List of countries by external debt

This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

For informational purposes, several non-sovereign entities are also included in this list.

Note that while a country may have a relatively large external debt (either in absolute or per capita terms) it could actually be a "net international creditor" if its external debt is less than the total of the external debt of other countries held by it. For example, although the UK has more external debt than France, it has more external assets giving it a stronger NIIP.

List of countries by external debt
Rank Country/Region External debt
US dollars
Date Per capita
US dollars
% of GDP
1  United States 1.9765887×1013 31 December 2018 [1] 58,200 115
2  United Kingdom 8.475956×1012 31 December 2017[2] 127,000 313
3  France 5.689745×1012 31 December 2017[3] 87,200 213
4  Germany 5.398267×1012 31 December 2017[4] 65,600 141
5  Netherlands 4.5104×1012 31 December 2017[5] 265,400 522
6  Luxembourg 3.781×1012 31 December 2017[6] 6,968,000 6,307
7  Japan 3.586817×1012 31 December 2017[7] 28,200 74
8  Italy 2.51069×1012 31 December 2017[8] 42,300 124
9  Spain 2.259127×1012 31 December 2017[9] 48,700 167
10  Canada 1.9319×1012 31 December 2017[10] 52,300 115
11  China 1.8435×1012 31 March 2018[11] 1,326 15
12   Switzerland 1.820695×1012 31 December 2017[12] 213,100 269
13  Australia 1.48772×1012 30 June 2017[13] 60,800 126
14  Singapore 1.320567×1012 30 June 2017[14] 231,000 453
15  Belgium 1.278465×1012 30 June 2017[15] 112,000 265
16  Hong Kong 1.08160806×1011 30 June 2017[16] 14,820 35
17  Sweden 9.939396629×1011 30 June 2017[17] 94,500 177
18  Austria 6.3834×1011 30 June 2017[18] 73,100 167
19  Norway 6.044238×1011 30 June 2017[19] 117,000 169
20  Brazil 5.56418×1011 30 September 2017[20] 3,200 30
21  Russia 5.37458×1011 30 September 2017[21] 3,700 40
22  India 5.29×1011 29 June 2018[22] 380 18
23  Denmark 4.91617×1011 30 June 2017[23] 85,700 163
24  Finland 4.83369×1011 30 June 2017[24] 87,500 196
25  Greece 4.76997×1011 31 December 2017[25] 42,800 228
26  Turkey 4.53207×1011 31 December 2017[26] 5,500 53
27  Portugal 4.47022×1011 30 June 2017[27] 43,300 216
28  Mexico 4.37367×1011 31 December 2017[28] 3,300 38
29  South Korea 4.07341×1011 30 June 2017[29] 7,500 27
30  Poland 3.63658×1011 30 June 2017[30] 9,500 70
31  Indonesia 3.35289×1011 30 June 2017[31] 1,300 34
32  Malaysia 2.278445×1011 31 March 2018[32] 6,800 75
33  Ireland  2.276×1011 31 December 2017[33] 49,000 64
34  United Arab Emirates 2.204×1011 31 December 2016 est.[34] 23,500 59
35  Saudi Arabia 2.009×1011 31 December 2016 est.[35] 6,100 31
36  Argentina 3.63117×1011 31 December 2017[36] 8,280 66
37  Mauritius 1.9971×1011 30 June 2018[37] 148,000 1,536
38  Taiwan 1.99051×1011 30 June 2018[38] 7,400 33
39  New Zealand 1.98815×1011 31 March 2018[39] 40,300 100
40  Chile 1.832943×1011 31 May 2018[40] 9,000 66
 Puerto Rico 1.674×1011 31 January 2015 est. 47,800 164
41  Kazakhstan 1.65501×1011 31 March 2017[41] 9,100 117
42  Qatar 1.592×1011 31 December 2016 est.[42] 68,100 102
