List of countries by income equality

This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has zero income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[1][2]

World Bank Gini Map
Countries by their most recent Gini coefficient score, according to the World Bank.
  ≤ 30
  30-34.9
  35-39.9
  40-44.9
  45-49.9
  50-54.9
  55-59.9
  60-64.9
  Data unavailable

UN and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices

Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts independently from the columns to the right of it.

Key:
R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.



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Country UN R/P World Bank Gini [3] CIA R/P [4] CIA Gini[5]
10%[6] 20%[7] % Year 10% Year % Year

Afghanistan 27.8 2008
Albania 7.2 4.8 29.0 2012 7.2 2004 26.9 2012 est.
Algeria 9.6 6.1 27.6 2011 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
Angola 42.7 2008
Argentina 31.6 17.8 42.4 2016 35.0 2007 Jan.-Mar. 41.7 2017
Armenia 8.0 5.0 32.4 2015 25.8 2004 30.3 2012
Australia 12.5 7.0 34.7 2010 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
Austria 6.9 4.4 30.5 2014 6.8 2004 26.3 2007
Azerbaijan 9.7 6.0 31.8 2008 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
Bahrain
Bangladesh 7.5 4.9 32.0 2010 7.5 2000 est. 32.1 2010
Belarus 6.9 4.5 26.7 2015 6.9 2002 26.5 2011
Belgium 8.2 4.9 28.1 2014 8.3 2000 25.9 2013 est.
Belize 53.3 1999
Benin 9.4 6.0 47.8 2015 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
Bhutan 38.7 2012 38.7 2012
Bolivia 93.9 42.3 45.8 2015 157.3 2002 46.6 2012
Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.4 3.8 33.1 2007 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
Botswana 43.0 20.4 60.5 2009 63.0 1993
Brazil 16 13 51.3 2015 14.6 2013 48.7 2013
Bulgaria 7.0 4.4 37.4 2014 8.8 2005 35.4 2012
Burkina Faso 11.6 6.9 35.3 2014 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
Burundi 19.3 9.5 39.2 2013 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
Cambodia 12.2 7.3 30.8 2012 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
Cameroon 15.7 9.1 46.5 2014 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
Canada 9.4 5.5 34.0 2013 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
Cape Verde 47.2 2007
Central African Republic 69.2 32.7 56.2 2008 68.1 1993 61.3 1993
Chad 43.3 2011 43.3 2011 est.
Chile 26.2 15.7 47.7 2015 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
China 21.6 12.2 42.2 2012 21.8 2004 46.5 2016
Colombia 60.4 25.3 50.8 2016 56.3 2008 53.5 2012
Comoros 45.0 2013
DR Congo 42.1 2012
Congo, Republic of the 40.2 2011
Costa Rica 23.4 15.6 48.7 2016 37.3 2003 50.3 2009
Côte d'Ivoire 16.6 9.7 41.7 2015 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
Croatia 7.3 4.8 32.2 2014 7.2 2003 est. 32.0 2010
Cuba
Cyprus 35.6 2014 32.4 2013 est.
Czech Republic 5.2 3.5 25.9 2014 5.2 1996 24.9 2012
Denmark 8.1 4.3 28.5 2014 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
Djibouti 44.1 2013 40.9 2002
Dominican Republic 25.3 14.3 45.3 2016 18.8 2012 45.7 2012 est.
Ecuador 35.2 17.3 45 2016 17.5 2006 Oct.[8] 48.5 2013 Dec.[8]
Egypt 8.0 5.1 31.8 2015 8.0 2000 30.8 2008
El Salvador 38.6 20.9 40 2016 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
Equatorial Guinea
Estonia 10.8 6.4 34.6 2014 11.0 2003 32.9 2013
Ethiopia 6.6 4.3 33.2 2010 6.5 2000 33.0 2011
European Union 8.6 2015 est. 30.6 2012 est.
Fiji 36.4 2013
Finland 5.6 3.8 26.8 2014 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
France 9.1 5.6 32.3 2014 8.3 2004 30.1 2013
Gabon 38 2017
The Gambia 20.2 11.2 47.3 2003 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
Georgia 15.4 8.3 36.5 2016 15.2 2003 46.0 2011
Germany 6.9 4.3 31.4 2013 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
Ghana 14.1 8.4 42.8 2006 13.7 1999 42.3 2012–2013
Greece 10.2 6.2 35.8 2014 10.4 2000 est. 34.4 2013 est.
Guatemala 33.9 20.3 48.7 2014 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
Guinea 10.5 6.6 33.7 2012 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
Guinea-Bissau 19.0 10.3 50.7 2010 84.8 1991
Guyana 44.5 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
Haiti 54.4 26.6 60.8 2012 68.1 2001 59.2 2001
Honduras 59.4 17.2 50 2016 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
Hong Kong 17.8 9.7 53.7 2011
Hungary 5.5 3.8 30.9 2014 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
Iceland 25.6 2014 28.0 2006
India 8.6 5.6 35.1 2011 8.6 2004 35.1 2011
Indonesia 7.8 5.2 39.5 2013 7.9 2002 38.8 2018
Iran 17.2 9.7 38.8 2014 16.9 1998 44.5 2006
Iraq 29.5 2012
Ireland 9.4 5.6 31.9 2014 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
Israel 13.4 7.9 41.4 2012 11.8 2005 37.6 2012
Italy 11.6 6.5 34.7 2014 11.7 2000 31.9 2012 est.
Jamaica 17.3 9.8 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
Japan 4.5 3.4 32.1 2008 4.5 1993 37.9 2011
Jordan 11.3 6.9 35.4 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
Kazakhstan 8.5 5.6 26.5 2015 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
