List of earthquakes in Italy

This is a list of earthquakes in Italy.

Map of earthquakes in Italy
Map of earthquakes in Italy 1900-2017
EQs 1900-2016 mediterranean tsum
Earthquakes M5.5+ (1900-2016) Mediterranean

Geology

Italy lies on the southern extent of the Eurasian Plate, which is surrounded by the Aegean Sea Plate, the Adriatic Plate, and the Anatolian Plate. The Apennine Mountains contain numerous faults that run along the entire Italian peninsula and form the majority of the destructive boundary between the Eurasian and the Adriatic plates, thus causing Italy to have high amounts of tectonic activity. In addition, Sicily and Calabria are located near the boundary where the African plate is subducting below the Eurasian plate, which was responsible for forming the stratovolcano known as Mount Etna.

List of earthquakes

Date Region Mag. I Deaths Injuries Notes
2017-08-21 Campania 4.2 Mw V–VI 2 42
2017-01-18 Abruzzo, Lazio 5.7 Mw VIII 34 29 Sequence
2016-10-30 Umbria 6.6 Mw IX 3 (indirect) Dozens Sequence / extensive damage
2016-08-24 Lazio, Umbria, Marche 6.2 Mw IX 299 >400
2013-06-21 Tuscany 5.2 Mw V 4 [1][2]
2012-05-29 Emilia-Romagna 5.8 Mw VII 20 350
2012-05-20 Emilia-Romagna 6.1 Mw VII 5 (+2 indirect) 50
2009-04-06 L'Aquila 6.3 Mw VIII 309 1,500+ Severe damage
2004-11-24 Lombardy, Salò 5.1 Mw VII–VIII * 9 Many buildings damaged [3]
2003-09-14 Emilia-Romagna 5.3 Mw VII Some 10 buildings damaged [4]
2003-04-11 Piedmont, Alessandria 5.0 Mb VI * 2 [5]
2003-01-26 Emilia-Romagna 4.7 Mb VII Buildings damaged [6]
2002-11-01 Molise 5.8 Mw 3 Doublet / additional damage [7]
2002-10-31 Molise 5.9 30 Doublet
2002-09-06 Sicily 6.0 Mw 2 20 Heart attacks / damage [8]
2001-11-26 Tuscany, Arezzo 4.6 Mb V–VI * Buildings damaged [9]
2001-07-17 Trentino-Alto Adige 4.7 Mw VI * 3 3 Landslides [10]
2000-08-21 Piedmont, Asti 4.9 Mw VI * Buildings damaged [11]
1998-09-09 Basilicata, Calabria 5.6 Mw VI–VII * 2 12 Buildings damaged [12]
1997-09-26 Umbria, Marche 6.1 9 Doublet
1997-09-26 Umbria, Foligno 5.7 2 Doublet
1997-05-12 Umbria, Massa Martana 4.4 Mb VI * Some damage [13]
1991-05-26 Basilicata, Potenza 5.1 Mb VIII A few Minor damage [14]
1990-12-13 Sicily, Augusta 5.6 Mw VII 19 200 Severe damage [15]
1990-05-05 Basilicata, Campania 5.8 Mw VII 2 16 [16]
1987-07-03 Marche, Porto San Giorgio 5.1 Mb VII Damage [17]
1987-05-02 Emilia-Romagna 4.8 Mb VII 1 Several Slight damage [18]
1984-05-07 Abruzzo, Lazio 5.9 Mw VIII 3 100 Extensive damage [19]
1984-04-29 Umbria, Gubbio 5.7 Mw VIII 36 Extensive damage [20]
1983-11-09 Emilia-Romagna 5.1 Mw VIII 100 Some damage [21]
1982-03-21 Basilicata, Maratea 4.8 Mb VI Damage [22]
1980-11-23 Campania, Basilicata 6.9 Mw X 2,483–4,900 7,700–8,934 Extreme damage
1979-09-19 Umbria, Norcia 5.8 Ms 5 5,000 Severe damage NGDC
1978-04-15 Gulf of Patti, Sicily 5.7 Ms 5 Moderate damage NGDC
1978-03-11 Sicily 5.0 Ms 2 2 Moderate damage NGDC
1976-09-15 Friuli 5.9/6.0 8 (+3 indirect) Aftershock
1976-09-11 Friuli 5.8/5.6 2 (indirect) Aftershock
