List of countries by irreligion

Irreligion, which may include deism, agnosticism, ignosticism, anti-religion, atheism, skepticism, ietsism, spiritual but not religious, freethought, anti-theism, apatheism, non-belief, pandeism, secular humanism, non-religious theism, pantheism and panentheism, varies in the different countries around the world. According to reports from the Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association's (WIN/GIA) four global polls: in 2005, 77% were a religious person and 4% were "convinced atheists" while in 2012, 23% were not a religious person and an additional 13% were "convinced atheists"[2]; in 2015, 22% were not a religious person and an additional 11% were "convinced atheists"[3]; and in 2017, 25% were not a religious person and an additional 9% were "convinced atheists".[4]

According to sociologist Phil Zuckerman, broad estimates of those who have an absence of belief in a God range from 500 to 750 million people worldwide.[5] According to sociologists Ariela Keysar and Juhem Navarro-Rivera's review of numerous global studies on atheism, there are 450 to 500 million positive atheists and agnostics worldwide (7% of the world's population), with China having the most atheists in the world (200 million convinced atheists).[6]

Irreligion map
World non-religious population by percentage, Dentsu Institute (2006) and Zuckerman (2005)[1]

Methods

Each poll uses different questions and methods:-

The numbers come from different years, and might not be accurate for countries with governments that require or urge religion or secularism.

Countries and regions

The WIN-Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) poll results below are the totals for "not a religious person" and "a convinced atheist" combined. Keysar et al. have advised caution with WIN/Gallup International figures since more extensive surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have bigger sample sizes, have consistently reached lower figures. For example, the WIN/GIA numbers from China were overestimated which in turn inflated global totals.[6]

Country or Region WIN/GIA

(2017)[7]

WIN/GIA[3]
(2015)
WIN/GIA[8][9]
(2012)
Dentsu[10]
(2006)
Zuckerman[5]
 Afghanistan (details) 9% 15%
 Albania (details) 39% 8%
 Argentina 20% 20% 26% 13% 4–8%
 Armenia 6% 5% 5% 34%
 Australia (details) 63% 58% 58% 24–25%
 Austria 53% 54% 53% 12% 18–26%
 Azerbaijan (details) 64% 54% 51%
 Bangladesh (details) 19% 5%
 Belarus 48% 17%
 Belgium (details) 64% 48% 34% 35% 42–43%
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 22% 32% 29%
 Brazil (details) 17% 18% 14%
 Bulgaria (details) 39% 39% 30% 30% 34–40%
 Cameroon 17%
 Canada (details) 57% 53% 49% 26% 19–30%
 Chile 34%
 China (details) 90% 90% 77% 93% 8–14%
 Colombia 14% 17% 15%
 DR Congo 17%
 Croatia (details) 13% 7%
 Cuba 7%
 Czech Republic (details) 72% 75% 78% 64% 54–61%
 Denmark (details) 61% 52% 10% 43–80%
 Dominican Republic 7%
 Ecuador 18% 28% 29%
 Estonia (details) 60% 76% 49%
 Fiji 8% 7% 6%
 Finland (details) 55% 42% 44% 12% 28–60%
 France (details) 50% 53% 63% 43% 43–54%
 Georgia (details) 7% 13%
 Germany (details) 60% 59% 48% 25% 41–49%
 Ghana (details) 1% 2%
 Greece 22% 21% 4% 16%
 Hong Kong 63% 70% 60%
 Hungary 43% 32–46%
 Iceland (details) 49% 44% 41% 4% 16–23%
 India (details) 5% 23% 16% 7%
 Indonesia (details) 30% 15%
 Iran (details) 20% 1%
 Iraq (details) 34% 9%
 Ireland (details) 56% 51% 54% 7%
 Israel (details) 58% 65% 15–37%
 Italy (details) 26% 24% 23% 18% 6–15%
 Japan (details) 60% 62% 62% 52% 64–65%
 Kazakhstan (details) 11–12%
 Kenya (details) 9% 11%
 Kosovo 3% 8%
 Kyrgyzstan 7%
 Latvia 52% 50% 41% 20–29%
 Lebanon (details) 28% 18% 35%
 Lithuania 40% 23% 19% 13%
 Luxembourg 30%
 Macedonia 11% 10% 9%
 Malaysia 23% 13%
 Malta 1%
 Mexico (details) 36% 28%
 Moldova 10%
 Mongolia 29% 9%
 Morocco (details) 5%
 Netherlands (details) 66% 56% 55% 39–44%
 New Zealand (details) 20–22%
 Nigeria (details) 2% 16% 5% 1%
 North Korea 15%
 Norway (details) 62% 31–72%
 Pakistan (details) 6% 11% 10%
 Palestinian territories 35% 19% 33%
 Panama 13%
 Papua New Guinea 5% 4%
 Peru 23% 13% 11% 5%
 Philippines (details) 9% 22% 11%
 Poland (details) 10% 12% 14% 5%
 Portugal 38% 37% 11% 4–9%
 Puerto Rico 11%
 Romania (details) 9% 17% 7% 2%
 Russia (details) 30% 23% 32% 48% 24–48%
 Saudi Arabia (details) 24%
 Serbia 21% 21% 19%
 Singapore (details) 13%
 Slovakia 23% 10–28%
 Slovenia 53% 30% 35–38%
 South Africa (details) 32% 11%
 South Korea (details) 60% 55% 46% 37% 30–52%
 South Sudan 16%
 Spain (details) 57% 55% 47% 16% 15–24%
 Sweden (details) 73% 76% 58% 25% 46–85%
  Switzerland (details) 58% 47% 17–27%
 Taiwan 24%
 Tanzania 2%
 Thailand 2% 2%
 Tunisia 22%
 Turkey (details) 15% 75% 3%
 Uganda (details) 1%
 Ukraine 42% 24% 23% 42% 20%
 United Kingdom (details) 69% 66% 31–44%
 United States (details) 39% 39% 35% 20% 3–9%
 Uruguay (details) 12%
 Uzbekistan 18%
 Venezuela 2% 27%
 Vietnam 63% 54% 65% 46% 81%

