List of countries by military expenditures

This article contains a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year. Military expenditure figures are presented in United States dollars based on either constant or current exchange rates.[1] These results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of each country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next.

2018 Military Expenditures by Country
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2018, in US$ billions, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies
2014 militrary expenditures absolute
Countries by military expenditures (absolute) in 2014, based on data from the World Bank

Total military spending

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2018 fact sheet

The first list is based on the SIPRI fact sheet which includes a list of the world's top 15 military spenders in 2017, based on current market exchange rates.[1]

The second list is based on the 2019 edition of "The Military Balance" published by the (IISS) using average market exchange rates.[2]

List by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
2018 Fact Sheet (for 2017)[1]
SIPRI Military Expenditure Database[3]
List by the International Institute for Strategic Studies
Top 15 Defence Budgets 2018
[4]
Rank Country Spending
(US$ Bn.)
% of GDP
World total 1,739 2.2
01 United States United States 610.0 3.1
02 China China[a] 228.0 1.9
03 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia[a][b] 69.4 10.0
04 Russia Russia 66.3 4.3
05 India India 63.9 2.5
06 France France 57.8 2.3
07 United Kingdom United Kingdom 47.2 1.8
08 Japan Japan 45.4 0.9
09 Germany Germany 44.3 1.2
10 South Korea South Korea 39.2 2.6
11 Brazil Brazil 29.3 1.4
12 Italy Italy 29.2 1.5
13 Australia Australia 27.5 2.0
14 Canada Canada 20.6 1.3
15 Turkey Turkey 18.2 2.2
2019 edition of "The Military Balance" from the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)
Rank Country Spending
(US$ Bn.)
01 United States United States 643.3
02 China China 168.2
03 Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 82.9
04 Russia Russia 63.1
05 India India 57.9
06 United Kingdom United Kingdom 56.1
07 France France 53.4
08 Japan Japan 47.3
09 Germany Germany 45.7
10 South Korea South Korea 39.2
11 Brazil Brazil 28.0
12 Australia Australia 26.6
13 Italy Italy 24.9
14 Israel Israel 21.6
15 Iraq Iraq 19.6

Spending by GDP

Military Expenditures as percent of GDP 2017
Map of military expenditures as a percentage of GDP by country, 2017.[5]

This first list is a list of countries by military expenditure share of GDP—more specifically, a list of the top 15 countries by percentage share in recent years—the amount spent by a nation on its military as a share of its GDP.

The second list presents this as a share of the general government expenditure. The first list is sourced from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017 and from Military Balance 2017 published by International Institute for Strategic Studies for the year 2016. The second list is sourced only from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017.

Military expenditure as a share of GDP

List by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
SIPRI Military Expenditure Database
[6]
List by the International Institute for Strategic Studies
The Military Balance 2017, (for 2016)
[7]
Rank Country % of GDP
1  Oman 12.1
2  Saudi Arabia 10.3
3  Congo 6.2
4  Kuwait 5.8
5  Algeria 5.7
6  Jordan 4.8
7  Israel 4.7
8  Lebanon 4.5
9  Russia 4.3
10  Bahrain 4.1
11  Armenia 4.0
12  Azerbaijan 3.9
12  Iraq 3.9
14  Pakistan 3.5
15  Namibia 3.4
15  Ukraine 3.4
RankCountry% of GDP
01 Oman15.3
02 Afghanistan 14.0
03 Iraq 11.6
04 Saudi Arabia 8.9
05 Congo6.4
06 Algeria 6.3
07 Israel 6.1
08 Bahrain 4.8
09 Russia 4.6
10 Botswana 4.4
10 Jordan 4.4
12 Namibia 4.1
13 Azerbaijan4.0
13 Armenia 4.0
15 Mali 3.9

Military expenditure as a share of government spending

Rank Country % of spending
1  Sudan 30.9
2  Saudi Arabia 30.4
3  Oman 26.3
4  Belarus 25.3
5  Congo 17.9
6  Singapore 17.2
7  Pakistan 16.7
8  Algeria 16.1
9  Iran 15.8
9  Jordan 15.8
11  Lebanon 15.6
12  Armenia 15.5
12  Chad 13.8
14  Mali 12.7
15  Myanmar 12.4
15  South Korea 12.1

