, dismantled in the seventeenth century, separating the tomb-chest and effigy; tomb-chest constructed with marble from Kärnten[33][37]
17 July 1048 – 9 August 1048 B Damasus II1 Damasus II Tomb of Pope Damasus II Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura Sarcophagus in the portico[38][39]
12 February 1049 – 19 April 1054 Leon IX Leo IX
Saint Leo
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the east wall of Old St. Peter's, close to the altar of Gregory I; coffin opened on January 11, 1606 during the demolition of Old St. Peter's and parts were taken as relics; remainder reburied under the altar of Saints Marziale and Valeria,[40] now dedicated to the Crucifixion of St. Peter.
22 April 1073 – 25 May 1085 Pope Gregory VII Gregory VII, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Salerno PopeGregoriousVIITomb Unknown Salerno Cathedral Originally buried in the Church of St. Matthew; discovered in 1573, opened in 1578, reburied beneath the Salerno altar; opened again in 1605 (head taken to Cathedral of Soana; corpse translated to chapel of the Crociata); original sarcophagus placed in transept in 1954[41]
24 May 1086 – 16 September 1087 Victor III Victor III, O.S.B.
Blessed Victor
Monte Cassino Fasada Kosciol Unknown Abbey of Monte Cassino Translated in 1515 to the altar in the chapel of St. Bertharius, then the chapel of St. Victor; transferred from Monte Cassino during World War II to San Polo fuori le Mura, avoiding the aerial bombing that destroyed the original chapel;[42] returned to the rebuilt basilica of Monte Cassino in 1963[43]

12th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
24 January 1118 – 28 January 1119 GelasioII Gelasius II, O.S.B. Dehio 212 Cluny Unknown Cluny Abbey Tuscan-style bright marble tomb destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution;[44] fragments remain[28]
14 February 1130 – 24 September 1143 B Innozenz II Innocent II, Can. Reg. Tomb of Innocentius II in Santa Maria in Trastevere (Rome) Vespignani (design) Santa Maria in Trastevere Originally buried in the porphyry sarcophagus of Emperor Hadrian in the Basilica of St. John Lateran; damaged during the fire of 1308 and moved to the vestibule; moved to a simple slab in the fifteenth century; moved to Santa Maria Trastevere[45]
8 July 1153 – 3 December 1154 B Anastasius IV Anastasius IV Helena tomb Unknown Vatican Museum Reused the sarcophagus of Helena of Constantinople, Constantine's mother; only tomb to survive the Lateran fires of 1308 and 1361 (restored fully in 1509); moved to the treasury of the Vatican Museum in the nineteenth century[46]
4 December 1154 – 1 September 1159 Pope Hadrian IV Adrian IV, O.S.A. Tomb of Pope Adrian IV Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Reused an Early Christian sarcophagus[47]
7 September 1159 – 30 August 1181 B-Alexander III1 Alexander III San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, sepolcro di alessandro III con scultura di domenico guidi, 1658-59 Francesco Borromini Basilica of St. John Lateran Ruined by mob graffiti and then destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308 or 1361; new cenotph raised in seventeenth century[48]
1 September 1181 – 25 November 1185 Pope Lucius III Lucius III Unknown Verona Cathedral Originally buried in a marble sarcophagus in front of the high altar; moved beneath the pavement under a red Veronese marble slab during the reign of bishop Gilberti (1524–1543); damaged during a storm on February 25, 1879; recovered with marble thereafter and original slab hung on the wall of the Cathedral[49][50]
25 November 1185 – 19 October 1187 B Urban III Urban III Tomb of Pope Urban III G.B. Boffa (modern cenotaph) Ferrara Cathedral Moved several times; original tomb replaced with cenotaph in fifteenth century[51]
8 January 1198 – 16 July 1216 Innozenz3 Innocent III Tomb Innocentius III San Giovanni in Laterano 2006-09-07 Giuseppe Lucchetti Basilica of St. John Lateran Originally buried in the Perugia Cathedral; moved several times within the Cathedral, and temporarily combined with Urban IV and Martin IV, before being transferred to Basilica of St. John Lateran in 1891[52]