By population as of 2004

Countries with the greatest number of people without religion (atheists and agnostics), based on the total population of each country as of 2004 and the percentage of non-religious people according to Zuckerman:[5]

Country People without religion
 China 103,907,840 – 181,838,720
 India 102,870,000
 Japan 81,493,120 – 82,766,450
 Vietnam 66,978,900
 Russia 34,507,680 – 69,015,360
 Germany 33,794,250 – 40,388,250
 France 25,982,320 – 32,628,960
 United Kingdom 18,684,010 – 26,519,240
 South Korea 14,579,400 – 25,270,960
 Ukraine 9,546,400
 United States 8,790,840 – 26,822,520
 Netherlands 6,364,020 – 7,179,920
 Canada 6,176,520 – 9,752,400
 Spain 6,042,150 – 9,667,440
 Taiwan 5,460,000
 Hong Kong 5,240,000
 Czech Republic 5,328,940 – 6,250,121
 Australia 4,779,120 – 4,978,250
 Belgium 4,346,160 – 4,449,640
 Sweden 4,133,560 – 7,638,100
 Italy 3,483,420 – 8,708,550
 North Korea 3,404,700
 Hungary 3,210,240 – 4,614,720
 Bulgaria 2,556,120 – 3,007,200
 Denmark 2,327,590 – 4,330,400
 Belarus 1,752,870
 Greece 1,703,680
 Kazakhstan 1,665,840 – 1,817,280
 Argentina 1,565,800 – 3,131,600
 Austria 1,471,500 – 2,125,500
 Finland 1,460,200 – 3,129,000
 Norway 1,418,250 – 3,294,000
  Switzerland 1,266,670 – 2,011,770
 Israel 929,850 – 2,293,630
 New Zealand 798,800 – 878,680
 Cuba 791,630
 Slovenia 703,850 – 764,180
 Estonia 657,580
 Dominican Republic 618,380
 Singapore 566,020
 Slovakia 542,400 – 1,518,720
 Lithuania 469,040
 Latvia 461,200 – 668,740
 Portugal 420,960 – 947,160
 Armenia 118,740
 Uruguay 407,880
 Kyrgyzstan 355,670
 Croatia 314,790
 Albania 283,600
 Mongolia 247,590
 Iceland 47,040 – 67,620

See also

References

  1. ^ Based on the data of the Dentsu Communication Institute and the data of Zuckerman. Largest values taken.
  2. ^ "Global Index of Religion and Atheism" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Losing our Religion? Two Thirds of People Still Claim to be Religious" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. WIN/Gallup International. 13 April 2015.
  4. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 14 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Zuckerman, Phil (2006). "Atheism: Contemporary Numbers and Patterns". In Martin, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–66. ISBN 9780521842709.
  6. ^ a b Keysar, Ariela; Navarro-Rivera, Juhem (2017). "36. A World of Atheism: Global Demographics". In Bullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199644659.
  7. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 14 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  8. ^ "WIN-Gallup International 'Religiosity and Atheism Index' reveals atheists are a small minority in the early years of 21st century". WIN-Gallup International. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  9. ^ "GLOBAL INDEX OF RELIGIOSITY AND ATHEISM – 2012" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  10. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute 電通総研・日本リサーチセンター編「世界60カ国価値観データブック ‹See Tfd›(in Japanese)
Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference to, rejection of, or hostility towards religion. According to the Pew Research Center's 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, 16% of the world's population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated.Irreligion may include some forms of theism, depending on the religious context it is defined against; for example, in 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism, while in contemporary East Asia the shared term meaning "irreligion" or "no religion" (無宗教, Chinese pron. wú zōngjiào, Japanese pron. mu shūkyō Korean pron. Mukyo), with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves, implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions (such as Buddhism and Christianity) and not necessarily non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto (both meaning "ways of gods").According to cross-cultural studies, since religion and fertility are positively related while secularism and fertility are negatively related, secularism is expected to decline throughout the 21st century. By 2060, according to their projections, the number of unaffiliated will increase by over 35 million, but the percentage will decrease to 13% because the total population will grow faster.

Irreligion in Romania

Romania is officially designated as a secular state, although there is no effective separation of church and state. Indeed, according to Law no. 142/1999, state-recognized religious denominations employees receive salaries from the state budget. Therefore, all Romanian citizens who pay taxes contribute to clergy salaries, regardless of their religious affiliation.

Romania is one of the most religious countries in Europe, with 92% of people saying that they believe in God. Irreligion is much lower in Romania than in most other European countries and is among the lowest in the world. At the 2011 census, only 0.11% of the population declared itself atheist, up from the 2002 census, while 0.10% do not belong to any religion.

Religions by country

This is an overview of religion by country according to the Pew Research Center. The article Religious information by country gives information from The World Factbook of the CIA and the U.S. Department of State.

Irreligion
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Agnosticism
Nontheism
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