Notes

  1. ^ a b SIPRI estimate.
  2. ^ The figures for Saudi Arabia include expenditure for public order and safety and might be slightly overestimated.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (May 2018). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  2. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2019). The Military Balance 2019. London: Routledge. ISBN 1857437667.
  3. ^ "Data for all countries from 1988–2017 in constant (2016) USD (pdf)" (PDF). SIPRI. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  4. ^ "IISS Military Balance 2019".
  5. ^ 2017 data from: "Military expenditure (% of GDP). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute ( SIPRI ), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security". World Bank. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  6. ^ "SIPRI Military Expenditure Database | SIPRI". www.sipri.org. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  7. ^ The Military Balance 2017. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Incorporated, 2017. 2017. p. 19. ISBN 9781857439007.

External links

Defence Forces (Ireland)

The Defence Forces (Irish: Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann), are the military of Ireland. They encompass the Army, Air Corps, Naval Service and Reserve Defence Forces.

The Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces is the President of Ireland. All Defence Forces officers hold their commission from the President, but in practice the Minister for Defence acts on the President's behalf and reports to the Government of Ireland. The Minister for Defence is advised by the Council of Defence on the business of the Department of Defence.

Department of Defence (Ireland)

The Department of Defence (DoD) (Irish: An Roinn Cosanta) is the department of the Government of Ireland that is responsible for preserving peace and security in Ireland. The department is led by the Minister for Defence who is assisted by one Minister of State.

Global Day of Action on Military Spending

Global Day of Action on Military Spending (GDAMS) takes place every year in mid-April. The day was originally proposed by the International Peace Bureau (IPB) and the Institute for Policy Studies (IPS) with the aim of promoting a common awareness of the amounts of money spent on military. Military expenses reach about $1,700 billion each year. On GDAMS groups around the world advocate a shift of budget priorities and promote spending this amount of money on human development.

Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014.The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, in 1976 with the addition of Canada. Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended indefinitely following the annexation of Crimea, whereupon the political forum name reverted to G7. In 2017 Russia announced its permanent withdrawal from the G8. However, several representatives of G7 countries stated that they would be interested in Russia's return to the group. The European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host and chair a summit. Collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised 50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and 40.9 percent of global GDP (PPP).

"G7" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G7 heads of government. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers.

Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 was rotated through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia (suspended), Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place.

In 2005, the UK government initiated the practice of inviting five leading emerging markets — Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa — to participate in the G8 meetings that came to be known as G8+5, but this practice was short-lived. With the G20 major economies growing in stature since the 2008 Washington summit, world leaders from the group announced at their Pittsburgh summit in September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations. Nevertheless, the G7 retains its relevance as a "steering group for the West", with special significance appointed to Japan.

List of countries by military expenditure per capita

This is a list of countries by military expenditure per capita, the amount spent by a nation on its military per capita in a given year. This list is sourced from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017.

List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel

This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel. It includes any government-sponsored soldiers used to further the domestic and foreign policies of their respective government. The term "country" is used in its most common use, in the sense of state which exercises sovereignty or has limited recognition.

List of countries by past military expenditure

This is a list of countries by past military expenditure, starting 1988.

List of countries without armed forces

This is a list of countries without armed forces. The term country here means sovereign states and not dependencies (e.g., Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Bermuda), whose defense is the responsibility of another country or an army alternative. The term armed forces refers to any government-sponsored defense used to further the domestic and foreign policies of their respective government. Some of the countries listed, such as Iceland and Monaco, have no standing armies but still have a non-police military force.Many of the twenty-one countries listed here typically have had a long-standing agreement with a former occupying country; one example is the agreement between Monaco and France, which has existed for at least 300 years.

