The Han (汉) people are the largest ethnic group in mainland China. In 2010, 91.51% of the population were classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Besides the Han-Chinese majority, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.
The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).
There are also undistinguished ethnic groups, for example: Chuanqing Ren (穿青人).
||2010 National Shares||2010 PopulationB
||Year of recognitionC|
|Miao (includes Hmong)3||Miao||MH||Miáo Zú||苗族||0.7072%||9,426,007||8,945,538||7,398,035||1954|
|Undistinguished||—||none||Wèi Shìbié Mínzú||未识别民族||0.0480%||640,101||734,438||749,341||—|
|Naturalized Citizen||—||none||Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí||外国人加入中国籍||0.0001%||1,448||941||3,421||—|
AGB 3304－91 "Names of ethnicities of China in romanization with codes";
BThe population only includes mainland China and Taiwan;
CFor ethnic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954 and 1964;
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong (Thus, Hmong peoples worldwide are NOT only Miao);
4including Amdowa and Khampa, as well as roughly half of Pumi speakers, the remainder of whom are classified as a separate Pumi ethnicity;
5Also known as Kam;
6Also included are the Sangkong;
7This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi [in fact, the Dai nationalities are actually speakers of Shan languages varieties -for example : Tai Lue and Tai Nuea peoples are actually Shan peoples subgroups]. Although that, the speakers of Bumang are also included in this Dai nationality. ;
8Also included are the Mosuo;
9Also included are the Qago (木佬人);
10Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
11Also included are the Then;
12Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
13The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
14Known as Palaung in Myanmar;
15The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
16A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan. In fact, the numbers of Gaoshan in census covers only for those who lives in Mainland China (mainly in Fujian) and consists of Amis (autonym : Pangcah), Paiwan and Bunun peoples
The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民族; pinyin: Yuánzhùmínzú), as Gaoshan (Chinese: 高山族; pinyin: Gāoshānzú), whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 16 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan. Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.
Plains Aboriginal (Chinese: 平埔族; pinyin: Píngpuzú), ancestry in order to promote Taiwan independence, claiming an identity different from that of mainland Chinese. However, genetic tests showed differences between them and plains aborigines, and given that they usually were recent migrants, their claims were rejected by descendants of Taiwanese Plains Aborigines.have in the past claimed that they have
During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups". Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.
Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or Southeast Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indians, Indonesians, Nepalese, and Pakistanis) live in Hong Kong.
The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix [puʔjai], or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman"; Chinese: 布依族; pinyin: Bùyīzú; Vietnamese: người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China. Numbering 2.5 million, they are the 11th largest of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Some Bouyei also live in Vietnam, where they are one of that nation's 54 officially recognized ethnic groups. Despite the Chinese considering them a separate group, they consider themselves Zhuang (Tai peoples).The Bouyei live in semi-tropical, high-altitude forests of Guizhou province, as well as in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, and speak a Tai language.Chindia
Chindia is a portmanteau word that refers to China and India together in general. The credit of coining the now popular term goes to Indian Member of Parliament Jairam Ramesh. China and India share long borders, are both regarded as growing countries and are both among the fastest growing major economies in the world. Together, they contain over one-third of the world's population (nearly 2.7 billion). They have been named as countries with the highest potential for growth in the next 50 years in a BRIC report. BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China.Chinese Tatars
The Chinese Tatars (simplified Chinese: 塔塔尔族; traditional Chinese: 塔塔爾族; pinyin: Tǎtǎ'ěrzú; Tatar: Cyrillic Кытай татарлары, Latin Qıtay tatarları) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Their ancestors are Volga Tatars tradesmen who settled mostly in Xinjiang and Crimean Tatars who suffered from Joseph Stalin's expulsion at 1940s.
The number of Chinese Tatars stood at 3,556 as of the year 2010, and they live mainly in the cities of Yining, Tacheng, and Ürümqi in Xinjiang. Their titular homeland is Daquan Tatar Village in Qitai County of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang.Chinese Tatars speak an archaic variant of the Tatar language, free from 20th-century loanwords and use the Arabic variant of the Tatar alphabet, which declined in the USSR in the 1930s. Being surrounded by speakers of other Turkic languages, Chinese Tatar partially reverses the Tatar high vowel inversion. They do not have a writing system.Chinese Tatars are Sunni Muslims.Jadid schools were founded in Xinjiang for Chinese Tatars.Chinese nationality
Chinese nationality may refer to:
Chinese nationality law, the law which defines who is or may become a PRC national
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport, passport issued to PRC nationals with permanent residence in Hong Kong
Macao Special Administrative Region passport, passport issued to PRC nationals with permanent residence in the Macau
Taiwanese nationality law, the law which defines who is or may become an ROC national
Zhonghua minzu, (English: "Chinese nation" or "Chinese race"), a key political term in modern Chinese history
Chinese nationalism, form of nationalism which promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese
Chinese people, the various individuals or groups of people associated with China
Chinese Nation, a thought experiment in the philosophy of mindEthnic Chinese (disambiguation)
Ethnic Chinese or Han Chinese is the dominant ethnic group in greater China
Ethnic Chinese may also refer to:
Overseas Chinese, people of Chinese birth or descent living outside greater China, mostly but not entirely comprising Han Chinese
Zhonghua minzu, the umbrella term to refer to all ethnic groups native to ChinaEthnic groups in Chinese history
Ethnic groups in Chinese history refer to various or presumed ethnicities of significance to the history of China, gathered through the study of Classical Chinese literature, Chinese and non-Chinese literary sources and inscriptions, historical linguistics, and archaeological research.