43  Thailand 1.4942955×1011 31 December 2017[43] 2,170 33
44  Hungary 1.48024×1011 30 June 2017[44] 15,000 121
45  South Africa 1.42833×1011 31 December 2016[45] 2,600 48
46  Czech Republic 1.37606×1011 31 December 2016[46] 13,000 70
47  Colombia 1.210972×1011 31 January 2017[47] 2,500 43
48  Cyprus 1.19672×1011 30 June 2017[48] 97,200 597
49  Ukraine 1.14836×1011 30 June 2017[49] 2,600 122
50  Venezuela 1.10878×1011 30 September 2015[50] 3,500 23
51  Romania 1.0888×1011 31 July 2017[51] 5,100 55
53  Malta 9.62513×1010 30 June 2017[52] 223,000 879
52  Pakistan 1.05841×1011 31 Mar 2019[53] 380 36
54  Israel 8.94384×1010 30 June 2017[54] 10,700 26
55  Slovakia 8.663×1010 30 June 2017[55] 15,900 91
56  Peru 7.46512×1010 31 December 2016[56] 2,300 38
57  Philippines 7.2493×1010 30 June 2017[57] 720 25
58  Iraq 6.801×1010 31 December 2016 est.[58] 1,800 44
59  Egypt 6.73226×1010 31 December 2016[59] 700 41
61  Vietnam 5.09377×1010 31 December 2015[60] 500 26
60  Slovenia 4.995×1010 30 June 2017[61] 24,000 109
61  Morocco 4.88303×1010 30 June 2017[62] 1,400 44
62  Kuwait 4.789×1010 31 December 2016 est.[63] 11,700 43
63  Sri Lanka 4.65857×1010 31 December 2016[64] 2,200 59
64  Croatia 4.60847×1010 30 June 2017[65] 10,700 87
65  Sudan 4.5×1010 31 December 2015[66] 1,100 47
66  Latvia 4.1147×1010 30 June 2017[67] 21,200 147
67  Bulgaria 4.0419×1010 31 January 2018[68] 5,700 66
68  Belarus 3.8975×1010 30 June 2017[69] 4,000 83
69  Angola 3.77×1010 31 December 2016 est.[70] 1,400 41
70  Ecuador 3.67472×1010 31 August 2017[71] 2,100 35
71  Lithuania 3.64277×1010 30 June 2017[72] 12,700 86
72  Serbia 2.7954×1010 30 June 2017[73] 3,200 78
73  Lebanon 2.7796×1010 31 December 2016[74] 4,600 54
74  Jordan 2.77564×1010 30 June 2017[75] 3,400 30
75  Cuba 2.632×1010 31 December 2016 est.[76] 2,300 34
76  Uruguay 2.61492×1010 31 December 2016[77] 7,600 50
77  Dominican Republic 2.605×1010 31 December 2016 est.[78] 2,400 36
78  Bangladesh 2.5963×1010 30 June 2016[79] 160 12
79  Mongolia 2.5215×1010 30 June 2017[80] 7,800 186
80  Tunisia 2.51247×1010 31 December 2012[81] 2,200 56
81  Costa Rica 2.491×1010 31 December 2016 est.[82] 5,100 43
82  Iceland 2.43906×1010 30 June 2017[83] 72,700 118
83  Ethiopia 2.249×1010 31 December 2016 est.[84] 220 32
84  Kenya 2.21719×1010 30 June 2017[85] 370 26
85  Papua New Guinea 2.204×1010 31 December 2016 est.[86] 2,800 111
86  Trinidad & Tobago 2.15321×1010 31 December 2016[87] 15,700 76
87  Ghana 2.117×1010 31 December 2016 est.[88] 700 50
88  Bahrain 2.116×1010 31 December 2016 est.[89] 14,900 66
89  Oman 2.085×1010 31 December 2016 est.[90] 4,400 35
90  Estonia 2.05251×1010 31 December 2016[91] 15,700 91
91  Guatemala 1.909×1010 31 December 2016 est.[92] 1,100 28
92  Palau 1.838×1010 31 December 2014 est.[93] 846,000 6,209
93  Panama 1.8341×1010 28 February 2018[94] 4,400 30
94  Bahamas 1.756×1010 31 December 2013 est.[95] 44,200 194
95  Jamaica 1.676×1010 31 December 2016 est.[96] 6,000 122
96  Monaco 1.65×1010 30 June 2010 est. 434,000 240
97  Georgia 1.64165×1010 30 June 2017[97] 3,900 108
98  Paraguay 1.61224×1010 31 December 2016[98] 2,400 58
