List of ethnic groups in China

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, the area claimed by both the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Han (汉) people are the largest ethnic group in mainland China. In 2010, 91.51% of the population were classified as Han (~1.2 billion)[1]. Besides the Han-Chinese majority, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).[2]

There are also undistinguished ethnic groups, for example: Chuanqing Ren (穿青人).

Ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of China

Here are the 56 ethnic groups (listed by population) officially recognized by the People's Republic of China (39 in 1954; 54 by 1964; with the addition of the Jino people in 1979).[3]

English Name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Mandarin Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
2010 National Shares 2010 PopulationB
2000 PopulationB
1990 PopulationB
Year of recognitionC
Han1 Han HA Hàn Zú 汉族 91.6474% 1,220,844,520 1,139,773,008 1,042,482,187 1954
Zhuang Zhuang ZH Zhuàng Zú 壮族 1.2700% 16,926,381 16,187,163 15,489,630 1954
Hui2 Hui HU Huí Zú 回族 0.7943% 10,586,087 9,828,126 8,602,978 1954
Manchu Man MA Mǎn Zú 满族 0.7794% 10,387,958 10,708,464 9,821,180 1954
Uyghur Uygur UG Wéiwú'ěr Zú 维吾尔族 0.7555% 10,069,346 8,405,416 7,214,431 1954
Miao (includes Hmong)3 Miao MH Miáo Zú 苗族 0.7072% 9,426,007 8,945,538 7,398,035 1954
Yi Yi YI Yí Zú 彝族 0.6538% 8,714,393 7,765,858 6,572,173 1954
Tujia Tujia TJ Tǔjiā Zú 土家族 0.6268% 8,353,912 8,037,014 5,704,223 1964
Tibetan4 Zang ZA Zàng Zú 藏族 0.4713% 6,282,187 5,422,954 4,593,330 1954
Mongol Mongol MG Měnggǔ Zú 蒙古族 0.4488% 5,981,840 5,827,808 4,806,849 1954
Dong5 Dong DO Dòng Zú 侗族 0.2161% 2,879,974 2,962,911 2,514,014 1954
Bouyei Bouyei BY Bùyī Zú 布依族 0.2153% 2,870,034 2,973,217 2,545,059 1954
Yao Yao YA Yáo Zú 瑶族 0.2098% 2,796,003 2,638,878 2,134,013 1954
Bai Bai BA Bái Zú 白族 0.1451% 1,933,510 1,861,895 1,594,827 1954
Korean Chosŏn CS Cháoxiǎn Zú 朝鲜族 0.1374% 1,830,929 1,929,696 1,920,597 1954
Hani6 Hani HN Hāní Zú 哈尼族 0.1246% 1,660,932 1,440,029 1,253,952 1954
Li Li LI Lí Zú 黎族 0.1098% 1,463,064 1,248,022 1,110,900 1954
Kazakh Kazak KZ Hāsàkè Zú 哈萨克族 0.1097% 1,462,588 1,251,023 1,111,718 1954
Dai7 Dai DA Dǎi Zú 傣族 0.0946% 1,261,311 1,159,231 1,025,128 1954
She She SH Shē Zú 畲族 0.0532% 708,651 710,039 630,378 1964
Lisu Lisu LS Lìsù Zú 傈僳族 0.0527% 702,839 635,101 574,856 1954
