List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita

This is a list of countries by total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per capita by year. It is based on data for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbon, hydrofluorocarbon, and sulfur hexafluoride emissions compiled by the World Resources Institute, divided by the population estimate by the United Nations (for July 1) of the same year.[1] The emissions data do not include land-use change and forestry.

List of countries by emissions

Metric Tons of CO2e Per capita
Country 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2013
 Kuwait 37.32 73.13 65.64 76.41 62.47 54.41
 Brunei 48.33 46.38 46.49 44.83 46.88 46.84
 Niue 16.4 16.8 19.05 24.3 28.65 45.6
 Qatar 29.75 37.3 41.58 52.1 39.13 36.82
 Belize 29.05 29.84 28.55 28.11 28.29 28.15
 Oman 22.0 22.92 27.97 25.84 27.82 27.43
 Bahrain 27.27 29.64 29.19 27.78 24.4 25.4
 Australia 28.06 27.28 30.84 27.6 25.39 25.06
 United Arab Emirates 40.13 38.81 34.89 32.13 23.73 24.59
 Libya 21.16 19.43 18.66 20.91 22.63 21.47
 Canada 20.22 20.69 22.12 21.94 20.47 20.94
 Turkmenistan 13.39 14.51 18.13 19.44 20.93
 Luxembourg 21.14 27.86 23.82 20.72
 United States 23.23 23.26 23.86 22.92 20.97 19.9
 Equatorial Guinea 0.52 2.7 13.89 25.83 21.33 19.15
 Trinidad and Tobago 12.31 11.22 12.42 16.4 19.11 19.15
 Grenada 16.29 16.63 17.28 17.82 18.39 18.89
 Saudi Arabia 11.49 13.29 13.39 14.67 17.69 18.26
 Kazakhstan 14.43 10.37 13.73 17.28 18.23
 Estonia 14.4 13.53 15.77 17.3 17.66
 Palau 6.98 6.74 10.3 11.64 17.03
 New Zealand 19.01 18.27 18.4 18.77 16.86 16.62
 Russia 14.45 13.92 14.7 15.21 15.31
 Mongolia 12.81 11.28 11.48 10.13 10.91 13.47
 South Korea 6.77 9.45 10.77 11.24 13.02 13.43
 Ireland 15.04 15.76 17.39 16.77 13.57 12.65
 Barbados 11.01 10.38 11.69 12.17 12.64 12.53
 Finland 14.75 14.62 13.9 13.26 14.2 11.69
 Israel 9.4 10.9 11.82 11.34 11.74 11.46
 Czech Republic 14.05 13.76 13.47 12.39 11.42
 Antigua and Barbuda 6.31 6.53 7.08 8.77 10.69 11.22
 Netherlands 13.18 13.93 12.85 12.4 12.01 11.09
 Germany 14.59 12.9 11.89 11.36 11.03 11.0
 Central African Republic 12.21 11.98 11.8 11.28 10.78 10.94
 Japan 9.4 9.91 10.04 10.16 9.54 10.55
 Malaysia 5.72 6.79 7.91 9.33 9.94 10.2
 Belgium 13.26 12.16 11.44 10.17
 Uruguay 8.38 9.15 8.83 9.6 9.71 9.98
 Singapore 10.28 11.82 11.88 9.48 9.84 9.88
 Belarus 8.23 7.84 8.63 9.66 9.55
 South Africa 8.18 7.77 7.71 9.23 9.5 9.49
 Poland 11.23 10.7 9.4 9.6 9.82 9.43
 Denmark 12.97 14.24 12.48 11.59 11.03 9.38
 Iran 4.46 5.9 6.69 8.08 9.03 9.26
 Norway 10.69 10.59 10.48 10.41 10.09 9.18
 Austria 9.71 9.55 9.59 10.79 9.85 9.15
 Bahamas 8.31 6.69 6.32 6.03 7.58 9.04
 Iceland 12.06 10.27 11.15 10.43 8.9 8.96