1976-05-06 Friuli 6.5 Mw X 900–978 1700–2400 Extreme damage
1972-06-14 Ancona 4.9 IX Extensive damage / swarm [23]
1972-02-04 Ancona 4.4 VIII Extensive damage / swarm [23]
1971-07-15 Emilia-Romagna 5.2 Mb VIII * 2 Limited damage NGDC
1971-02-06 Lazio 4.6 Mb VIII 24 150 Extreme damage NGDC
1969-08-11 Perugia 4.7 Ms VII 4 Limited damage NGDC
1968-01-15 Western Sicily 5.5 Mw X 231–400 632–1,000 Sequence
1962-08-21 Irpinia, Campania 6.1 IX * 16 Moderate damage NGDC
1943-10-03 Offida, Marche 5.5 Mw IX 15 Very heavy damage [24]
1936-10-18 Cansiglio 5.9 ML IX 19
1930-10-30 Senigallia, Marche 5.9 18
1930-07-23 Irpinia 6.6 Ms X 1,404 4,624–7,000
1920-09-07 Garfagnana 6.4 171 [25]
1917-04-26 Northern Umbria 5.8 20
1915-01-13 L'Aquila 6.7 Mw XI 29,978–32,610 Extreme damage
1914-05-08 Sicily 4.9 Ms X 120 Severe damage NGDC
1908-12-28 Strait of Messina 7.1 Mw XI 75,000–200,000 Extreme damage / tsunami
1907-10-23 Calabria 5.9 Ms VIII–X 158–167 Moderate damage NGDC
1905-09-08 Calabria 7.2 Mw XI 557–2,500 Tsunami
1901-10-30 Salò 5.5 Mw VII–VIII Collapsed buildings [26]
1887-02-23 Liguria 6.2–6.5 >2,000 Significant damage / tsunami [27][28]
1873-06-29 Veneto 6.3 Me IX–X 80
1857-12-16 Basilicata 7.0 Mw XI 10,000 Extreme damage
1805-07-26 Campania, Molise 6.6 Me X 5,573 Extreme damage
1783-02-04 Calabria 7.0 50,000 [25]
1762-10-06 L'Aquila 5.3–6.0 Mw IX Damage [29]
1732-11-29 Campania 6.6 Thousands [30]
1703-02-12 L'Aquila 6.7 XI 2,500–5,000
1703-01-16 Montereale 6.2 VIII
1703-01-14 Norcia 6.7 X 6,240–9,761
1694-09-08 Basilicata 6.9 >6,000
1693-01-11 Sicily, Malta 7.4 Mw XI 60,000
1688-06-05 Sannio 7.0 XI 3,311 Severe damage NGDC
1678-03-04 Venice Associated with the birth of Antonio Vivaldi
1659-11-06 Calabria 2,035 Extreme damage NGDC
1654-07-23 Sorano, Marsica X 600 Severe damage NGDC
1638-06-09 Calabria IX 52 Moderate damage NGDC
1638-03-27 Calabria 7.0 Ms XI 9,581 Extreme damage / tsunami NGDC
1627-07-30 Apulia 6.7 Mw X 5,000 Tsunami
1626-07-30 Naples 70,000
1570-11-17 Ferrara 70–200
1511-03-26 Friuli X 15 Severe damage
1456-12-05 Molise 6.9–7.1 Mw X–XI High intensity over large area [31]
1456-12-30 Benevento 6.6 Mw X–XI Sequence [31]
1349-09-09 L'Aquila X 2,000 Severe damage NGDC
1348-01-25 Friuli 6.9 X 10,000 Extreme damage
1222-12-25 Northern Italy X 12,000 Extreme damage
1169-02-04 Sicily X 15,000–25,000 Severe damage / tsunami
1117-01-03 Italy, Germany VII Severe damage
62-02-05 Campania 5.2–6.1 IX–X Severe damage
Note: The NGDC has records for significant events that go back several thousand years BCE. Added for source diversity, the United States Geological Survey reports are sufficient from the early 1980s to the present. Occasionally, these sources omit the maximum felt intensity. Rovida et al. 2011 can help fill in some of the gaps. Intensity values derived from this source are indicated with an asterisk. The inclusion criteria for adding events are based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described also apply to lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