Dongxiang Dongxiang DX Dōngxiāng Zú 东乡族 0.0466% 621,500 513,826 373,872 1954
Gelao Gelao GL Gēlǎo Zú 仡佬族 0.0413% 550,746 579,744 437,997 1964
Lahu Lahu LH Lāhù Zú 拉祜族 0.0365% 485,966 453,765 411,476 1954
Wa Wa WA Wǎ Zú 佤族 0.0322% 429,709 396,709 351,974 1954
Sui Sui SU Shuǐ Zú 水族 0.0309% 411,847 407,000 345,993 1954
Nakhi8 Naxi NX Nàxī Zú 纳西族 0.0245% 326,295 309,477 278,009 1954
Qiang Qiang QI Qiāng Zú 羌族 0.0232% 309,576 306,476 198,252 1954
Tu Tu TU Tǔ Zú 土族 0.0217% 289,565 241,593 191,624 1954
Mulao9 Mulao ML Mùlǎo Zú 仫佬族 0.0162% 216,257 207,464 159,328 1964
Xibe Xibe XB Xībó Zú 锡伯族 0.0143% 190,481 189,357 172,847 1954
Kyrgyz Kirgiz KG Kē'ěrkèzī Zú 柯尔克孜族 0.0140% 186,708 160,875 141,549 1954
Jingpo10 Jingpo JP Jǐngpō Zú 景颇族 0.0111% 147,828 132,158 119,209 1954
Daur Daur DU Dáwò'ěr Zú 达斡尔族 0.0099% 131,992 132,747 121,357 1964
Salar Salar SL Sālā Zú 撒拉族 0.0098% 130,607 104,521 87,697 1954
Blang Blang BL Bùlǎng Zú 布朗族 0.0090% 119,639 91,891 82,280 1964
Maonan11 Maonan MN Máonán Zú 毛南族 0.0076% 101,192 107,184 71,968 1964
Tajik12 Tajik TA Tǎjíkè Zú 塔吉克族 0.0038% 51,069 41,056 33,538 1954
Pumi Pumi PM Pǔmǐ Zú 普米族 0.0032% 42,861 33,628 29,657 1964
Achang Achang AC Āchāng Zú 阿昌族 0.0030% 39,555 33,954 27,708 1964
Nu Nu NU Nù Zú 怒族 0.0028% 37,523 28,770 27,123 1964
Evenki Ewenki EW Èwēnkè Zú 鄂温克族 0.0023% 30,875 30,545 26,315 1954
Gin13 Gin GI Jīng Zú 京族 0.0021% 28,199 22,584 18,915 1964
Jino Jino JN Jīnuò Zú 基诺族 0.0017% 23,143 20,899 18,021 1979
De'ang14 Deang DE Dé'áng Zú 德昂族 0.0015% 20,556 17,935 15,462 1964
Bonan Bonan BO Bǎo'ān Zú 保安族 0.0015% 20,074 16,505 12,212 1954
Russian Russ RS Éluósī Zú 俄罗斯族 0.0012% 15,393 15,631 13,504 1954
Yugur Yugur YG Yùgù Zú 裕固族 0.0011% 14,378 13,747 12,297 1954
Uzbek Uzbek UZ Wūzībiékè Zú 乌孜别克族 0.0008% 10,569 12,423 14,502 1954
Monba Monba MB Ménbā Zú 门巴族 0.0008% 10,561 8,928 7,475 1964
Oroqen Oroqen OR Èlúnchūn Zú 鄂伦春族 0.0006% 8,659 8,216 6,965 1954
Derung Derung DR Dúlóng Zú 独龙族 0.0005% 6,930 7,431 5,816 1964
Hezhen15 Hezhen HZ Hèzhé Zú 赫哲族 0.0004% 5,354 4,664 4,245 1964
Gaoshan16 Gaoshan GS Gāoshān Zú 高山族 0.0003% 4,009 4,488 2,909 1954
Lhoba Lhoba LB Luòbā Zú 珞巴族 0.0003% 3,682 2,970 2,312 1965
Tatars Tatar TT Tǎtǎ'ěr Zú 塔塔尔族 0.0003% 3,556 4,895 4,873 1954
Undistinguished none Wèi Shìbié Mínzú 未识别民族 0.0480% 640,101 734,438 749,341
Naturalized Citizen none Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí 外国人加入中国籍 0.0001% 1,448 941 3,421