 Venezuela 8.62 8.73 8.7 8.85 9.08 8.85
 Slovenia 8.92 9.01 9.67 9.3 8.72
 China 2.69 3.39 3.49 5.5 7.43 8.49
 United Kingdom 12.9 11.63 11.0 10.53 9.03 8.45
 Iraq 8.92 6.48 7.87 6.42 7.52 8.4
 Ukraine 10.41 8.25 8.54 8.13 8.33
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.77 5.47 5.95 6.57 7.01 8.04
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.81 5.34 6.0 7.36 7.89
 Argentina 7.12 7.25 7.49 7.73 7.77 7.86
 Greece 9.39 9.71 10.53 10.73 9.0 7.68
 Seychelles 2.94 3.38 7.86 8.45 8.28 7.65
 Bulgaria 11.24 8.28 7.16 8.03 8.0 7.55
 Uzbekistan 7.9 8.4 7.85 7.55 7.52
 Slovakia 9.36 8.48 8.68 7.9 7.43
 Azerbaijan 7.5 6.79 6.61 6.36 7.43
 Italy 8.6 8.69 9.17 9.49 8.02 7.05
 Malta 7.0 7.01 6.24 7.77 7.48 7.04
 France 8.65 8.39 8.37 8.13 7.34 6.9
 Serbia 6.54 6.62
 Spain 6.91 7.54 8.99 9.62 7.27 6.57
 Lithuania 6.07 5.55 6.51 6.65 6.45
 Saint Lucia 5.74 6.85 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.44
  Switzerland 7.77 7.33 7.16 7.21 6.77 6.34
World 5.62 5.4 5.41 5.85 6.15 6.27
 Latvia 5.43 4.66 5.47 6.29 6.2
 Suriname 7.27 7.75 5.67 5.63 5.9 6.18
 Botswana 9.12 8.45 8.25 5.58 9.32 6.07
 Cook Islands 3.91 4.02 4.57 5.33 5.81 6.07
 Cyprus 6.59 7.3 8.19 8.53 7.92 6.06
 Angola 4.29 4.43 4.2 5.06 6.32 5.99
 Mexico 5.0 5.1 5.74 6.28 6.19 5.98
 Chile 3.53 3.95 4.47 4.69 5.35 5.93
 Portugal 5.67 6.61 7.6 7.76 6.14 5.89
 Paraguay 5.25 5.71 5.08 4.92 5.56 5.81
 Hungary 8.5 7.05 7.02 7.28 6.36 5.78
 Croatia 4.64 5.41 6.4 5.99 5.49
 Romania 10.12 7.31 5.84 6.29 5.67 5.46
 Thailand 2.69 3.8 3.85 4.67 5.1 5.42
 Montenegro 5.81 5.4
 Turkey 3.71 4.18 4.8 4.66 5.18 5.39
 Guyana 3.29 4.37 4.4 4.11 4.79 5.35
 Sweden 7.9 8.18 7.53 7.0 6.25 5.29
 Lebanon 2.75 5.39 5.53 4.86 5.5 5.11
 Brazil 3.73 3.92 4.12 4.43 4.73 5.03
 Algeria 3.5 3.42 3.75 4.04 4.58 4.88
 Namibia 5.17 5.41 5.31 5.05 5.21 4.87
 Nauru 14.23 11.02 8.86 6.71 4.94 4.53
 Mauritius 2.02 2.29 3.31 3.71 4.33 4.52
 Bolivia 3.04 3.49 3.38 3.78 4.38 4.5
 Panama 2.93 3.37 3.37 3.83 4.24 4.45
 Sudan 3.83 3.9 4.38 4.57 4.27
 Cuba 5.02 3.43 3.89 3.54 4.33 4.08
 Gabon 6.99 6.67 4.77 4.21 3.74 4.05
 Gambia 4.08 4.13 4.14 4.13 4.26 4.02
 Tonga 2.4 2.56 2.62 2.85 3.07 3.92
 Cameroon 6.43 5.91 5.4 4.77 4.13 3.85
 Ecuador 2.85 3.12 2.89 3.21 3.6 3.72
 Jordan 4.87 4.85 3.82 4.28 3.66 3.66
 Georgia 2.88 2.78 2.61 2.91 3.66
 Colombia 3.4 3.5 3.27 3.21 3.3 3.37
 Dominica 2.44 2.66 3.01 3.13 3.45 3.33
 Jamaica 3.67 4.04 4.4 4.53 3.17 3.33
 Syria 4.35 4.64 4.46 4.87 4.31 3.32
 Zambia 5.18 4.2 3.36 3.58 3.31 3.31
 Tunisia 2.36 2.52 2.89 3.04 3.36 3.24
 Dominican Republic 2.12 2.63 3.21 3.03 3.28 3.23
 Fiji 2.38 2.53 2.32 2.9 3.04 3.13
 Egypt 2.15 2.13 2.41 2.96 3.18 3.03
 Armenia 1.94 1.82 2.3 2.46 2.97
 Indonesia 2.1 2.43 2.55 2.69 2.87 2.95