Kenya 13.6 8.2 47.7 2005 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
North Korea
South Korea 7.8 4.7 31.6 2012 5.9 2011 34.1 2015
Kosovo 26.5 2016
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan 6.4 4.4 26.8 2016 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
Laos 8.3 5.4 37.9 2012 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
Latvia 11.6 6.8 35.1 2014 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
Lebanon
Lesotho 39.8 44.2 54.2 2015 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
Liberia 12.8 33.2 2014
Libya
Lithuania 10.4 6.3 37.7 2014 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
Luxembourg 31.2 2014 6.8 2000 30.4 2013 est.
Macau 35 2013
Macedonia 12.5 7.5 35.6 2015 12.3 2003 43.6 2013
Madagascar 19.2 11.0 40.6 2010 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
Malawi 10.9 6.7 46.1 2010 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
Malaysia 22.1 12.4 46.3 2009 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
Maldives 36.8 2009 37.4 2004 est.
Mali 12.5 7.6 33.0 2010 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
Malta 27.9 2013
Mauritania 12.0 7.4 32.4 2015 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
Mauritius 35.8 2012 35.9 2012 est.
Mexico 21.6 12.8 43.4 2016 24.6 2004 48.3 2008
Micronesia 40.1 2013
Moldova 8.2 5.3 26.3 2016 8.3 2003 33.0 2010
Mongolia 8.2 5.4 32.3 2016 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
Montenegro 31.9 2015 26.2 2013 est.
Morocco 11.7 7.2 40.7 2007 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
Mozambique 18.8 9.9 45.6 2008 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
Myanmar 38.1 2015 11.6 1998
Namibia 106.6 56.1 59.1 2015 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
Nepal 15.8 9.1 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
Netherlands 9.2 2.5[9] 28.6 2014 9.2 1999 25.1 2013
New Zealand 12.4 6.8 36.2 1997
Nicaragua 31.0 8.8 46.6 2014 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
Niger 46.0 20.7 34.0 2014 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
Nigeria 17.8 9.7 43.0 2009 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
Norway 6.1 3.9 26.8 2014 6.0 2000 26.8 2010
Oman
Pakistan 6.5 4.3 30.7 2013 6.6 2002 29.6 2011 FY
Panama 49.9 23.9 50.4 2016 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
Papua New Guinea 23.8 12.6 43.9 2009 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
Paraguay 38.8 25.7 47.9 2016 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
Peru 26.1 15.2 43.8 2016 31.5 2003 45.3 2012
Philippines 15.5 9.3 40.1 2015 15.5 2003 46.0 2012
Poland 8.8 5.6 32.1 2014 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
Portugal 15.0 8.0 35.6 2014 9.2 1995 est. 34.2 2013 est.
Qatar 41.1 2007
Romania 7.5 4.9 27.5 2013 7.4 2003 27.3 2012
Russia 12.7 7.6 37.7 2015 12.8 2002 42 2012
Rwanda 18.6 9.9 50.4 2013 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
Sao Tome and Principe 30.8 2010
Saudi Arabia 45.9 2013 est.
Senegal 12.3 7.4 40.3 2011 12.4 2001 40.3 2011
Serbia 29.1 2013 38.7 2014 est.
Seychelles 46.8 2013
Sierra Leone 87.2 57.6 34.0 2011 87.2 1989 62.9 1989
Singapore 17.7 9.7 17.3 1998 46.4 2014
Slovakia 6.7 4.0 26.1 2014 6.7 1996 25.3 2012
Slovenia 5.9 3.9 25.7 2014 5.9 1998 23.7 2012
Somalia
South Africa 33.1 17.9 63.0 2014 31.9 2000 62.5 2013 est.
South Sudan 45.5 2009 46.0 2010 est.
Spain 10.3 6.0 36.0 2014 10.2 2000 34.0 2011
Sri Lanka 11.1 6.9 39.8 2016 36.1 2003/04 FY 49.0 2010
St. Lucia 42.6 1995
Sudan 35.4 2009
Suriname 57.6 1999
Swaziland 25.1 13.0 51.5 2010 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
Sweden 6.2 4.0 27.2 2014 6.2 2000 24.9 2013
Switzerland 9.0 5.5 32.5 2013 8.9 2000 28.7 2012 est.
Syria 35.8 2004
Taiwan 6.1 2002 est. 33.8 2012
Tajikistan 7.8 5.2 34.0 2015 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
Tanzania 9.2 5.8 37.8 2011 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
Thailand 12.6 7.7 36.0 2015 12.4 2002 39.4 2010
Timor-Leste 31.6 2007 31.9 2007 est.
Togo 43.0 2015
Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 7.6 40.3 1992
Tunisia 13.4 7.9 35.8 2010 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
Turkey 6.6 4.6 41.9 2016 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
Turkmenistan 12.3 7.7 43.2 2011 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
Uganda 16.6 9.2 42.8 2016 16.4 2002 39.5 2013
Ukraine 5.9 4.1 25.5 2015 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom 13.8 7.2 34.1 2014 13.6 1999 32.4 2012
United States 18.5 9.4 41.5 2016 14.0 2014 est. 47.0 2014
Uruguay 11.8 39.7 2016 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
Uzbekistan 10.6 6.2 36.7 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
Venezuela 18.8 16.0 46.9 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
Vietnam 6.9 4.9 35.3 2016 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
Palestine 35.5 2009
Yemen 8.6 5.6 36.7 2014 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
Zambia 57.1 2015 57.5 2010
Zimbabwe 43.2 2011 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007