The Compact of Free Association nations of the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and Palau rely on the United States for their defense. They ensure their national security concerns are addressed through annual Joint Committee Meetings to discuss defense matters with US Pacific Command. Andorra has a small army, and can request defensive aid if necessary, while Iceland had a unique agreement with the United States that lasted until 2006, which required them to provide defense to Iceland when needed.The remaining countries are responsible for their own defense, and operate either without any armed forces, or with limited armed forces. Some of the countries, such as Costa Rica and Grenada, underwent a process of demilitarization. Other countries were formed without armed forces, such as Samoa over 60 years ago; the primary reason being that they were, or still are, under protection from another nation at their point of independence. All of the countries on this list are considered to be in a situation of "non-militarization."Haiti abolished its army in 1994, after a US invasion deposed the military junta which had ruled the country since 1992. In 2017, after the end of the MINUSTAH, the Haitian government announced the restoration of the Haitian Armed Forces.

List of international rankings

This is a list of international rankings.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Military budget

A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a state to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.

Military budgets often reflect how strongly a country perceives the likelihood of threats against it, or the amount of aggression it wishes to conjure. It also gives an idea of how much financing should be provided for the upcoming fiscal year. The size of a budget also reflects the country's ability to fund military activities. Factors include the size of that country's economy, other financial demands on that entity, and the willingness of that entity's government or people to fund such military activity. Generally excluded from military expenditures is spending on internal law enforcement and disabled veteran rehabilitation. The effects of military expenditure on a nation's economy and society, and what determines military expenditure, are notable issues in political science and economics. There are controversial findings and theories regarding these topics. Generally, some suggest military expenditure is a boost to local economies. Still, others maintain military expenditure is a drag on development.Every year in April is the Global Day of Action on Military Spending (GDAMS), which aims to gather people and create a global movement that persuades governments to reallocate their military spending to essential human needs such as food, education, health care, social services and environmental concerns.Among the countries maintaining some of the world's largest military budgets, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States are frequently recognized to be great powers.According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, in 2014, total world military expenditure amounted to 1.8 trillion US$.

Military budget of China

The military budget of China is the portion of the overall budget of China that is allocated for the funding of the military of China. This military budget finances employee salaries and training costs, the maintenance of equipment and facilities, support of new or ongoing operations, and development and procurement of new weapons, equipment, and vehicles. Every March, as part of its annual state budget, China releases a single overall figure for national military expenditures.In 2016, the Chinese government's official defense spending figure was $146 billion, an increase of 11% from the budget of $131 billion in 2014. This makes China's military budget the second largest in the world behind the US. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in 2010-14, an increase of 143 per cent from the period 2005-2009. China supplied major arms to 35 states in 2010–14. A significant percentage (just over 68 per cent) of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. China also exported major arms to 18 African states.

Military budget of the Russian Federation

The military budget of Russia is the portion of the overall budget of Russia that is allocated for the funding of the Russian Armed Forces. This military budget finances employee salaries and training costs, the maintenance of equipment and facilities, support of new or ongoing operations, and development and procurement of new weapons, equipment, and vehicles.

In 2014, Russia's military budget of 2.49 trillion rubles (worth approximately US$69.3 billion at 2014 exchange rates) was higher than any other European nation, and approximately 1/7th (14%) of the US military budget. However, a collapse in the value of the Rouble greatly reduced the dollar-value of the planned 2015 Russian military budget to US$52 billion, despite a 33% increase in its Rouble-value to 3.3 trillion. Due to the ongoing crisis the planned 33% increase had to be reduced to 25.6%, meaning the 2015 Russian military budget totalled 3.1 trillion rubles. The originally planned 3.36 trillion budget for 2016 has also been reduced to a planned budget of 3.145 trillion rubles, an increase of only 0.8% over 2015.

Military of Iceland

Iceland's defences consist of the Icelandic Coast Guard, which patrols Icelandic waters and airspace, and other services such as the National Commissioner's National Security and Special Forces Units.

Iceland is however the only NATO member which maintains no standing army.

The Coast Guard consists of three ships and four aircraft and armed with small arms, naval artillery, and Air Defence weaponry. The Coast Guard also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System, formerly part of the disestablished Defence Agency, which conducts ground surveillance of Iceland's air space.Units subordinated to the National Commissioner also take part in Iceland's defences. Foremost of these are the National Security Unit, which handles intelligence operations and the special unit Víkingasveitin, a highly trained and equipped counter terrorism unit which is part of the National Police force.