 Costa Rica 2.68 2.77 2.52 2.71 2.83 2.93
 Maldives 0.84 1.19 1.83 2.1 2.69 2.86
 Albania 3.56 2.15 2.36 2.68 2.83 2.85
 Mauritania 3.08 2.81 3.06 2.94 2.9 2.84
 Peru 1.94 2.07 2.27 2.34 2.77 2.82
 Moldova 4.12 2.6 2.91 3.02 2.82
 Vietnam 1.03 1.25 1.63 2.16 2.8 2.81
 Kyrgyzstan 2.06 1.85 1.97 2.16 2.73
 Samoa 2.17 2.13 2.28 2.39 2.54 2.67
 Vanuatu 3.04 3.07 2.85 2.5 2.79 2.66
 North Korea 7.68 4.92 4.12 4.27 3.83 2.55
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1.41 1.9 2.09 2.64 2.65 2.53
 Honduras 2.12 2.15 2.13 2.49 2.36 2.44
 Nicaragua 2.26 1.94 2.33 2.43 2.42 2.37
 Morocco 1.53 1.64 1.76 2.07 2.23 2.33
 India 1.37 1.48 1.59 1.72 2.11 2.28
 Eswatini 2.31 2.07 2.63 2.39 2.3 2.25
 Chad 2.6 2.37 2.43 2.87 2.28 2.17
 Papua New Guinea 2.09 2.68 2.31 2.22 2.08 2.16
 Lesotho 1.18 1.11 1.16 1.74 2.04 1.99
 Myanmar 1.37 1.52 1.6 1.78 1.84 1.92
 Bhutan 1.36 1.68 1.72 1.55 1.46 1.91
 Sri Lanka 1.3 1.38 1.64 1.8 1.79 1.87
 El Salvador 1.28 1.68 1.76 2.02 1.96 1.85
 Zimbabwe 3.25 2.62 2.47 1.93 1.81 1.82
 Senegal 1.75 1.69 1.84 1.88 1.89 1.8
 Cambodia 1.74 1.67 1.49 1.63 1.83 1.8
 Pakistan 1.43 1.54 1.6 1.72 1.8 1.8
 Mali 1.81 1.67 1.72 1.79 1.82 1.77
 Nigeria 2.11 2.04 1.94 2.05 1.79 1.77
 Laos 1.44 1.41 1.44 1.54 1.66 1.77
 Philippines 1.45 1.68 1.73 1.67 1.65 1.74
 Guatemala 1.23 1.41 1.63 1.71 1.64 1.71
 Djibouti 1.52 1.52 1.51 1.49 1.51 1.55
 Tanzania 1.64 1.56 1.39 1.55 1.46 1.54
 Republic of the Congo 1.07 1.69 1.41 1.88 1.67 1.46
 Ivory Coast 1.91 1.84 1.44 1.44 1.37 1.46
 Niger 1.35 1.4 1.43 1.44 1.49 1.44
 Eritrea 1.96 1.95 1.63 1.44 1.44
 Guinea 1.25 1.19 1.21 1.27 1.41 1.43
 Afghanistan 1.24 0.84 0.82 0.76 1.06 1.4
 Yemen 0.99 1.0 1.15 1.33 1.41 1.39
 Burkina Faso 1.25 1.29 1.27 1.42 1.38 1.38
 Kenya 1.54 1.29 1.14 1.13 1.41 1.34
 Ethiopia 1.11 1.09 1.16 1.31 1.3
   Nepal 1.07 1.11 1.16 1.12 1.22 1.29
 Tajikistan 1.28 0.98 1.04 1.1 1.25
 Benin 1.01 0.88 1.01 1.16 1.21 1.22
 Guinea-Bissau 1.22 1.18 1.13 1.04 1.18 1.17
 Ghana 0.85 0.85 0.96 1.03 1.04 1.17
 Cape Verde 0.63 0.73 0.79 1.1 1.43 1.15
 Madagascar 1.99 1.77 1.53 1.36 1.24 1.15
 Mozambique 1.38 1.23 1.03 1.09 1.09 1.04
 Bangladesh 0.8 0.81 0.81 0.85 1.0 1.04
 São Tomé and Príncipe 0.83 0.85 0.77 0.9 0.96 1.01
 Solomon Islands 1.11 1.03 0.99 0.98 1.01 0.99
 Sierra Leone 0.89 0.87 0.73 0.8 0.83 0.97
 Togo 0.93 0.75 0.94 0.97 1.01 0.93
 Uganda 0.82 0.78 0.73 0.8 0.92 0.89
 Kiribati 0.49 0.47 0.59 0.88 0.81 0.77
 Haiti 0.66 0.65 0.76 0.81 0.78 0.77
 Malawi 0.95 0.64 0.58 0.53 0.59 0.61
 Rwanda 0.52 0.63 0.54 0.56 0.61 0.6
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.98 0.78 0.65 0.65 0.59 0.55
 Comoros 0.56 0.53 0.52 0.47 0.5 0.54
 Liberia 0.57 0.45 0.41 0.48 0.48 0.5
 Burundi 0.42 0.42 0.35 0.26 0.29 0.32