13th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 1243 – 7 December 1254 Innocent IV - Council of Lyon - 002r detail Innocent IV Napoli-Duomo-InnocenzoIV Tommaso Malvito Naples Cathedral Original, commissioned by archbishop Humbert of Montauro, almost completely destroyed; the recumbent figure (with the anachronistic round top tiara) and above reliefs were added in the sixteenth century[53]
29 August 1261 – 2 October 1264 Pope Urban IV Urban IV [54] Giovanni Pisano (original) Perugia Cathedral Destroyed in the late fourteenth century, save the epitaph which is currently in the Civic Museum of Perugia; combined with Innocent III and Martin IV in 1587 and interred in the sacristy;[55] Innocent III's remains were transferred to John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral;[10] possibly translated to the Troyes Cathedral in 1901[56]
5 February 1265 – 29 November 1268 Papst Clemens IV Clement IV Pietro di oderisio, monumento di clemente IV e del card. pierre le gros di saint-gilles, post 1268, 01 Pietro Oderisi San Francesco (Viterbo) Translated from Santa Maria in Gradi[57][58]
1 September 1271 – 10 January 1276 B Gregor X Gregory X
Blessed Gregory
Duomo di arezzo, interno, sepolcro di gregorio X, inizi XIV secolo Margaritone d'Arezzo Arezzo Cathedral Original body and sarcophagus are extant[28][59]
11 July 1276 – 18 August 1276 Papa Adriano V Adrian V Mausoleo Adriano V Arnolfo di Cambio (possibly Pietro Vassalletto) San Francesco (Viterbo) Modified in 1994[58][60]
8 September 1276 – 20 May 1277 B Johannes XXI John XXI Jean XXI (Viterbo Cath.) Filippo Gnaccarini Viterbo Cathedral Original destroyed in the sixteenth century, no longer extant;[58] new monument constructed in the 19th century and damaged during World War II,[61] of which a sarcophagus and other fragments remain[10][62]
25 November 1277 – 22 August 1280 PopeNicholasIIICameo Nicholas III St. Peter's Basilica-tomb2 Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with two Rainaldo Orsinis in 1620[63]
22 February 1281 – 28 March 1285 B Martin IV Martin IV [54] Giovanni Pisano Perugia Cathedral Original tomb destroyed by 1375; reconstructed and redestroyed by the end of the fourteenth century; combined with Popes Urban IV and Innocent III in 1587; Innocent III's remains were transferred to John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket containing Martin IV and possibly Urban IV is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral[10]
2 April 1285 – 3 April 1287 PopeOnorioIV Honorius IV Santa Maria in Aracoeli; Grabmal Giovanna Aldobrandeschi Arnolfo di Cambio Santa Maria in Aracoeli Original destroyed early in the demolition of Old St. Peter's; baldecchio destroyed and replaced in 1727[64][65]
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292 NicholasIV Nicholas IV, O.F.M. Tomb of Pope Nicholas IV Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo da Sarzana (sculptor)
Leonardo Sormani (figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Originally buried in a simple urn; mausoleum commissioned in the late sixteenth century[66]
5 July 1294 – 13 December 1294 Celestin 5 statue Celestine V, O.S.B.
Saint Celestine
Celestino V tomba Girolama da Vicenza Santa Maria di Collemaggio (L'Aquila) Originally buried in Church of St. Anthony; moved to Church of St. Agatha; stolen in 1327 by L'Aquilan friars;[67] damaged in the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake[68]
24 December 1294 – 11 October 1303 Bonifatius VIII Grabstatue Boniface VIII Tomb of Boniface VIII Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original tomb chapel, into which Boniface VIII had moved the relics of Boniface IV, destroyed[69][70]

14th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 October 1303 – 7 July 1304 B Benedikt XI Benedict XI, O.P.
Blessed Benedict
Lorenzo maitani (attr.), monumento di benedetto XI, 1305 circa, 01 Giovanni Pisano Basilica of San Domenico (Perugia) Wall tomb and ossuary[28][71]
5 June 1305 – 20 April 1314 Papst klemens v Clement V FR-33-Uzeste3 Jehan de Bonneval Collegiate church (Uzeste) [72]
7 August 1316 – 4 December 1334 John22 John XXII Tombeau de Jean XXII Unknown Avignon Cathedral Moved several times within the Cathedral's chapels; all 60 statuettes have been stolen, head of effigy is originally from another bishop's tomb; damaged badly during French Revolution[73][74]
20 December 1334 – 25 April 1342 Benedikt XII1 Benedict XII, O.Cist. Tomb of Benedict XII, Cathédrale de Notre-Dame-des-Doms, Avignon Jean Lavenier Avignon Cathedral Bust of Benedict XII in the St. Peter's Basilica grottoes;[75] fragments of original in Fondation Calvet[28]
7 May 1342 – 6 December 1352 Clemens VI Clement VI Gisant du pape Clément VI 2.jpeg Pierre Boye, Jean Sanholis, and Jean David Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu Sculpted weepers in Musée Crozatier, Le Puy;[76][77] sculpted angel in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[78]
18 December 1352 – 12 September 1362 Innozenz VI Innocent VI Villeneuve avignon chartreuse tombeau Beltran Nogayrol Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction (Villeneuve-lès-Avignon) [79]
28 September 1362 – 19 December 1370 Urban V Urban V, O.S.B.
Blessed Urban
Urbain V by JM Rosier Joglarii Abbey of St. Victor (Marseille) Effigy in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[80][81]
30 December 1370 – 26 March 1378 PopeGregoryXI Gregory XI Grabmal Gregor XI Pietro Paolo Olivieri Santa Francesca Romana Original Olivieri relief carved in 1584 (drawing above);[82] replica located in Palais des Papes
8 April 1378 – 15 October 1389 Urbanus VI Urban VI Tomb of pope Urbanus VI Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Saved during the deconstruction of Old St. Peter's; nearly dumped by workmen for use as a water trough[83][84]