99  Tanzania 1.589×1010 31 December 2016 est.[99] 280 34
100  Uzbekistan 1.575×1010 31 December 2016 est.[100] 500 24
101  Nigeria 1.5047×1010 30 June 2017[101] 60 3
102  El Salvador 1.49×1010 31 December 2016 est.[102] 2,400 56
103  Laos 1.198×1010 31 December 2016 est.[103] 1,700 87
104  Nicaragua 1.11×1010 31 December 2016 est.[104] 1,800 83
105  Zimbabwe 1.09×1010 31 December 2016 est.[105] 670 77
106  Armenia 1.0044×1010 30 June 2017[106] 3,300 94
107  Ivory Coast 1.00281×1010 31 December 2015[107] 420 28
108  Cambodia 9.8244×109 31 December 2016[108] 600 49
109  Mozambique 9.554×109 31 December 2016 est.[109] 320 79
110  Zambia 9.27×109 31 December 2016 est.[110] 540 45
111  Albania 8.6315×109 30 June 2017[111] 2,900 73
112  Honduras 8.042×109 31 December 2016 est.[112] 1,000 38
113  Kyrgyzstan 7.8668×109 31 December 2016[113] 1,300 120
114  Macedonia 7.6455×109 31 December 2016[114] 3,700 74
115  Cameroon 7.375×109 31 December 2016 est.[115] 300 24
116  Yemen 7.1915×109 31 January 2015[116] 260 21
117  Iran 7.116×109 31 December 2016 est.[117] 90 2
118  Azerbaijan 6.9132×109 31 December 2016[118] 1,300 20
119  Moldova 6.5947×109 31 December 2016[119] 1,600 98
120  Namibia 6.515×109 31 December 2016 est.[120] 2,500 64
121  Myanmar 6.4012×109 31 December 2015[121] 120 17
122  Bolivia 6.3408×109 31 December 2015[122] 600 19
123  Uganda 6.241×109 31 December 2016 est.[123] 150 24
124  Senegal 6.186×109 31 December 2016 est.[124] 390 42
125  Syria 5.918×109 31 December 2016 est.[125] 300 24
126  Democratic Republic of the Congo 5.331×109 31 December 2016 est.[126] 70 13
127  Gabon 5.158×109 31 December 2016 est.[127] 2,900 35
128  North Korea 5×109 2013 est.[128] 200 18
129  Republic of the Congo 4.817×109 31 December 2016 est.[129] 1,000 55
130  Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.7166×109 30 June 2017[130] 1,300 31
131  Barbados 4.49×109 2010 est.[131] 15,700 100
132  Madagascar 4.007×109 31 December 2016 est.[132] 160 41
133  Mali 3.626×109 31 December 2016 est.[133] 200 26
134  Mauritania 3.585×109 31 December 2016 est.[134] 840 76
135  Libya 3.531×109 31 December 2016 est.[135] 550 9
136    Nepal 3.4502×109 31 July 2015[136] 120 16
137  Algeria 3.139×109 30 June 2016[137] 80 2
138  Burkina Faso 3.092×109 31 December 2016 est.[138] 160 26
139  Somalia 3.054×109 31 December 2013 est.[139] 270 52
140  Niger 2.729×109 31 December 2016 est.[140] 130 36
141  Montenegro 2.64×109 30 June 2018[141] 4,260 60
142  Seychelles 2.552×109 31 December 2016 est.[142] 26,200 180
143  Rwanda 2.442×109 31 December 2016 est.[143] 200 29
 Bermuda 2.435×109 2015 est.[144] 39,700 47
 Kosovo 2.3897×109 30 June 2017[145] 1,200 34
144  Benin 2.34×109 31 December 2016 est.[146] 200 26
145  Tajikistan 2.2741×109 31 December 2016[147] 260 35
146  Bhutan 2.261×109 31 December 2016 est.[148] 2,900 108
147  Haiti 2.022×109 31 December 2016 est.[149] 180 24
148  Malawi 1.921×109 31 December 2016 est.[150] 100 35
149  Chad 1.875×109 31 December 2016 est.[151] 130 18
150  Botswana 1.6854×109 31 March 2017[152] 720 10