Gallery

GHG per capita 2005
Per capita GHG emissions in 2005, including land-use change
GHG per capita 2000 no LUC
Per capita GHG emissions in 2000, not including land-use change
GHG by country 2005
GHG emissions by country in 2005, including land-use change
CO2 responsibility 1950-2000
Per capita responsibility for current atmospheric carbon dioxide level, including land-use change

See also

References

  1. ^ "Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 2.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2014)". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 2016-05-26. Retrieved 2017-06-12.
Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organization, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. Greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide, can be emitted through land clearance and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, transportation and other services.In most cases, the total carbon footprint cannot be exactly calculated because of inadequate knowledge of and data about the complex interactions between contributing processes, including the influence of natural processes that store or release carbon dioxide. For this reason, Wright, Kemp, and Williams, have suggested to define the carbon footprint as:

A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100). Most of the carbon footprint emissions for the average U.S. household come from "indirect" sources, e.g. fuel burned to produce goods far away from the final consumer. These are distinguished from emissions which come from burning fuel directly in one's car or stove, commonly referred to as "direct" sources of the consumer's carbon footprint.The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from ecological footprint, discussion, which was developed by William E. Rees and Mathis Wackernagel in the 1990s. This accounting approach compares how much people demand compared to what the planet can renew. This allows to assess the number of "earths" that would be required if everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person calculating their ecological footprint. The carbon Footprint is one part of the ecological footprint. The carbon part was popularized by a large campaign of BP in 2005. In 2007, carbon footprint was used as a measure of carbon emissions to develop the energy plan for City of Lynnwood, Washington. Carbon footprints are more focused than ecological footprints since they measure merely emissions of gases that cause climate change into the atmosphere.

Carbon footprint is one of a family of footprint indicators, which also includes water footprint and land footprint.

Climate change in Canada

In Canada, mitigation of anthropogenic climate change and global warming is being addressed more seriously by the provinces than by the federal government. The 2015 election signals greater federal leadership as noted in Canada's National Statement at COP21, making climate change a top priority, and pledging actions based on the best scientific evidence and advice. According to the 2019 report Canada's Changing Climate Report (CCCR) which was commissioned by Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada's annual average temperature over land has warmed by 1.7 C since 1948. The rate of warming is even higher in Canada's North, in the Prairies and northern British Columbia.

Climate change in New Zealand

Climate change in New Zealand refers to change in the climate of New Zealand on the scale of years, decades, centuries and longer periods of time. New Zealand is being affected by climate change and the impacts are predicted to increase in future. Anthropogenic global warming during the 20th century is apparent in the instrumental temperature record, in New Zealand's participation in international treaties, and in social and political debates.

Climate change is being responded to in a variety of ways by civil society and the government of New Zealand. New Zealand has an emissions trading scheme and from 1 July 2010, the energy and liquid fossil fuel and some industry sectors had obligations to report emissions and to obtain and surrender emissions units (carbon credits).

Climate change in Sweden

The issue of climate change in Sweden has received significant public and political attention and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the three latest Governments of Sweden, the former Cabinet of Göran Persson (−2006), the previous Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006–2014) and the current Löfven cabinet (2014–). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

Climate change in the United States

Because of global warming, there has been concern in the United States and internationally, that the country should reduce total greenhouse gas which is relatively high per capita and is the second largest in the world after China, as of 2014.In 2012, the United States experienced its warmest year on record. As of 2012, the thirteen warmest years for the entire planet have all occurred since 1998, transcending those from 1880.From 1950 to 2009, the American government's surface temperature record shows an increase by 1 °F (0.56 °C), approximately. Global warming has caused many changes in the U.S. According to a 2009 statement by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), trends include lake and river ice melting earlier in the spring, plants blooming earlier, multiple animal species shifting their habitat ranges northward, and reductions in the size of glaciers.Some research has warned against possible problems due to American climate changes such as the spread of invasive species and possibilities of floods as well as droughts. Changes in climate in the regions of the United States appear significant. Drought conditions appear to be worsening in the southwest while improving in the northeast for example.President Barack Obama committed in the December 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Summit to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the range of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020, 42% below 2005 levels by 2030, and 83% below 2005 levels by 2050. In an address towards the U.S. Congress in June 2013, Obama detailed a specific action plan to achieve the 17% carbon emissions cut from 2005 by 2020. He included such measures as shifting from coal-based power generation to solar and natural gas production.Climate change is seen as a national security threat to the United States.In 2015, according to The New York Times and others, oil companies knew that burning oil and gas could cause global warming since the 1970s but, nonetheless, funded deniers for years. 2016 was a historic year for billion-dollar weather and climate disasters in U.S.