15th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
17 October 1404 – 6 November 1406 Innocent VII Innocent VII Tomb of Pope Innocent VII Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the Chapel of Saints Peter and Paul, moved to the Chapel of St. Thomas in 1455, moved into a mid-fifteenth century copy of the original sarcophagus on September 12, 1606[85]
30 November 1406 – 4 July 1415 Gregory XII Gregory XII Original Tomb of Gregory XII Camillo Rusconi San Flaviano (Recanati) Cardinal at the time of his death, due to his resignation during the Council of Constance; Moved in 1623, 1760, and 1793; illustrations of an "original" tomb (pictured) have been deemed fabrications by historians;[86] last papal tomb outside Rome (c.f. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII); original sarcophagus extant[10]
11 November 1417 – 20 February 1431 Martin V Martin V Tomb of Pope Martin V Gregorovius Simone Ghini Basilica of St. John Lateran[87] Moved in front of the high altar in 1853[88]
3 March 1431 – 23 February 1447 Portrait du pape Eugène IV Eugene IV, O.S.A. Tomb of Pope Eugene IV Iaia da Piso and Pellegrino di Antonio da Viterbo San Salvatore in Lauro Moved out of Old St. Peter's before its demolition[89]
6 March 1447 – 24 March 1455 Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens Nicholas V, O.P. Tomb of Pope Nicholas V Mino da Fiesole St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the left outer aisle of Old St. Peter's to the right outer aisle, but still monument (not sarcophagus) destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[90]
8 April 1455 – 6 August 1458 Calixtus III Callixtus III Tomb of Pope Callixtus III Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in Chapel of St. Mary della febbre; monument, but not sarcophagus, destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[91]
Tomb of Popes Borja ( Callisto III and Alessandro VI) Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria in Monserrato Remains later combined with Alexander VI[91]
19 August 1458 – 15 August 1464 Pintoricchio 012 Pius II Tomb of Pope Pius II color Paolo Romano Sant'Andrea della Valle Heart enshrined in the Duomo of Ancona; originally buried in the Chapel of St. Andrews in St. Peter's; moved to San Andrea della Valle in 1614[92]
30 August 1464 – 26 July 1471 Paul II Paul II Tomb of pope Paulus II Giovanni Dalmata (effigy)
Mino da Fiesole (figures and bas-reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Monument moved in 1544 and torn down in seventeenth century; sarcophagus survived demolition of Old St. Peter's[93]
9 August 1471 – 12 August 1484 Sixtus IV Sixtus IV, O.F.M. Tomb of Sixtus IV Color Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in the choir chapel of Old St. Peter's; moved in 1610 to the sacristy; moved in 1625 to the Chapel del Coro in new St. Peter's; combined with Julius II in 1926; moved again in 1940s[94]
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492 Innocent VIII Innocent VIII Monument to Innocentius VIII in Saint Peter's Basilica Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica First papal tomb to depict a live pope rather than a deathbed effigy; originally placed in the Oratory of Our Lady in Old St. Peter's; moved to the sudarium on 5 September 1606 during the demolition[94]
11 August 1492 – 18 August 1503 Alexander VI - Pinturicchio detail Alexander VI Regola - s M Monserrato tomba Borgia 1050567 Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria di Monserrato Originally located in the oratory of Saints Cosmas and Damian, in the round chapel of Santa Maria de Febribus; moved in the sixteenth century next to Calixtus III; combined in 1582 in the Chapel of Santa Maria della Febbre; survived demolition of Old St. Peter's but broken up in 1605; urns were taken to Santa Maria di Monserrato; monument in Chapel of St. Diego sculpted in 1881[95]