OECD countries

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers



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Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[10]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
Austria 0.433 0.472
Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
Estonia 0.504 0.458
Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
Iceland 0.365 0.382
Ireland
Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
Poland 0.542 0.470
Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
Slovak Republic 0.458 0.416
Slovenia 0.452 0.423
South Korea 0.331 0.344
Spain 0.461
Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
Switzerland 0.409
Turkey 0.470
United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers



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Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[10]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
Estonia 0.349 0.315
Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
Iceland 0.257 0.301
Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
Slovak Republic 0.268 0.257
Slovenia 0.246 0.236
South Korea 0.306 0.315
Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also

References

  1. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  2. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  3. ^ World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 3, 2017.
  4. ^ Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
  5. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  6. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
  7. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2007/2008, UNDP, accessed on February 3, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Data for urban households only.
  9. ^ 2015 Data
  10. ^ a b OECD. "Income Distribution and Poverty : by country –I nequalityY". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.

Further reading

External links

Gini coefficient

In economics, the Gini coefficient ( JEE-nee), sometimes called Gini index, or Gini ratio, is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian: Variabilità e mutabilità).The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income). A Gini coefficient of 1 (or 100%) expresses maximal inequality among values (e.g., for a large number of people, where only one person has all the income or consumption, and all others have none, the Gini coefficient will be very nearly one). However, a value greater than one may occur if some persons represent negative contribution to the total (for example, having negative income or wealth). For larger groups, values close to or above 1 are very unlikely in practice. Given the normalization of both the cumulative population and the cumulative share of income used to calculate the Gini coefficient, the measure is not overly sensitive to the specifics of the income distribution, but rather only on how incomes vary relative to the other members of a population. The exception to this is in the redistribution of income resulting in a minimum income for all people. When the population is sorted, if their income distribution were to approximate a well-known function, then some representative values could be calculated.

The Gini coefficient was proposed by Gini as a measure of inequality of income or wealth. For OECD countries, in the late 20th century, considering the effect of taxes and transfer payments, the income Gini coefficient ranged between 0.24 and 0.49, with Slovenia being the lowest and Chile the highest. African countries had the highest pre-tax Gini coefficients in 2008–2009, with South Africa the world's highest, variously estimated to be 0.63 to 0.7, although this figure drops to 0.52 after social assistance is taken into account, and drops again to 0.47 after taxation. The global income Gini coefficient in 2005 has been estimated to be between 0.61 and 0.68 by various sources.There are some issues in interpreting a Gini coefficient. The same value may result from many different distribution curves. The demographic structure should be taken into account. Countries with an aging population, or with a baby boom, experience an increasing pre-tax Gini coefficient even if real income distribution for working adults remains constant. Scholars have devised over a dozen variants of the Gini coefficient.

