List of dukes of Gaeta

This is a list of the hypati, patricians, consuls, and dukes of Gaeta. Many of the dates are uncertain and sometimes the status of the rulership, with co-rulers and suzerain–vassal relations, is vague.

Native rule (839–1032)

Anatolian dynasty

Docibilan dynasty

  • Docibilis I (866-906)
  • John I (867–933 or 934), also patrician from 877
  • Docibilis II (914 or 915–954), co–hypatus from 906
  • John II (954–962 or 963), co–duke from 933 or 934, consul
  • Gregory (962 or 963–978)
  • Marinus II (978–984)
  • John III (984–1008), co–duke from 979
  • John IV (1008–1012), co–duke from 991
  • John V (1012–1032), also consul
    • Emilia, grandmother, regent (1012–1027)
    • Leo I, uncle, regent (1017–1023)

Lombard period (1032–1064)

In 1041, Guaimar gave direct control and his title to the count of Aversa. In 1058, Gaeta was made subject to the count of Aversa, by then prince of Capua.

Norman period (1064–1140)

These were vassals of the princes of Capua. Princes Richard I and his son Jordan I used the titles duke and consul from 1058 and 1062 respectively.

In 1140, Gaeta went directly to the king of Sicily, Roger II. Under the Hautevilles and the Hohenstaufen, sovereigns continued issuing coinage as rulers of Gaeta until 1229.

Victory title

In the mid–19th century, the soldier, politician and diplomat Enrico Cialdini (1811–1892) was created Duca di Gaeta by the King of Italy as a victory title in recognition of his role during the Siege of Gaeta (1860).

Duchy of Gaeta

The Duchy of Gaeta was an early medieval state centered on the coastal South Italian city of Gaeta. It began in the early ninth century as the local community began to grow autonomous as Byzantine power lagged in the Mediterranean and the peninsula due to Lombard and Saracen incursions.

The primary source for the history of Gaeta during its ducal period is the Codex Caietanus, a collection of charters preserving Gaetan history better and in greater detail than that of its neighbouring coastal states: Naples, Amalfi, and Sorrento. However, unlike these sister seaports, Gaeta was never a centre of commercial importance. In 778, it was the headquarters from which the patrician of Sicily directed the campaign against the Saracen invaders of Campania.

Normans

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, and Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, and they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries.The Norman dynasty had a major political, cultural and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East. The Normans were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language which is still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands. The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, and under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure.The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after briefly conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which also led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, and Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries.Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, and to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands. The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England, Spain, and Sicily, as well as the various cultural, judicial, and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories.

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