16th–20th centuries

16th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 September 1503 – 18 October 1503 Pius III, Nordisk familjebok Pius III Tomb of pope Pius III Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally built in Old St. Peter's; last papal mausoleum erected in Old St. Peter's[96]
Wall Tomb of Pope Pius III color Sebastiano Ferrucci Sant'Andrea della Valle Moved to Sant'Andrea della Valle by Paul V[96]
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513 Pope Julius II Julius II Rome-Basilique San Pietro in Vincoli-Moise MichelAnge Michelangelo
Possible assistants include:
Antonello Gagini
Giacomo del Duca
San Pietro in Vincoli Original, planned tomb—intended for the Cappella Maggiore of St. Peter's—never completed and moved to San Pietro in Vincoli[97]
See Tomb of Pope Julius II, Moses and Dying Slave
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Actual remains deposited in a simple sarcophagus, combined with Sixtus IV, his uncle[96]
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521 Pope-leo10 Leo X LX graf Baccio Bandinelli (design)
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (monument)
Raffaello da Montelupo (statue)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1536[98]
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523 Hadrian VI Adrian VI SantaMariaAnima-TombaAdrianoVI01-SteO153 Baldassare Peruzzi (design)
Michelangelo of Sieno and Niccolò Tribolo (carved)
Santa Maria dell'Anima Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1533 to the national church of the Holy Roman Empire[99]
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534 Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531. Clement VII Antonio da sangallo il giovane, monumento di clemente VII Nanni di Baccio Bigio Santa Maria sopra Minerva Originally buried in a brick tomb in Old St. Peter's; tomb is across from that of Leo X, another Medici pope[100]
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549 Tizian 083b Paul III Tomb of Pope Paul III Guglielmo della Porta St. Peter's Basilica Moved in 1599[101]
7 February 1550 – 29 March 1555 Julius III Julius III Tomb of Pope Julius III requiem Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in St. Peter's Basilica sans monument in a red stone sarcophagus in the chapel of San Andrea; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1608, which was reopened two years later during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[102] sometimes cited as buried in the Del Monte chapel of San Pietro in Montorio along with his adopted cardinal-nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte[103]
9 April 1555 – 30 April or 1 May 1555 Pope Marcellus II Marcellus II Tomb of Marcellus II Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument; fourth century sarcophagus, bearing a traditio legis[104]
23 May 1555 – 18 August 1559 Pope Paul IV Paul IV Tomb of Pope Paul IV color Pirro Ligorio (design)
Giacomo da Castignola, Tommaso della Porta, Gian Pietro Annon, and Rocco da Montefiascone (sculpted)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva [105]
26 December 1559 – 9 December 1565 Pius iv Pius IV S. Maria degli Angeli-Interior3 Unknown Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Moved from Old St. Peter's in 1583; buried under the altar with a nearby wall plaque[106]
7 January 1566 – 1 May 1572 El Greco 050 Pius V, O.P.
Saint Pius
Tomb of Pope Pius V Gregorovius Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo Sormani (effigy)
Nicholas Cordier (left and right bas-reliefs)
Silla Longhi da Viggiu (center bas-relief)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1583[107]
13 May 1572 – 10 April 1585 Gregory XIII Gregory XIII Camillo rusconi, monumento a gregorio XIII, 1723, 01 Camillo Rusconi St. Peter's Basilica Original monument destroyed; new monument built in eighteenth century[108]
24 April 1585 – 27 August 1590 Sixtus5 Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv. Tomb of Pope Sixtus V Gregorovius Domenico Fontana (design)
Vasoldo (sculpted)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore [109]
15 September 1590 – 27 September 1590 Urban VII Urban VII Tomb of Pope Urban VII Ambrogio Buonvicino Santa Maria sopra Minerva [110]
5 December 1590 – 15 /16 October 1591 Gregory XIV Gregory XIV Prospero Antichi St. Peter's Basilica [111]
29 October 1591 – 30 December 1591 Innocent9 Innocent IX Tomb of pope Innocent IX Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument[111]
30 January 1592 – 3 March 1605 Clem8 Clement VIII RomSMariaMaggioreGrabClemensVIII Flaminio Ponzio (design) Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved in 1646 to the Borghese Crypt in the Paulline Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore; figure of Clement VIII was carved by Silla da Viggiu and the cornice figures by Pietro Bernini; features "The Peace of Henry IV and Philip III by Ippolito Buzzi and "The Coronation of Clement VIII" by Bernini, "The Canonization of St. Giacinto and St. Raimondo" by Giovanni Antonio Valsolde, "The Occupation of Ferrara" by Ambriogo Bonvicino, and "Invitation of the Troops in Hungary" by Camillo Mariani[112]