References

  1. ^ "M 5.2 - 2km SSW of Fivizzano, Italy". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  2. ^ Online, Redazione. "Terremoto in Toscana (magnitudo 5.2): in Lunigiana un migliaio di sfollati". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  3. ^ USGS. "M5.1 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  4. ^ USGS. "M5.3 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  5. ^ USGS. "M5.0 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  6. ^ USGS. "M4.7 - central Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  7. ^ USGS. "M5.8 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  8. ^ USGS. "M6.0 - Sicily, Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  9. ^ USGS. "M4.6 - central Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  10. ^ USGS. "M4.7 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  11. ^ USGS. "M4.9 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  12. ^ USGS. "M5.6 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  13. ^ USGS. "M4.4 - central Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  14. ^ USGS. "M5.1 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  15. ^ USGS. "M5.6 - Sicily, Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  16. ^ USGS. "M5.8 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  17. ^ USGS. "M5.1 - central Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  18. ^ USGS. "M4.8 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  19. ^ USGS. "M5.9 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  20. ^ USGS. "M5.7 - central Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  21. ^ USGS. "M5.1 - northern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  22. ^ USGS. "M4.8 - southern Italy". United States Geological Survey.
  23. ^ a b Kisslinger, C. (1972), "The Ancona, Italy Earthquake Swarm, 1972", Seismological Research Letters, Seismological Society of America, 43 (4): 9–14, doi:10.1785/gssrl.43.4.9
  24. ^ Tertulliani, A.; Castelli, V.; Rossi, A.; Vecchi, M. (2014), "Reappraising a wartime earthquake: the October 3, 1943 event in the southern Marches (central Italy)", Annals of Geophysics, Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 57 (6): 1, 7, 8, doi:10.4401/ag-6645
  25. ^ a b USGS
  26. ^ Pessina, V.; Tertulliani, A.; Romano, C.; Scardia, G. (2013), "The revision of the 30 October 1901 earthquake west of Lake Garda (northern Italy)", Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Instituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, 54 (1): 77, 85, 87, doi:10.4430/bgta0083
  27. ^ Eva, Claudio; Rabinovich, Alexander B. (1 September 1997). "The February 23, 1887 tsunami recorded on the Ligurian Coast, western Mediterranean". Geophysical Research Letters. 24 (17): 2211–2214. Bibcode:1997GeoRL..24.2211E. doi:10.1029/97GL02110.
  28. ^ "Earthquake strikes Mediterranean". Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  29. ^ Tertulliani, A.; Cucci, L.; Rossi, A.; Castelli, V. (2012), "The 6 October 1762 Middle Aterno Valley (L'Aquila, Central Italy) Earthquake: New Constraints and New Insights", Seismological Research Letters, Seismological Society of America, 83 (6): 1071, 1073, 1075, doi:10.1785/0220120048
  30. ^ "Avellino: nel cuore dell'Irpinia sismica" [Avellino: in the heart of the seismic Irpinia] (PDF). Protezione Civile (in Italian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  31. ^ a b Fracassi, U.; Valensise, G. (2007), "Unveiling the sources of the catastrophic 1456 multiple earthquake: hints to an unexplored tectonic mechanism in southern Italy" (PDF), Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 97 (3): 725–748, Bibcode:2007BuSSA..97..725F, doi:10.1785/0120050250

Notes

Further reading

  • Mario Baratta (1901). I terremoti d'Italia [Earthquakes in Italy] (in Italian). Turin: Fratelli Bocca. (includes chronology)

External links

1343 Naples earthquake

The 1343 earthquake struck the Tyrrhenian Sea and Bay of Naples on November 25, 1343. Underground shocks were felt in Naples and caused significant damage and loss of lives. Of major note was a tsunami created by the earthquake which destroyed many ships in Naples and destroyed many ports along the Amalfi Coast including Amalfi itself. The effects of the tsunami were observed by the poet Petrarch, whose ship was forced to return to port, and recorded in the fifth book of his Epistolae familiares.