AGB 3304-91 "Names of ethnicities of China in romanization with codes";[4]
BThe population only includes mainland China and Taiwan;
CFor ethnic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954[5] and 1964;[6]
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong (Thus, Hmong peoples worldwide are NOT only Miao);
4including Amdowa and Khampa, as well as roughly half of Pumi speakers, the remainder of whom are classified as a separate Pumi ethnicity;
5Also known as Kam;
6Also included are the Sangkong;
7This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi [in fact, the Dai nationalities are actually speakers of Shan languages varieties -for example : Tai Lue and Tai Nuea peoples are actually Shan peoples subgroups]. Although that, the speakers of Bumang are also included in this Dai nationality. ;
8Also included are the Mosuo;
9Also included are the Qago (木佬人);
10Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
11Also included are the Then;
12Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
13The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
14Known as Palaung in Myanmar;
15The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
16A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan. In fact, the numbers of Gaoshan in census covers only for those who lives in Mainland China (mainly in Fujian) and consists of Amis (autonym : Pangcah), Paiwan and Bunun peoples

Taiwanese aborigines

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民族; pinyin: Yuánzhùmínzú), as Gaoshan (Chinese: 高山族; pinyin: Gāoshānzú), whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 16 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan.[7] Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.

Taiwanese Han "blood nationalists" have in the past claimed that they have Plains Aboriginal (Chinese: 平埔族; pinyin: Píngpuzú), ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence, claiming an identity different from that of mainland Chinese. However, genetic tests showed differences between them and plains aborigines, and given that they usually were recent migrants, their claims were rejected by descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.[8]

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groups

Beijing-Niujie-Minzu-Tuanjie-Da-Jiating-3666
Part of a poster in Beijing showing the 56 ethnic groups of China

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

  • Äynu people (艾努人 Àinǔ rén)
  • Gejia (Gě-chinese.svg家人 Gèjiā rén)
  • Bajia (八甲人 Bājiǎ rén)
  • Deng (僜人 Dèng rén)
  • Hu (户人 Hù rén)
  • Khmu (克木人 Kèmù rén)
  • Kucong (Yellow Lahu / Lahu Shi; 苦聪人 / 苦聰人 Kǔcōng rén)
  • Mang (芒人 Máng rén)
  • Sherpas (夏尔巴人 / 夏爾巴人 Xià'ěrbā rén)
  • Tankas (疍家人 / 蜑家人 Dànjiā rén) including Fuzhou Tanka
  • Tebbu people (迭部人 Diébù rén)
  • Tuvans (图瓦人 Túwǎ rén)
  • Waxiang (瓦乡人 Wǎxiāng rén)
  • Jews (犹太人 / 猶太人 Yóutài rén) (Jewish people of China and Jews in general)
  • Yamatos (大和民族 Dàhé mínzú) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族 Liúqiú mínzú) living as permanent residents in Taiwan and Northeast China
  • Macanese (土生葡人 Tǔshēng pú rén), mixed race Catholic Portuguese speakers who lived in Macau since 16th century of various ethnic origins
  • Utsuls (回辉人 Huíhuī rén), descendants of Cham Muslims who fled Vietnamese invasions of Champa
  • Yakuts (雅库特人 Yǎ kù tè rén)
  • Teleuts(铁列乌特人 Tiě liè wū tè rén)
  • Kalmyks (卡尔梅克人 Kǎ'ěr méi kè rén)

During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups".[9] Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or Southeast Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Nepalese, and Pakistanis) live in Hong Kong.

Gallery

Yellow and green hanfu

Han

Hui man

Hui

Yi woman in traditional dressing

Yi

See also

References

  1. ^ "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  2. ^ "index". www.stats.gov.cn.
  3. ^ 胡鸿保; 张丽梅 (2009). 民族识别原则的变化与民族人口. Southwest University for Nationalities University Press.
  4. ^ GB 3304-91 Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes.
  5. ^ First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  6. ^ Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  7. ^ 曹晓轩. "高山族_中国概况_中国政府网". www.gov.cn.
  8. ^ Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its implications for Taiwan identity (Ph.D.). STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  9. ^ 第五次人口普查数据(2000年). 表1—6. 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口 ( Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000). Table 1-6: Population of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities by ethnicity). (in Chinese)

External links

Bouyei people

The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix [puʔjai], or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; Chinese: 布依族; pinyin: Bùyīzú; Vietnamese: người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Some Bouyei also live in Vietnam, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves Zhuang (Tai peoples).The Bouyei live in semi-tropical, high-altitude forests of Guizhou province, as well as in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and speak a Tai language.

Chindia

Chindia is a portmanteau word that refers to China and India together in general. The credit of coining the now popular term goes to Indian Member of Parliament Jairam Ramesh. China and India share long borders, are both regarded as growing countries and are both among the fastest growing major economies in the world. Together, they contain over one-third of the world's population (nearly 2.7 billion). They have been named as countries with the highest potential for growth in the next 50 years in a BRIC report. BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China.

Chinese Tatars

The Chinese Tatars (simplified Chinese: 塔塔尔族; traditional Chinese: 塔塔爾族; pinyin: Tǎtǎ'ěrzú; Tatar: Cyrillic Кытай татарлары, Latin Qıtay tatarları) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

Their ancestors are Volga Tatars tradesmen who settled mostly in Xinjiang and Crimean Tatars who suffered from Joseph Stalin's expulsion at 1940s.

The number of Chinese Tatars stood at 3,556 as of the year 2010, and they live mainly in the cities of Yining, Tacheng, and Ürümqi in Xinjiang. Their titular homeland is Daquan Tatar Village in Qitai County of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang.Chinese Tatars speak an archaic variant of the Tatar language, free from 20th-century loanwords and use the Arabic variant of the Tatar alphabet, which declined in the USSR in the 1930s. Being surrounded by speakers of other Turkic languages, Chinese Tatar partially reverses the Tatar high vowel inversion. They do not have a writing system.Chinese Tatars are Sunni Muslims.Jadid schools were founded in Xinjiang for Chinese Tatars.