17th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 April 1605 – 27 April 1605 Leo XI 2 Leo XI Alessandro Algardi, monumento a leone XI Medici, 1644, 01 Alessandro Algardi (pope and sarcophagus)
Ercole Ferrata (Prudence)
Giuseppe Peroni (Liberty)
St. Peter's Basilica [113]
16 May 1605 – 28 January 1621 Pope Paul V Paul V Paul V SM Maggiore Flaminio Ponzio (design)
Silla da Viggiu (figure of pope)
Stefano Moderna, Ambrogio Bonvicinio, Ippolito Buzzi, Cristoforo Stati, and Antonio Valsoldo (reliefs)
Pompeo Ferucci (cornice figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from the Borghese Chapel of St. Peter's to the Pauline chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore[113]
9 February 1621 – 8 July 1623 Guercino - Pope Gregory XV (ca. 1622-1623) - Google Art Project Gregory XV Tomb Gregorius XV Sant Ignazio Orazio Grassi (design)
Pierre Le Gros the Younger, Pierre-Étienne Monnot, and Camillo Rusconi (sculpted)
Sant'Ignazio Buried with his cardinal-nephew, Ludovico Ludovisi; moved from the Quirinal Palace in 1634[114]
6 August 1623 – 29 July 1644 Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII Urban VIII Tomb of Pope Urban VIII Gregorovius Gian Lorenzo Bernini St. Peter's Basilica [115]
15 September 1644 – 7 January 1655 Innocent-x-velazquez Innocent X SantAgneseAgone-InnocenzoX-SteO153 G. Valvassori and G.B. Maini Sant'Agnese in Agone Cenotaph featuring the Virtues (left) and Strength (right) erected in 1730[116]
7 April 1655 – 22 May 1667 Alexander VII Alexander VII View of the Tomb of Alexander VII, St Peter's, Vatican City Gian Lorenzo Bernini (monument)
Michele Maglia (figure of pope)
Giuseppe Mazzuoli (Charity)
Lazzaro Morelli and Giulio Catani (Truth)
Giuseppe Baratta and Giulio Cartari (Prudence)
Giulio Catani (Justice)
St. Peter's Basilica Sculpted between 1672 and 1678; Charity's breast's covered by Innocent XI[117]
See Tomb of Pope Alexander VII
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669 Pope Clement IX Clement IX Carlo rainaldi, monum. a clemente IX (1671), con papa di domenico guidi, fede di cosimo fancelli e carità ercole ferrata 2 Ercole Ferrata Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from St. Peter's in 1675; figures are Clement IX (by Girolamo Rainaldi), Charity (by Ferrata), and Truth (by Cosimo Fancelli)[118]
29 April 1670 – 22 July 1676 Clement X Clement X ClementeX Mattia de' Rossi (design) St. Peter's Basilica Figures are Clement X (by Ercole Ferrata), Clemency (by Giuseppe Mazzuoli), Goodness (by Lazzaro Morelli), and two putti (by Filippo Carcani)[119]
21 September 1676 – 11/12 August 1689 InnocentXI Innocent XI
Blessed Innocent XI
InocencioXIb C. Maratta (design)
Pierre Etienne Monnot (sculpted)
St. Peter's Basilica Featured the pope with the Virtue Truth and the Goddess Athena; bas-relief on the sarcophagus reads "The Liberation of Vienna"[120]
Tomb of Innocentius XI in the Chapel of St. Sebastian of Saint Peter's Basilica Unknown Separate glass sarcophagus moved under the altar of the Transfiguration after his body was removed from the altar of Saint Sebastian in 2011[120]
6 October 1689 – 1 February 1691 Alexander VIII 1 Alexander VIII AlexandreVIII Angelo de Rossi St. Peter's Basilica [121]
12 July 1691 – 27 September 1700 Pope Innocent XII Innocent XII Pope Innocent XII Tomb Filippo della Valle and Ferdinando Fuga St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the tribune to the left transept in the late eighteenth century by Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli; originally buried in a simple marble sarcophagus in the Chapel of the Sacrament; present monument completed in 1746; features the pope bestowing the benediction with Charity (left) and Justice (right)[122]
23 November 1700 – 19 March 1721 Clement XI Clement XI Tomb of Pope Clement XI requiem Carlo Fontana St. Peter's Basilica In the Choro chapel; no monument;[123] cenotaph also placed in Ferrara Cathedral[28]