Additionally there is a Crisis Response Unit (ICRU), operated by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, which is a small peacekeeping force that has been deployed internationally, since 2008. This unit also has an unarmed component.

There is a treaty with the United States, regarding the defense of Iceland, which until 2006 maintained the Naval Air Station Keflavik. The base, now operated by the Icelandic Coast Guard, has been regularly visited by the US military and other allied NATO members. In 2017 the United States announced its interest in renovating a hangar, in order to fit Boeing P-8 Poseidon ASW aircraft inside, at the air base.There are also agreements about military and other security operations with Norway, Denmark and other NATO countries.

Iceland holds the annual NATO exercises entitled Northern Viking. The most recent exercises were held in 2011, as well as the EOD exercise "Northern Challenge".

In 1997 Iceland hosted its first Partnership for Peace (PfP) exercise, "Cooperative Safeguard", which is the only multilateral PfP exercise so far in which Russia has participated. Another major PfP exercise was hosted in 2000. Iceland has also contributed ICRU peacekeepers to SFOR, KFOR and ISAF.

Military policy

Military policy (also called defence policy or defense policy) is public policy dealing with international security and the military. It comprises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision-making and strategic goals, such as when and how to commit national armed forces.

The Military Policy is used to ensure retention of independence in national development, and alleviation of hardships imposed from hostile and aggressive external actors. The Defence Ministry (or a synonymous organisation) minister is the primary decision-maker for the national military policy.

Military–industrial complex

The military–industrial complex (MIC) is an informal alliance between a nation's military and the defense industry that supplies it, seen together as a vested interest which influences public policy. A driving factor behind this relationship between the government and defense-minded corporations is that both sides benefit—one side from obtaining war weapons, and the other from being paid to supply them. The term is most often used in reference to the system behind the military of the United States, where it is most prevalent due to close links between defense contractors, the Pentagon and politicians and gained popularity after a warning on its detrimental effects in the farewell address of President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 17, 1961.

In 2011, the United States spent more (in absolute numbers) on its military than the next 13 nations combined.In the context of the United States, the appellation given to it sometimes is extended to military–industrial–congressional complex (MICC), adding the U.S. Congress to form a three-sided relationship termed an iron triangle. These relationships include political contributions, political approval for military spending, lobbying to support bureaucracies, and oversight of the industry; or more broadly to include the entire network of contracts and flows of money and resources among individuals as well as corporations and institutions of the defense contractors, private military contractors, The Pentagon, the Congress and executive branch.A similar thesis was originally expressed by Daniel Guérin, in his 1936 book Fascism and Big Business, about the fascist government support to heavy industry. It can be defined as, "an informal and changing coalition of groups with vested psychological, moral, and material interests in the continuous development and maintenance of high levels of weaponry, in preservation of colonial markets and in military-strategic conceptions of internal affairs."

An exhibit of the trend was made in Franz Leopold Neumann's book Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism in 1942, a study of how Nazism came into a position of power in a democratic state.

Such type of complex, in the First World War, had taken US to the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917.

Outline of military science and technology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to military science:

Military science – study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict. It strives to be a scientific system that if properly employed, will greatly enhance the practitioner's ability to prevail in an armed conflict with any adversary. To this end, it is unconcerned whether that adversary is an opposing military force, guerrillas or other irregulars, or any adversary who knows of or utilizes military science in response.

Permanent war economy

The concept of permanent war economy originated in 1944 with an article by Ed Sard (alias Frank Demby, Walter S. Oakes and T.N. Vance), a Third Camp Socialist, who predicted a post-war arms race. He argued at the time that the United States would retain the character of a war economy; even in peacetime, US military expenditure would remain large, reducing the percentage of unemployed compared to the 1930s. He extended this analysis in 1950 and 1951.

Which in turn leads to space war and defence economy (Chad Calvert ibid) .

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. SIPRI is based in Stockholm.SIPRI was ranked among the top three non-US world-wide think tanks in 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Lauder Institute's Global Go To Think Tanks Report. In 2016 it ranked SIPRI in the top twenty eight among think tanks globally.

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