Great Gatsby curve

The Great Gatsby curve is a chart plotting the (positive) relationship between inequality and intergenerational social immobility in several countries around the world.

Income equality

Income equality may refer to:

Economic egalitarianism, a state of economic affairs in which equality of outcome has been manufactured for all participants

Economic inequality, differences in the distribution of wealth and income within or between populations or individuals

Distribution of wealth, comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society

International rankings of Hungary

These are the international rankings of Hungary.

List of Occupy movement protest locations in California

Part of the Occupy movement that started as Occupy Wall Street, the Occupy movement in California has had several protests which have reached mainstream media for their involvement including: Occupy Oakland, Occupy San Francisco, Occupy San Jose and Occupy Sacramento. Several universities have taken part in the protests as well, including notable protests Occupy UC Davis and Occupy Cal. Below are some of the protest locations in California within the larger list of locations in the United States. It is the state with the most community protests, manifesting in over 50 cities and also on many college campuses.

Note: This list is sortable in various ways. Click the sort button at the top of the column you wish to sort. Click again to reverse the order of sorting. Reload the page to reset everything to its original format.

List of U.S. states by Gini coefficient

The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of incomes (or sometimes wealth) across individuals.

A score of "0" on the Gini coefficient represents complete equality, i.e., every person has the same income. A score of 1 would represent complete inequality, i.e., where one person has all the income and others have none. Therefore, a lower Gini score is roughly associated with a more equal distribution of income, and vice versa.

The information was tabulated in 2010 from data from the American Community Survey conducted by the US Census Bureau. Utah, Alaska, New Hampshire, and Wyoming show the smallest income disparities while the District of Columbia, New York State, Louisiana, and Connecticut have the largest disparities in income between wage earners in all income categories.U.S. income inequality was at its highest level since the United States Census Bureau began tracking household income in 1967. The U.S. also has the greatest disparity among western industrialized nations.

List of average annual labor hours in OECD countries

The following list is the average annual hours worked by participants in the labor force of the OECD member states. As of 2014, Mexico, Costa Rica and South Korea ranked first with the highest number of hours worked per year. As of 2014 Greece ranked the highest In EU with 2042 average hours per year, while Germany ranked the lowest with 1371 average hours worked respectively. Similarly, Netherlands has one of the lowest hours worked per labor participant.

List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP). Countries are sorted by GDP PPP forecast estimates from financial and statistical institutions in the limited period January–April 2017, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. The data given on this page are based on the international dollar, a standardized unit used by economists. Certain regions that are not widely considered countries such as the European Union and Hong Kong also show up in the list if they are distinct jurisdiction areas or economic entities.

GDP comparisons using PPP are arguably more useful than those using nominal GDP when assessing a nation's domestic market because PPP takes into account the relative cost of local goods, services and inflation rates of the country, rather than using international market exchange rates which may distort the real differences in per capita income. It is however limited when measuring financial flows between countries and when comparing quality of same goods among countries. PPP is often used to gauge global poverty thresholds and is used by the United Nations in constructing the human development index. These surveys such as the International Comparison Program include both tradable and non-tradable goods in an attempt to estimate a representative basket of all goods.The first table includes estimates for the year 2017 for all current 191 International Monetary Fund (IMF) members as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Data are in millions of international dollars; they were calculated by the IMF. Figures were published in April 2018. The second table includes data, mostly for the year 2015, for 180 of the 193 current United Nations member states as well as Hong Kong and Macau (the two Chinese Special Administrative Regions). Data are in millions of international dollars; they were compiled by the World Bank. The third table is a tabulation of the CIA World Factbook GDP (PPP) data update of 2017. The data for GDP at purchasing power parity have also been rebased using the new International Comparison Program price surveys and extrapolated to 2007.

List of countries by distribution of wealth

This is a list of countries by distribution of wealth, including Gini coefficients. Wealth distribution can vary greatly from income distribution in a country. See: List of countries by income equality.

Higher Gini coefficients signify greater inequality in wealth distribution, with 0 being complete equality, whereas a value near 1 can arise in a situation where everybody has zero wealth except a very small minority. "The top 10 percent owned 71 percent of world wealth, and the Gini coefficient for the global distribution of wealth is estimated to be 0.804, indicating greater inequality than that observed in the global distribution of consumption or income."