1348 Friuli earthquake

The 1348 Friuli earthquake, centered in the South Alpine region of Friuli, was felt across Europe on 25 January. The quake hit in the same year that the Great Plague ravaged Italy. According to contemporary sources, it caused considerable damage to structures; churches and houses collapsed, villages were destroyed and foul odors emanated from the earth.

1694 Irpinia–Basilicata earthquake

The 1694 Irpinia–Basilicata earthquake occurred on 8 September. It caused widespread damage in the Basilicata and Apulia regions of what was then the Kingdom of Naples, resulting in more than 6,000 casualties. The earthquake occurred at 11:40 UTC and lasted between 30 and 60 seconds.

1703 Apennine earthquakes

The 1703 Apennine earthquakes were a sequence of three earthquakes of magnitude ≥6 that occurred in the central Apennines of Italy, over a period of 19 days. The epicenters were near Norcia (14 January), Montereale (16 January) and L'Aquila (2 February), showing a southwards progression over about 36 km. These events involved all of the known active faults between Norcia and L'Aquila. A total of about 10,000 people are estimated to have died as a result of these earthquakes, although because of the overlap in areas affected by the three events, casualty numbers remain highly uncertain.

1732 Irpinia earthquake

The 1732 Irpinia earthquake was a seismic event with a magnitude of 6.6 that affected Irpinia and part of Sannio. It occurred on 29 November 1732 at 8:40 AM local time (UTC+1). The epicenter was located in the Campanian Apennines, in the area of the Ufita Valley, which is part of the modern-day Province of Avellino. Around twenty populated areas were destroyed entirely or in part and tens of others were significantly damaged. The number of deaths was estimated to be 1,940. Damage from the earthquake was classified as "severe" (indicating damage between $5 and $24 million USD), and the number of homes destroyed as classified as "many" (indicating between 101 and 1,000 homes). The earthquake had a rating on the modified Mercalli intensity scale of X (extreme).Among the most devastated communities were Mirabella Eclano (which was razed to the ground), Carife, Grottaminarda, and Ariano Irpino. Damage was serious in the provincial capital of Avellino, while in Benevento, there were mainly partial collapses of buildings.

1857 Basilicata earthquake

The 1857 Basilicata earthquake (also known as the Great Neapolitan earthquake) occurred on December 16 in the Basilicata region of Italy southeast of the city of Naples. The epicentre was in Montemurro, on the western border of the modern province of Potenza. Several towns were destroyed, and estimated fatalities were around 10,000. At the time it was the third largest known earthquake, and has been estimated to have been of magnitude 7.0 on the moment magnitude scale.

1873 Alpago earthquake

The 1873 Alpago earthquake occurred near the Italian city of Belluno on June 29 in the geologically active Alpago Valley of the Veneto region; the zone is rated as two on a four-degree risk scale (one being the highest). The 6.3 magnitude quake was rated as IX–X (Violent–Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. Intensities greater than VII (Very strong) were confined to the provinces of Belluno, Treviso and Pordenone.

1905 Calabria earthquake

Striking southern Italy on September 8, the 1905 Calabria earthquake had a moment magnitude of 7.2 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The first major earthquake of the 20th century, it severely damaged parts of Lipari and Messina Province, and killed between 557 and 2,500 people.

1907 Calabria earthquake

On October 23, 1907, a magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Calabria, at a depth of 33.0 km. in the area of Gerace-Siderno, on the southeast coast of Calabria. The event caused 167 deaths and major damage.The epicentral area included only one town (Ferruzzano), where many houses collapsed almost completely, and 158 persons, or 8% of its population, were killed. Ferruzano had been hit as well in the 1905 Calabria earthquake.Almost a month later, on November 17, 1907, the area of Ferruzzano, Brancaleone and Bianco was hit again. On January 23, 1908, the area was hit again by an earthquake. People had to camp in the fields or in nearby subterranean grottos. In Ferruzzano new houses built after the earthquakes of 1905 and 1907 resisted the shocks of the 1908 Messina earthquake.