Among the difficulties in the study of ethnic groups in China are the relatively long periods of time involved, together with the large volume of literary and historical records which have accompanied the history of China. Classical Chinese ethnography (like much premodern ethnography) was often sketchy, leaving it unclear as to whether Chinese-depicted names referred to a true ethnic group or a possibly multiethnic political entity. Even then, ethnonyms were sometimes assigned by geographic location or surrounding features, rather than by any features of the people themselves, and often carried little distinction of who the Han Chinese authors considered Chinese and non-Chinese for differences such as lifestyle, language, or governance. Many of the ethnonyms were historically used in such a way as to invite comparison with the word barbarian.Ethnic issues in China
Ethnic issues in China arise from Chinese history, nationalism, and other factors. They have driven historical movements such as the Red Turban Rebellion (which targeted the Mongol leadership of the Yuan Dynasty) and the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Manchu Qing Dynasty. Ethnic tensions have led to incidents in the country such as the July 2009 Ürümqi riots.Ethnic minorities in China
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in China. China officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority. As of 2010, the combined population of officially recognized minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these officially recognized ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who privately classify themselves as members of unrecognized ethnic groups (such as Jewish, Tuvan, Oirat, Ili Turki, and Japanese).
The ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan officially recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, and figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories.
By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as zhonghua minzu. Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "shaoshu minzu".History of Central Asia
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people has been determined primarily by the area's climate and geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppe dominated the area for millennia.
Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were marked by conflict. The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, due to the devastating techniques and ability of their horse archers. Periodically, tribal leaders or changing conditions would organise several tribes into a single military force, which would then often launch campaigns of conquest, especially into more 'civilised' areas. A few of these types of tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, various Turkic migrations into Transoxiana, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia.
The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century as firearms allowed settled people to gain control of the region. The Russian Empire, the Qing dynasty of China, and other powers expanded into the area and seized the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union incorporated most of Central Asia; only Mongolia and Afghanistan remained nominally independent, although Mongolia existed as a Soviet satellite state and Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in the late 20th century. The Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialisation and construction of infrastructure, but also the suppression of local cultures and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, five Central Asian countries gained independence — Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. In all of the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen.List of contemporary ethnic groups
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.
By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.Minzu
Minzu can refer to:
Ethnic minorities in China (Chinese: shǎoshù mínzú)
See also: List of ethnic groups in China
Minzu University of China
Minzu railway station (Inner Mongolia), on the Beijing–Baotou railway
Minzu railway station (Taiwan), on the Pingtung line in Kaohsiung
Minzu Township (民族乡) in Li County, Gansu, in ChinaMosuo
The Mosuo (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō; also spelled Moso or Musuo), often called the Na among themselves, are a small ethnic group living in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China, close to the border with Tibet. Consisting of a population of approximately 40,000, many of them live in the Yongning region, around Lugu Lake, in Labai, in Muli, and in Yanyuan, located high in the Himalayas (27°42′35.30″N 100°47′4.04″E).
Although the Mosuo are culturally distinct from the Nakhi (Naxi), the Chinese government places them as members of the Nakhi minority. The Nakhi are about 320,000 people spread throughout different provinces in China. Their culture has been documented by indigenous scholars Lamu Gatusa, Latami Dashi, Yang Lifen and He Mei.State Ethnic Affairs Commission
The State Ethnic Affairs Commission of the People's Republic of China (SEAC) is a cabinet-level department under the State Council of the People's Republic of China and responsible for relations between the Central Government and ethnic minorities in China. In 2018, SEAC was placed under the leadership of the United Front Work Department of the Communist Party of China.Yuanshi society
Yuanshi society (原始社會) is a term to describe the early ancient tribal society around the time of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors era in ancient Chinese history and mythology. The term literally means "primitive society".
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by the central government
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by a local government
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