List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2018 Human Development Report. According to the 2016 Report, "The IHDI can be interpreted as the level of human development when inequality is accounted for," whereas the Human Development Index itself is "an index of potential human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."The HDI, from which the IHDI derives, is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, and is anchored in the Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities. It is often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life, and was published by the United Nations Development Programme. Though insightful, the index does not reckon several factors, such as the net wealth per capita, the relative quality of goods, CO2 emissions, crime rate or risk of insolvency in a country. This situation tends to lower the rank for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.

List of international rankings

This is a list of international rankings.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Lists of countries by GDP per capita

There are several ways of listing countries according to their per capita GDP. These include:

List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita – GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant

List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita – GDP calculated at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates per inhabitant

Nordic model

The Nordic model refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Sweden). This includes a comprehensive welfare state and collective bargaining at the national level with a high percentage of the workforce unionized while being based on the economic foundations of free market capitalism. The Nordic model began to earn attention after World War II.The Scandinavian countries were all monarchies, with Finland and Iceland becoming republics in the 20th century. Currently, the Nordic countries have been described as being highly democratic. Although there are significant differences among the Nordic countries, they all share some common traits. These include support for a universalist welfare state aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; a corporatist system involving a tripartite arrangement where representatives of labor and employers negotiate wages and labor market policy mediated by the government; and a commitment to private ownership (with some caveats), a mixed economy and free trade.Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours. As of 2018, all of the Nordic countries rank highly on the Inequality-adjusted HDI and the Global Peace Index.

Per capita income

Per capita income (PCI) or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.

Population Health Forum

The Population Health Forum is a group based at University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, and composed of academics, citizens, students, and activists from around North America.

Population health

Population health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group". It is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of an entire human population. This concept does not refer to animal or plant populations. It has been described as consisting of three components. These are "health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions". A priority considered important in achieving the aim of Population Health is to reduce health inequities or disparities among different population groups due to, among other factors, the social determinants of health, SDOH. The SDOH include all the factors (social, environmental, cultural and physical) that the different populations are born into, grow up and function with throughout their lifetimes which potentially have a measurable impact on the health of human populations. The Population Health concept represents a change in the focus from the individual-level, characteristic of most mainstream medicine. It also seeks to complement the classic efforts of public health agencies by addressing a broader range of factors shown to impact the health of different populations. The World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, reported in 2008, that the SDOH factors were responsible for the bulk of diseases and injuries and these were the major causes of health inequities in all countries. In the US, SDOH were estimated to account for 70% of avoidable mortality.From a population health perspective, health has been defined not simply as a state free from disease but as "the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to, or control life's challenges and changes". The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

Redistribution of income and wealth

Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law. The term typically refers to redistribution on an economy-wide basis rather than between selected individuals.

Interpretations of the phrase vary, depending on personal perspectives, political ideologies and the selective use of statistics. It is frequently heard in politics, usually referring to perceived redistributions from those who have more to those who have less. Occasionally, however, it is used to describe laws or policies that cause opposite redistributions that shift monetary burdens from wealthy to low-income individuals.The phrase can be emotionally charged and used to exaggerate or misconstrue the motivations of opponents during political debates. For example, if an individual politician calls for increased taxes on higher income individuals, their sole focus may be to raise funds for specific government programs, tapping the largest available sources while realizing that low-wage workers have little or no excess income to draw tax revenues from. Political opponents might argue that this politician's prime motivation is to redistribute wealth, when redistribution is not their goal.

The phrase is often coupled with the term "class warfare," with high income earners and the wealthy portrayed as victims of unfairness and discrimination.Redistribution tax policy should not be confused with predistribution policies. "Predistribution" is the idea that the state should try to prevent inequalities occurring in the first place rather than through the tax and benefits system once they have occurred. For example, a government predistribution policy might require employers to pay all employees a living wage, not just a minimum wage, as a "bottom-up" response to widespread income inequalities or high poverty rates.

Many alternate taxation proposals have been floated without the political will to alter the status quo. One example is the proposed "Buffett Rule", which is a hybrid taxation model composed of opposing systems, intended to minimize the favoritism of the special interest tax design.

The effects of a redistribution system are actively debated on ethical and economic grounds. The subject includes analysis of its rationales, objectives, means, and policy effectiveness.

Socioeconomics

Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Societies are divided into 3 groups: social, cultural and economic.

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