 Palestine 1.662×109 31 March 2016 est.[153] 340 17
151  Cape Verde 1.66×109 31 December 2016 est.[154] 3,100 99
152  Sierra Leone 1.561×109 31 December 2016 est.[155] 230 36
153  Equatorial Guinea 1.364×109 31 December 2016 est.[156] 1,500 12
154  Djibouti 1.339×109 31 December 2016 est.[157] 1,500 71
155  Guinea 1.332×109 31 December 2016 est.[158] 100 20
156  Belize 1.327×109 31 December 2016 est.[159] 3,500 75
157  Afghanistan 1.28×109 FY-2010/11[160] 40 7
158  Suriname 1.235×109 31 December 2016 est.[161] 2,200 30
159  Togo 1.173×109 31 December 2016 est.[162] 150 26
160  Guyana 1.143×109 31 December 2015[163] 1,500 36
161  Liberia 1.111×109 31 December 2016 est.[164] 230 51
162  Guinea-Bissau 1.095×109 31 December 2010 est.[165] 570 94
163  Lesotho 948,800,000 31 December 2016 est.[166] 430 53
 Faroe Islands 888,800,000 2010[167] 18,400 38
164  Fiji 833,400,000 31 December 2016 est.[168] 900 18
165  Eritrea 820,200,000 31 December 2016 est.[169] 150 15
166  Maldives 741,600,000 2014 est.[170] 2,000 23
167  Burundi 705,200,000 31 December 2016 est.[171] 60 26
 Aruba 693,200,000 31 December 2014 est.[172] 6,600 28
168  Central African Republic 686,900,000 31 December 2016 est.[173] 130 39
169  Grenada 679,000,000 2013 est.[174] 6,300 66
170  The Gambia 541,800,000 31 December 2016 est.[175] 260 61
171  Saint Lucia 513,200,000 31 December 2016 est.[176] 2,700 36
172  Turkmenistan 502,800,000 31 December 2016 est.[177] 90 1
173  Solomon Islands 491,500,000 31 December 2013 est.[178] 800 40
174  Swaziland 470,500,000 31 December 2016 est.[179] 360 14
175  Samoa 447,200,000 31 December 2013 est.[180] 2,300 51
176  Antigua and Barbuda 441,200,000 31 December 2012[181] 4,700 34
177  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 321,100,000 31 December 2016 est.[182] 2,900 42
178  Timor-Leste 311,500,000 31 December 2014 est.[183] 250 12
179  Dominica 288,600,000 31 December 2016 est.[184] 3,900 55
 Cook Islands 281,200,000 31 December 2011[185] 13,400 23
180  Sao Tome and Principe 236,500,000 31 December 2016 est.[186] 1,200 67
181  Tonga 233,100,000 31 December 2016 est.[187] 2,200 54
182  Vanuatu 208,100,000 31 December 2016 est.[188] 750 27
183  Saint Kitts and Nevis 187,500,000 31 December 2016 est.[189] 3,300 20
184  Comoros 133,300,000 31 December 2016 est.[190] 160 21
 New Caledonia 112,000,000 31 December 2013 est.[191] 420 1
185  Marshall Islands 97,960,000 2013 est.[192] 1,800 52
186  Federated States of Micronesia 93,600,000 2013 est.[193] 900 29
 Cayman Islands 79,000,000 1998 est. 2,100 7
 Greenland 36,400,000 2010[194] 650 2
187  Nauru 33,300,000 2004 est.[195] 3,200 22
 British Virgin Islands 17,670,000 31 December 2016[196] 570 2
188  Kiribati 13,600,000 2013 est.[197] 120 8
 Anguilla 8,800,000 1998[198] 590 5
 Wallis and Futuna 3,670,000 2004[199] 280 6
 Montserrat 1,040,000 31 December 2011[200] 200 2
189  Brunei 0 2014[201] 0 0
190  Liechtenstein 0 2001[202] 0 0
 Macau 0 31 December 2013[203] 0 0
 Niue 0 27 October 2016[204] 0 0
191  Andorra N/A
192  San Marino 352,000,000 2016[205] 10,604 22.5
193  South Sudan N/A
194  Tuvalu N/A