18th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
8 May 1721 – 7 March 1724 InnocientXIII Innocent XIII Tomb of Innocentius XIII Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in a stucco sepulcher in the right nave of St. Peter's; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1836[124]
29 May 1724 – 21 February 1730 Benedetto XIII Servant of God
Benedict XIII, O.P.
Tomb of Pope Benedict XIII Pietro Bracci and Carlo Marchionni Santa Maria sopra Minerva Remains were originally with his monument in St. Peter's Basilica[124]
12 July 1730 – 6 February 1740 Pope Clement XII, portrait Clement XII Tomb of Pope Clement XII Giovanni Battista Maini Basilica of St. John Lateran [125]
17 August 1740 – 3 May 1758 Benoit XIV Benedict XIV BentoXIVb Pietro Bracci St. Peter's Basilica Two figures are Knowledge (by Bracci) and Temptation (by Gaspare Sibilla)[126]
6 July 1758 – 2 February 1769 Clement xii Clement XIII Tomb of Pope Clement XIII Gregorovius Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica [126]
19 May 1769 – 22 September 1774 Clement XIV Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv. Tomb of Pope Clement XIV Gregorovius Antonio Canova Santi Apostoli, Rome Moved to Santi Apostoli in 1802[127]
15 February 1775 – 29 August 1799 Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland) Pius VI Tomb Monument of Pius VI Gregorovius Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica Monument by Antonio Canova, circa 1822[28]
Tomb of Pius VI Unknown Remains placed in an ancient sarcophagus with a bas-relief of the Adoration of the Magi by Pius XII in 1949 (below); original praecordia monument in the Valence Cathedral sculpted by Massimiliano Laboureur and commissioned by Napoleon[28]
14 March 1800 – 20 August 1823 Jacques-Louis David 018 Servant of God
Pius VII, O.S.B.
Grab Pius VII Bertel Thorvaldsen St. Peter's Basilica Commissioned at the expense of Cardinal Consalvi, Pius VII's Secretary of State; depicts the pope blessing the angels of Time and History, with the onlooking figures of Wisdom (left) and Strength (right)[128]

19th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
Pope Leo XII Leo XII Leoxii monument Giuseppe Fabris St. Peter's Basilica [129]
31 March 1829
– 1 December 1830
Pope Pius VIII Pius VIII Monument to Pope Pius VIII Pietro Tenerani St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes in 1857 to the Tenerani monument commissioned by Cardinal Albani; figures are the kneeling pontiff and seated Christ as well as Saints Peter (left) and Paul (right); base reliefs are Prudence (left) and Justice (right)[129]
2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
Gregory XVI Gregory XVI
O.S.B. Cam.
GREGORYXVI Luigi Amici St. Peter's Basilica [130]
16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
Popepiusix Blessed
Pius IX
Tomb of Pope Pius IX Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura [131]
20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
Leo XIII Leo XIII Roma Grab Leo XIII BW Giulio Tadolini Basilica of St. John Lateran Tomb monument[10]

20th - 21st centuries

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
PiusX, Bain Saint
Pius X
Piusxtomb Pier Enrico Astorri
Florestano Di Fausto (architect)
St. Peter's Basilica [132]
3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
Benedictus XV Benedict XV Benedyktxv rzezba Pietro Canonica St. Peter's Basilica Monument in St. Peter's[133]
Grotto 9 Giulio Barbieri (bronze effigy) Tomb[133]
6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
PiusXI33861u Pius XI Rom 58 (RaBoe) Giannino Castiglioni St. Peter's Basilica Candoglia marble sarcophagus topped with a deathbed effigy[134]
2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
His Holiness Pope Pius XII Venerable
Pius XII
Tumulo pio xii Francesco Messina (bronze funeral monument) St. Peter's Basilica Funeral monument in St. Peter's separate from sarcophagus in the Vatican grottoes.[135]
28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
Pope John XXIII - 1959 Saint
John XXIII
1380VaticanoJohnXXIIIGrave Emilio Greco St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes to the Altar of Saint Jerome after his beatification on 3 September 2000.[136]
21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
PABLO VI Saint
Paul VI
GravePaulVI Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Three reliefs are from the fifteenth century; "as simple as possible [...] neither tomb nor monument" and buried in the ground per Paul VI's wishes.[137]
SanctusPaulusVI Unknown Updated in October 2018 with "Sanctvs" for his canonisation.
26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
Pope John Paul I from window (cropped) Venerable
John Paul I
Tomb of pope Johannes Paulus I Francesco Vacchini (design)
Andrea Bregno (reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Reliefs are late fifteenth century; across the aisle from Marcellus II, another short-reigning pope.[138]
16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
JohannesPaul2-portrait Saint
John Paul II
Grób Bł. Jana Pawła II w Kaplicy Św. Sebastiana Unknown St. Peter's Basilica See Funeral of Pope John Paul II.