Environmental issues in Australia

Environmental issues in Australia describes a number of environmental issues which affect the environment of Australia. There are a range of such issues, some of the relating to conservation in Australia while others, for example the deteriorating state of Murray-Darling Basin, have a direct and serious effect on human land use and the economy.

Many human activities including the use of natural resources have a direct impact on the Australian environment.

These issues are the primary concern of the environmental movement in Australia.

Hard Choices (Coward book)

Hard Choices: Climate Change in Canada is a non-fiction compilation book about climate change in Canada, edited by Harold Coward and Andrew J. Weaver. It was published in paperback format by Wilfrid Laurier University Press in 2004.Hard Choices received favorable reviews in academic journals including Great Plains Research: A Journal of Natural and Social Sciences, Environmental Reviews, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, and Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

Index of climate change articles

This is a list of climate change topics.

List of U.S. states by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of U.S. states by carbon dioxide emissions due to human activity. The data presented below from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Energy Information Administration corresponds to emissions in 2014.

List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions

This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity, based on the EDGAR database created by European Commission and Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency released in 2018. The following table lists the 1990, 2005 and 2017 annual CO2 emissions estimates (in Megatonnes of CO2 per year) along with a list of calculated emissions per km² (in tonnes of CO2 per year) and emissions per capita (in tonnes of CO2 per year).

The data only consider carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but not emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry. Emissions from international shipping or bunker fuels are also not included in national figures, which can make a large difference for small countries with important ports.

The top 10 largest emitter countries account for 67.6% of the world total. Since 2006, China has been emitting more CO2 than any other country, due to its very large population; when looking at CO2 pollution per person, China's levels are less than half those of the United States (the next largest source of CO2 emissions), and one sixth of Qatar the biggest CO2 polluter per person.

Other powerful, more potent greenhouse gases, including methane, are not included in the data of this article.

List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita

This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Countries are ranked by their metric tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2009. The data only consider carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but not emissions from land use such as deforestation. Emissions from international shipping or bunker fuels are also not included in national figures, which can make a significant difference for small countries with important ports.

The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas. For a more complete idea of how a country influences climate change, gases such as methane and nitrous oxide should be taken into account. This is particularly so in agricultural economies.

Carbon dioxide emissions are also known for earlier periods. A study of a global sample of twelve countries provide estimates for CO2 emissions since 1800 and explores the long-run drivers of carbon dioxide emissions by decomposing changes in carbon emissions into population, income, technological and energy mix changes.

List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions

This is a list of countries by total greenhouse gas (GHG) annual emissions in 2014. It is based on data for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbon, hydrofluorocarbon, and sulfur hexafluoride emissions compiled by the World Resources Institute. The emissions data shown below do not include land-use change and forestry.

Because individual countries vary vastly in size and population, consider referring to List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita which may be more relevant.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Lists of environmental topics

The natural environment commonly referred to simply as the environment, is all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth or some part of it (e.g. the natural environment in a country). This includes complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, animals, microorganisms, rocks, atmosphere and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. And it includes universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air, water, and climate, as well as energy, radiation, electric charge, and magnetism, not originating from human activity.

Post–Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions

Post-Kyoto negotiations refers to high level talks attempting to address global warming by limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Generally part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), these talks concern the period after the first "commitment period" of the Kyoto Protocol, which expired at the end of 2012. Negotiations have been mandated by the adoption of the Bali Road Map and Decision 1/CP.13 ("The Bali Action Plan").

UNFCCC negotiations are conducted within two subsidiary bodies, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and were expected to culminate in the United Nations Climate Change Conference taking place in December 2009 in Copenhagen (COP-15); negotiations are supported by a number of external processes, including the G8 process, a number of regional meetings and the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate that was launched by US President Barack Obama in March 2009. High level talks were held at the meeting of the G8+5 Climate Change Dialogue in February 2007 and at a number of subsequent G8 meetings, most recently leading to the adoption of the G8 leaders declaration "Responsible Leadership for a Sustainable Future" during the G8 summit in L´Aquila, Italy, in July 2009.

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