See also

References

  1. ^ "CEIC Data". CEIC. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  2. ^ "Office for National Statistics". ONS. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  3. ^ "Banque de France". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  4. ^ "Deutsche Bundesbank" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  5. ^ "De Nederlandsche Bank". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  6. ^ "Banque Centrale du Luxembourg". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  7. ^ "Ministry of Finance Japan". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  8. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  9. ^ "The World Factbook" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  10. ^ "Statistics Canada". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  11. ^ https://cn.reuters.com/article/china-safe-march-foreign-debt-0629-idCNKBS1JP1CR
  12. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  13. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics". Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  14. ^ "Statistics Singapore". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  15. ^ "National Bank of Belgium". NBB. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  16. ^ "Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong".
  17. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  18. ^ "Oesterreichische NationalBank". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  19. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  20. ^ "Banco Central do Brasil". BCB. Retrieved 2017-11-04.
  21. ^ http://www.cbr.ru/eng/statistics/?Prtid=svs
  22. ^ "India's External Debt Rises By 12% To Over $529 Billion". Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  23. ^ "Danmarks Nationalbank". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  24. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  25. ^ "Bank of Greece". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  26. ^ "T.C. Başbakanlık Hazine Müsteşarlığı". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  27. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  28. ^ "Sistema de Informacion Economica". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  29. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  30. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  31. ^ "Bank Indonesia". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  32. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  33. ^ "Statista". Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  34. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  35. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  36. ^ "Observatorio Fiscal Federal". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  37. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  38. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of China (TAIWAN)" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  39. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  40. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  41. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-08-06.
  42. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  43. ^ "Statistics - External Debt". Bank of Thailand.
  44. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  45. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  46. ^ "Czech National Bank". Retrieved 2017-04-30.
  47. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  48. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  49. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  50. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  51. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  52. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  53. ^ "The Express Tribune > Business Pakistan's external debt soars to record $91.8b". Retrieved 2018-05-30.
  54. ^ "Bank Of Israel". Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  55. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  56. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  57. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  58. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  59. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  60. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  61. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  62. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  63. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  64. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  65. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  66. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  67. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  68. ^ "Bulgarian National Bank". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  69. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  70. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  71. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-11-04.
  72. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  73. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  74. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  75. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  76. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  77. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  78. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  79. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  80. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  81. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  82. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  83. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  84. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  85. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  86. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  87. ^ "Central Bank of Trinidad & Tobago". Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  88. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  89. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  90. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-30.
  91. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  92. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  93. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  94. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  95. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  96. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  97. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  98. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  99. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  100. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
  101. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  102. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  103. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  104. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  105. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  106. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  107. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  108. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  109. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  110. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  111. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  112. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  113. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  114. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  115. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  116. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  117. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-09.
  118. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  119. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  120. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  121. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  122. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  123. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  124. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  125. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  126. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  127. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  128. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  129. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  130. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  131. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  132. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  133. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  134. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  135. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  136. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  137. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  138. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  139. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  140. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  141. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  142. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  143. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  144. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  145. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  146. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  147. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  148. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  149. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  150. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  151. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  152. ^ "Euromoney Institutional Investor Company". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  153. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  154. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  155. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  156. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  157. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  158. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  159. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  160. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  161. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  162. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  163. ^ "Caribbean Development Bank" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-11.
  164. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  165. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  166. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  167. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  168. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  169. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  170. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  171. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  172. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  173. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  174. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  175. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  176. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  177. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  178. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  179. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  180. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  181. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  182. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  183. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  184. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  185. ^ "Asian Development Bank" (PDF). ADB. Asian Development Bank. Retrieved 2017-08-11.
  186. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  187. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  188. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  189. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  190. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  191. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  192. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  193. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  194. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  195. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  196. ^ "Government of the Virgin Islands". Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  197. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  198. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  199. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  200. ^ "Caribbean Development Bank" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-08-11.
  201. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  202. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  203. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  204. ^ "The Guardian". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  205. ^ "San Marino National Debt 2016". countryeconomy.com. Retrieved 2019-01-15.