1915 Avezzano earthquake

The 1915 Avezzano earthquake occurred on 13 January in central Italy at 07:52:42 local time. The shock had a moment magnitude of 6.7 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The epicenter was located in the town of Avezzano (which was destroyed) in the Province of L'Aquila. Around 30,000 direct fatalities and $60 million in damage resulted from the earthquake.

1930 Irpinia earthquake

The 1930 Irpinia earthquake occurred at 00:08 UTC on 23 July, chiefly in an area known as Irpinia. It had a surface wave magnitude of 6.6 and a maximum intensity of X (Very destructive). The event caused 1,404 deaths and 4,624–7,000 injuries. The epicenter was near the boundaries between the regions of Basilicata, Apulia, and Campania.

1936 Cansiglio earthquake

The 1936 Cansiglio earthquake occurred on October 18 in the region between the provinces of Belluno, Treviso and Pordenone, in northern Italy. It caused 19 deaths and an unknown number of injuries.

1968 Belice earthquake

The 1968 Belice earthquake sequence took place in Sicily between 14 and 15 January. The largest shock measured 5.5 on the moment magnitude scale, with five others of magnitude 5+. The maximum perceived intensity was X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake sequence, centred between the towns of Gibellina, Salaparuta and Poggioreale, killed at least 231 people, possibly more than 400, with between 632 and about 1,000 injured and left 100,000 homeless. It is known in Italy as Terremoto del Belice.

1976 Friuli earthquake

The 1976 Friuli earthquake, also known in Italy as Terremoto del Friuli (Friulian earthquake), took place on May 6 with a moment magnitude of 6.5 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock occurred in the Friuli region in northeast Italy near the town of Gemona del Friuli. Up to 978 people were killed, 2,400 were injured, and 157,000 were left homeless.

1997 Umbria and Marche earthquake

The 1997 Umbria and Marche earthquake occurred in the regions of Umbria and Marche, central Italy on the morning of September 26. It was preceded by a foreshock almost as strong as the main quake. The foreshock occurred at 02:33 CEST (00:33 UTC), rated Mw 5.7, and the second – the main shock – occurred at 11:40 CEST (09:40 UTC), rated Mw  6.0. Their epicentre was in Annifo.

There were several thousands of foreshocks and aftershocks from May 1997 to April 1998, more than thirty of which had a magnitude more than 3.5. Eleven people are known to have died following the shocks.

2002 Molise earthquake

The 2002 Molise earthquake hit the Italian regions of Molise and Apulia on 31 October at 10:32:58 (UTC). The shock had a moment magnitude of 5.9 and a depth of 10.0 km (6.2 mi). Most of the victims were killed and injured when a school collapsed in the town of San Giuliano di Puglia: 26 of the 51 schoolchildren died, together with one of their teachers. In particular, none of the nine children in the school's 4th Year (mostly born in 1996) survived.

62 Pompeii earthquake

The 62 Pompeii earthquake occurred on 5 February 62 AD. It had an estimated magnitude of between 5 and 6 and a maximum intensity of IX or X on the Mercalli intensity scale. The towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum were severely damaged. The earthquake may have been a precursor to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, which destroyed the same two towns. The contemporary philosopher and dramatist Seneca the Younger wrote an account of the earthquake in the sixth book of his Naturales quaestiones, entitled De Terrae Motu (Concerning Earthquakes).

L'Aquila earthquake

L'Aquila earthquake may refer to:

1703 L'Aquila earthquake

2009 L'Aquila earthquake

List of earthquakes in Irpinia

This is a list of earthquakes that have occurred in the Italian seismic district of Irpinia since the 15th century. It comprises all of the significant earthquakes whose epicenter was located in Irpinia, not those whose epicenter was outside the area, but may have still have an effect on it. The death toll includes the total number of deaths as a result of the earthquake, not only those that occurred in Irpinia.

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