Chinese nationality

Chinese nationality may refer to:

Chinese nationality law, the law which defines who is or may become a PRC national

Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport, passport issued to PRC nationals with permanent residence in Hong Kong

Macao Special Administrative Region passport, passport issued to PRC nationals with permanent residence in the Macau

Taiwanese nationality law, the law which defines who is or may become an ROC national

Zhonghua minzu, (English: "Chinese nation" or "Chinese race"), a key political term in modern Chinese history

Chinese nationalism, form of nationalism which promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese

Chinese people, the various individuals or groups of people associated with China

Chinese Nation, a thought experiment in the philosophy of mind

Ethnic Chinese (disambiguation)

Ethnic Chinese or Han Chinese is the dominant ethnic group in greater China

Ethnic Chinese may also refer to:

Overseas Chinese, people of Chinese birth or descent living outside greater China, mostly but not entirely comprising Han Chinese

Zhonghua minzu, the umbrella term to refer to all ethnic groups native to China

Ethnic groups in Chinese history

Ethnic groups in Chinese history refer to various or presumed ethnicities of significance to the history of China, gathered through the study of Classical Chinese literature, Chinese and non-Chinese literary sources and inscriptions, historical linguistics, and archaeological research.

Among the difficulties in the study of ethnic groups in China are the relatively long periods of time involved, together with the large volume of literary and historical records which have accompanied the history of China. Classical Chinese ethnography (like much premodern ethnography) was often sketchy, leaving it unclear as to whether Chinese-depicted names referred to a true ethnic group or a possibly multiethnic political entity. Even then, ethnonyms were sometimes assigned by geographic location or surrounding features, rather than by any features of the people themselves, and often carried little distinction of who the Han Chinese authors considered Chinese and non-Chinese for differences such as lifestyle, language, or governance. Many of the ethnonyms were historically used in such a way as to invite comparison with the word barbarian.

Ethnic issues in China

Ethnic issues in China arise from Chinese history, nationalism, and other factors. They have driven historical movements such as the Red Turban Rebellion (which targeted the Mongol leadership of the Yuan Dynasty) and the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Manchu Qing Dynasty. Ethnic tensions have led to incidents in the country such as the July 2009 Ürümqi riots.

Ethnic minorities in China

Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in China. China officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority. As of 2010, the combined population of officially recognized minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these officially recognized ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who privately classify themselves as members of unrecognized ethnic groups (such as Jewish, Tuvan, Oirat, Ili Turki, and Japanese).

The ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan officially recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, and figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories.

By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as zhonghua minzu. Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "shaoshu minzu".

History of Central Asia

The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people has been determined primarily by the area's climate and geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppe dominated the area for millennia.

Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, due to the devastating techniques and ability of their horse archers. Periodically, tribal leaders or changing conditions would organise several tribes into a single military force, which would then often launch campaigns of conquest, especially into more 'civilised' areas. A few of these types of tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, various Turkic migrations into Transoxiana, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia.

The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century as firearms allowed settled people to gain control of the region. The Russian Empire, the Qing dynasty of China, and other powers expanded into the area and seized the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union incorporated most of Central Asia; only Mongolia and Afghanistan remained nominally independent, although Mongolia existed as a Soviet satellite state and Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in the late 20th century. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialisation and construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, five Central Asian countries gained independence — Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. In all of the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen.

List of contemporary ethnic groups

The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Minzu

Minzu can refer to:

Ethnic minorities in China (Chinese: shǎoshù mínzú)

See also: List of ethnic groups in China

Minzu University of China

Minzu railway station (Inner Mongolia), on the Beijing–Baotou railway

Minzu railway station (Taiwan), on the Pingtung line in Kaohsiung

Minzu Township (民族乡) in Li County, Gansu, in China

Mosuo

The Mosuo (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō; also spelled Moso or Musuo), often called the Na among themselves, are a small ethnic group living in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China, close to the border with Tibet. Consisting of a population of approximately 40,000, many of them live in the Yongning region, around Lugu Lake, in Labai, in Muli, and in Yanyuan, located high in the Himalayas (27°42′35.30″N 100°47′4.04″E).

Although the Mosuo are culturally distinct from the Nakhi (Naxi), the Chinese government places them as members of the Nakhi minority. The Nakhi are about 320,000 people spread throughout different provinces in China. Their culture has been documented by indigenous scholars Lamu Gatusa, Latami Dashi, Yang Lifen and He Mei.

State Ethnic Affairs Commission

The State Ethnic Affairs Commission of the People's Republic of China (SEAC) is a cabinet-level department under the State Council of the People's Republic of China and responsible for relations between the Central Government and ethnic minorities in China. In 2018, SEAC was placed under the leadership of the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China.

Yuanshi society

Yuanshi society (原始社會) is a term to describe the early ancient tribal society around the time of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors era in ancient Chinese history and mythology. The term literally means "primitive society".

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