His body was moved from the Vatican grottoes to the chapel of Saint Sebastian after his beatification on 1 May 2011. The inscription "Beatvs" was changed in April 2014 to "Sanctvs" for his canonization.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 1.
  2. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 5–12.
  3. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 269–271.
  4. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 23–26.
  5. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 23.
  6. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 272–277.
  8. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 70–109.
  9. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 25.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Reardon, 2004, p. 270.
  11. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 30.
  12. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 31.
  13. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 34–35.
  14. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 40–41.
  15. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 46–48.
  16. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 48.
  17. ^ a b Mann, 2003, p. 22.
  18. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 49–51.
  19. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 54–55.
  20. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 60.
  21. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 16.
  22. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 24.
  23. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 61.
  24. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 62.
  25. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 64.
  26. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 66.
  27. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 73.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Reardon, 2004, p. 269.
  29. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 74.
  30. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 76.
  31. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 77.
  32. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 80.
  33. ^ a b Williamson, Paul. (1998). Gothic sculpture, 1140–1300. pp. 95–98.
  34. ^ Beckwith, John. (1961). "Review: The Tomb of Pope Clement II at Bamberg". The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 103, No. 700, pp. 321–322.
  35. ^ Turner, Jane. (1996). The dictionary of art. p. 139.
  36. ^ Porter, Darwin. (2004). Frommer's Germany. p. 210.
  37. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 82–83.
  38. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 9.
  39. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 83.
  40. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 84.
  41. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 87.
  42. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 88.
  43. ^ Thomas, Sarah Fawcett. (2000). Butler's Lives of the Saints: September / revised by Sarah Fawcett Thomas. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86012-258-6. p. 150.
  44. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 89.
  45. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 90–91.
  46. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 93.
  47. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 11.
  48. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 95.
  49. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 32.
  50. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 12.
  51. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 98.
  52. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 100.
  53. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 102–103.
  54. ^ a b An illustration of the iron casket can be seen in Reardon, 2004, p. 113.
  55. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 104.
  56. ^ Keys to Umbria: City Walks. May 22, 2009 (retrieved). "Interior of the Duomo Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine ".
  57. ^ Gardner, 1992, p. 36, ill. 21, 25–27, 31.
  58. ^ a b c Frothingham, A. L., Jr. (1891). "Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. III. Two Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus Oderisi". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 7(1/2): 38.
  59. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 132–135.
  60. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 34–38.
  61. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 109.
  62. ^ An illustration of the nineteenth century Tomb of Pope John XXI can be found in: Daly, Walter J. (2004). "An Earlier De Motu Cordis". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Vol. 115.
  63. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 111.
  64. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 97–99.
  65. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 115.
  66. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 116.
  67. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 118.
  68. ^ Kington, Tom (14 April 2009). "Italy earthquake focus shifts to saving Abruzzo's heritage". The Guardian.
  69. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 106–108, 111–112.
  70. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 120–121.
  71. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 88, 124–130.
  72. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 176–179.
  73. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 167–172.
  74. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 126.
  75. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 139.
  76. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 183–184.
  77. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 186.
  78. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 195–196.
  79. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 190–194.
  80. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 203. As seen in Acta Sanctorum.
  81. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 204–207.
  82. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 133.
  83. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 147.
  84. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 137.
  85. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 141–142.
  86. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 145.
  87. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 18.
  88. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 149.
  89. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 152.
  90. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 153.
  91. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 156.
  92. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 161.
  93. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 163.
  94. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 167.
  95. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 173.
  96. ^ a b c Reardon, 2004, p. 177.
  97. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 177–178.
  98. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 179.
  99. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 182.
  100. ^ Reardon, 2004, 182.
  101. ^ Reardon, 2004, 185–186.
  102. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 186.
  103. ^ Aldrich, Robert, and Wotherspoon, Garry. (2002). Who's who in gay and lesbian history. Routledge. p. 278.
  104. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 187–188.
  105. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 188.
  106. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 189.
  107. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 191.
  108. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195.
  109. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195–197.
  110. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 198.
  111. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 199.
  112. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 201.
  113. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 204.
  114. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 206.
  115. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 207.
  116. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 208–209.
  117. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 211.
  118. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 211–213.
  119. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 213.
  120. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 215.
  121. ^ Olszewski, Edward J. (2004). Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni (1667–1740) and the Vatican tomb of Pope Alexander VIII. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87169-252-8.
  122. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218.
  123. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218–219.
  124. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 219.
  125. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 221.
  126. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 223.
  127. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 224–225.
  128. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 227.
  129. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 229.
  130. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 229–232.
  131. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 232–233.
  132. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 235.
  133. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 239.
  134. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 240.
  135. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 243.
  136. ^ Fodors. 2009, May 24 (accessed). "Basilica di San Pietro Archived 2009-05-08 at the Wayback Machine."
  137. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 246.
  138. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 249.