External links

Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (measured in units of currency) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in units of currency per year). A low debt-to-GDP ratio indicates an economy that produces and sells goods and services sufficient to pay back debts without incurring further debt. Geopolitical and economic considerations – including interest rates, war, recessions, and other variables – influence the borrowing practices of a nation and the choice to incur further debt.

Domestic liability dollarization

Domestic liability dollarization (DLD) refers to the denomination of banking system deposits and lending in a currency other than that of the country in which they are held. DLD does not refer exclusively to denomination in US dollars, as DLD encompasses accounts denominated in internationally traded "hard" currencies such as the British pound sterling, the Swiss franc, the Japanese yen, and the Euro (and some of its predecessors, particularly the Deutschmark).

Economy of the Philippines

The economy of the Philippines is the world's 34th largest economy by nominal GDP according to the 2017 estimate of the International Monetary Fund's statistics, it is the 13th largest economy in Asia, and the 3rd largest economy in the ASEAN after Indonesia and Thailand. The Philippines is one of the emerging markets and is the sixth richest in Southeast Asia by GDP per capita values, after the regional countries of Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.

The Philippines is primarily considered a newly industrialized country, which has an economy in transition from one based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. As of 2017, GDP by purchasing power parity was estimated to be at $1.980 trillion.Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include Japan, China, the United States, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan and Thailand. The Philippines has been named as one of the Tiger Cub Economies together with Indonesia, and Thailand. It is currently one of Asia's fastest growing economies. However, major problems remain, mainly having to do with alleviating the wide income and growth disparities between the country's different regions and socioeconomic classes, reducing corruption, and investing in the infrastructure necessary to ensure future growth.

The Philippine economy is projected to be the 5th largest in Asia and 16th biggest in the world by 2050. According to the PricewaterhouseCoopers, it estimates that it will be the 12th to 14th richest economy in the world by 2060. While this opposes other reports from HSBC Holdings PLC, that by the year 2050, the Philippines will have been stated to surpass the economy of Indonesia due to its yearly higher GDP growth rate of 6.5% (Second, after China). However, the economic statistics may still vary depending on the performance of the government every year.

External debt

External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors; its complement is internal debt which is owed to domestic lenders. The debtors can be the government, corporations or citizens of that country. The debt includes money owed to private commercial banks, other governments, or international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank. Note that the use of gross liability figures greatly distorts the ratio for countries which contain major money centers such as the United Kingdom due to London's role as a financial capital. Contrast with net international investment position.

Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) contrasts to the annual government budget deficit, which is a flow variable that equals the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. The debt is a stock variable, measured at a specific point in time, and it is the accumulation of all prior deficits.

Government debt can be categorized as internal debt (owed to lenders within the country) and external debt (owed to foreign lenders). Another common division of government debt is by duration until repayment is due. Short term debt is generally considered to be for one year or less, and long term debt is for more than ten years. Medium term debt falls between these two boundaries. A broader definition of government debt may consider all government liabilities, including future pension payments and payments for goods and services which the government has contracted but not yet paid.

Governments create debt by issuing government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries sometimes borrow directly from a supranational organization (e.g. the World Bank) or international financial institutions.

Monetarily sovereign countries (such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia and most other countries, in contrast with eurozone countries) that issue debt denominated in their home currency can make payments on the interest or principal of government debt by creating money, although at the risk of higher inflation. In this way their debt is different from that of households, which are restricted by their income. Thus such government bonds are at least as safe as any other bonds denominated in the same currency.

A central government with its own currency can pay for its nominal spending by creating money ex novo, although typical arrangements leave money creation to central banks. In this instance, a government issues securities to the public not to raise funds, but instead to remove excess bank reserves (caused by government spending that is higher than tax receipts) and '...create a shortage of reserves in the market so that the system as a whole must come to the [central] Bank for liquidity.'

Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis is the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression. As a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, and hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country.The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone (according to certain arguments),and revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits had been underreported by the Greek government (the official forecast for the 2009 budget deficit was less than half the final value as calculated in 2010, while after revisions according to Eurostat methodology, the 2009 government debt was finally raised from €269.3 bn to €299.7 bn, i.e., about 11% higher than previously reported).

This led to a crisis of confidence, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and rising cost of risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to the other Eurozone countries, particularly Germany. The government enacted 12 rounds of tax increases, spending cuts, and reforms from 2010 to 2016, which at times triggered local riots and nationwide protests. Despite these efforts, the country required bailout loans in 2010, 2012, and 2015 from the International Monetary Fund, Eurogroup, and European Central Bank, and negotiated a 50% "haircut" on debt owed to private banks in 2011, which amounted to a €100bn debt relief (a value effectively reduced due to bank recapitalisation and other resulting needs). After a popular referendum which rejected further austerity measures required for the third bailout, and after closure of banks across the country (which lasted for several weeks), on June 30, 2015, Greece became the first developed country to fail to make an IMF loan repayment on time (payment was made with a 20-day delay). At that time, debt levels had reached €323bn or some €30,000 per capita (a per capita value still below the OECD average, but high as a percentage of the respective GDP).

Between 2009 and 2017 the Greek government debt rose from €300 bn to €318 bn, i.e. by only about 6% (thanks, in part, to the aforementioned debt restructuring); however, during the same period, the critical debt-to-GDP ratio shot up from 127% to 179% due to the severe GDP drop during the handling of the crisis.

List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

This page lists the countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values. This is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, converted at market exchange rates to current U.S. dollars, divided by the average population for the same year.

The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population.

Therefore, these figures should be used with caution. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living; although this is problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income.

Comparisons of national income are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. (See List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.) PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem but not others; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, and it also requires more estimation than GDP per capita. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are more narrowly spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.

Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, the State of Palestine and Taiwan) are included in the list in cases in which they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. In addition, non-sovereign entities are marked in italics.

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

All data are in current United States dollars. Historical data can be found here.

List of countries by distribution of wealth

This is a list of countries by distribution of wealth, including Gini coefficients. Wealth distribution can vary greatly from income distribution in a country. See: List of countries by income equality.

Higher Gini coefficients signify greater inequality in wealth distribution, with 0 being complete equality, whereas a value near 1 can arise in a situation where everybody has zero wealth except a very small minority. "The top 10 percent owned 71 percent of world wealth, and the Gini coefficient for the global distribution of wealth is estimated to be 0.804, indicating greater inequality than that observed in the global distribution of consumption or income."

List of sovereign states by financial assets

This is a list of countries by global financial assets, the total privately owned assets by residents payable in currency, stocks, and bonds. This table is based upon the Allianz Global Wealth Report 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Lists of countries by debt

The following articles contain lists of countries by debt:

List of countries by public debt

List of countries by household debt

List of countries by external debt

Net international investment position

The difference between a country's external financial assets and liabilities is its net international investment position (NIIP). A country's external debt includes both its government debt and private debt, and similarly its public and privately held (by its legal residents) external assets are also taken into account when calculating its NIIP. Note that commodities, as well as currencies tend to follow cyclical patterns, whereby they undergo significant valuation changes, of which is reflected in NIIP.

A country's international investment position (IIP) is a financial statement setting out the value and composition of that country's external financial assets and liabilities. A positive NIIP value indicates a nation is a creditor nation, while a negative value indicates it is a debtor nation.

Original sin (economics)

Original sin is a term in economics literature, proposed by Barry Eichengreen, Ricardo Hausmann, and Ugo Panizza in a series of papers to refer to a situation in which "most countries are not able to borrow abroad in their domestic currency."The name is a reference to the concept of original sin in Christianity.

Instruments
Management
Collection · Evasion
Markets
Economics
Trade
Investment
Funds
Budget and debt
Income and taxes
Bank rates
Currency
Other

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.