References

  • Gardner, Julian (1992), The Tomb and the Tiara, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-817510-0
  • Mann, H. K. (2003), Tombs and Portraits of the Popes of the Middle Ages, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7661-2903-0
  • Reardon, Wendy J. (2004), The Deaths of the Popes, Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7864-1527-4
  • Webb, Matilda (2001), The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome: a comprehensive guide, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-902210-57-5

External links

Funerary art

Funerary art is any work of art forming, or placed in, a repository for the remains of the dead. The term encompasses a wide variety of forms, including cenotaphs ("empty tombs"), tomb-like monuments which do not contain human remains, and communal memorials to the dead, such as war memorials, which may or may not contain remains, and a range of prehistoric megalithic constructs. Funerary art may serve many cultural functions. It can play a role in burial rites, serve as an article for use by the dead in the afterlife, and celebrate the life and accomplishments of the dead, whether as part of kinship-centred practices of ancestor veneration or as a publicly directed dynastic display. It can also function as a reminder of the mortality of humankind, as an expression of cultural values and roles, and help to propitiate the spirits of the dead, maintaining their benevolence and preventing their unwelcome intrusion into the lives of the living.

The deposit of objects with an apparent aesthetic intention is found in almost all cultures—Hindu culture, which has little, is a notable exception. Many of the best-known artistic creations of past cultures—from the Egyptian pyramids and the Tutankhamun treasure, to the Terracotta Army surrounding the tomb of the Qin Emperor, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Sutton Hoo ship burial and the Taj Mahal—are tombs or objects found in and around them. In most instances, specialized funeral art was produced for the powerful and wealthy, although the burials of ordinary people might include simple monuments and grave goods, usually from their possessions.

An important factor in the development of traditions of funerary art is the division between what was intended to be visible to visitors or the public after completion of the funeral ceremonies. The treasure of the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Tutankhamun, for example, though exceptionally lavish, was never intended to be seen again after it was deposited, while the exterior of the pyramids was a permanent and highly effective demonstration of the power of their creators. A similar division can be seen in grand East Asian tombs. In other cultures, nearly all the art connected with the burial, except for limited grave goods, was intended for later viewing by the public or at least those admitted by the custodians. In these cultures, traditions such as the sculpted sarcophagus and tomb monument of the Greek and Roman empires, and later the Christian world, have flourished. The mausoleum intended for visiting was the grandest type of tomb in the classical world, and later common in Islamic culture.

List of non-extant papal tombs

This is a list of non-extant papal tombs, which includes tombs not included on the list of extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain.

Chronologically, the main locations of destroyed or unknown papal tombs have been: the obscure tombs of the first two centuries of popes near Saint Peter, the repeated waves of translations from the Catacombs of Rome, the demolition of the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica, and the 1306 and 1361 fires in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

Papal tombs have also been destroyed by other instances of fire, remodeling, and war (most recently, World War II). Others are unknown due to creative or geographically remote methods of martyrdom, or—in the case of Pope Clement I—both. Burial in churches outside the Aurelian Walls of Rome (Italian: fuori le Mura)—in the basilicas of Paul or Lorenzo—have not generally survived.

Tomb

A tomb (from Greek: τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called immurement, and is a method of final disposition, as an alternative to for example cremation or burial.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Culture

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