List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

As of 2017, the average GDP per capita (PPP) of all of the countries of the world is US$17,300.[1] For rankings regarding wealth, see list of countries by wealth per adult.

Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita in 2017
Countries by GDP (PPP) per capita (Int$) in 2017 according to the IMF
  > 50,000
  35,000–50,000
  20,000–35,000
  10,000–20,000
  5,000–10,000
  2,000–5,000
  < 2,000
  No data

Methodology

The gross domestic product (GDP) per capita figures on this page are derived from PPP calculations. Such calculations are prepared by various organizations, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. As estimates and assumptions have to be made, the results produced by different organizations for the same country are not hard facts and tend to differ, sometimes substantially, so they should be used with caution.

Comparisons of national wealth are frequently made on the basis of nominal GDP and savings (not just income), which do not reflect differences in the cost of living in different countries (see List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita); hence, using a PPP basis is arguably more useful when comparing generalized differences in living standards between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries, rather than using only exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income. This is why GDP (PPP) per capita is often considered one of the indicators of a country's standard of living,[2][3] although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. (See Standard of living and GDP.)

Note that the Irish GDP data below is subject to material distortion by the tax planning activities of foreign multinationals in Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP was over 150% of 2015 Irish GNI. To address this, in 2017 the Central Bank of Ireland created "modified GNI" (or GNI*) as a more appropriate statistic, and the OECD and IMF have adopted it for Ireland. 2015 Irish GDP is 143% of 2015 Irish GNI*.

Lists of countries and dependencies

All figures are in current Geary–Khamis dollars (also known as international dollars), and rounded up or down to the nearest whole number.

Several economies that are not considered to be sovereign states (such as various dependent territories) are included because they appear in the sources. These non-sovereign entities, former countries and other special groupings are in italics. They are listed in dollar order, but are not given a numerical rank.

International Monetary Fund (2017)[4] World Bank (2017)[5][6] Central Intelligence Agency (1993–2017)[7]
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Qatar 124,927
 Macau 114,430
2  Luxembourg 109,192
3  Singapore 90,531
4  Brunei 76,743
5  Ireland 72,632
6  Norway 70,590
7  Kuwait 69,669
8  United Arab Emirates 68,245
9   Switzerland 61,360
 Hong Kong 61,016
10  San Marino 60,359
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia 55,263
13  Netherlands 53,582
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain 51,846
16  Sweden 51,264
17  Germany 50,206
18  Australia 49,882
19  Taiwan 49,827
20  Denmark 49,613
21  Austria 49,247
22  Canada 48,141
23  Belgium 46,301
24  Oman 45,464
25  Finland 44,050
26  United Kingdom 43,620
27  France 43,550
28  Japan 42,659
29  Malta 42,532
30  South Korea 39,387
31  New Zealand 38,502
32  Spain 38,171
33  Italy 37,970
 Puerto Rico 37,895
34  Cyprus 36,557
35  Israel 36,250
36  Czech Republic 35,223
37  Equatorial Guinea 34,865
38  Slovenia 34,063
39  Slovakia 32,895
40  Lithuania 31,935
41  Estonia 31,473
42  Trinidad and Tobago 31,154
43  Portugal 30,258
44  Poland 29,251
45  Hungary 28,910
46  Malaysia 28,871
47  Seychelles 28,712
48  Russia 27,890
49  Greece 27,776
50  Latvia 27,291
51  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,849
52  Antigua and Barbuda 26,198
53  Turkey 26,453
54  Kazakhstan 26,071
55  Bahamas, The 25,080
56  Chile 24,588
57  Panama 24,262
58  Croatia 24,095
59  Romania 23,991
60  Uruguay 22,445
61  Mauritius 21,628
62  Bulgaria 21,578
63  Argentina 20,677
64  Iran 20,030
65  Mexico 19,480
66  Lebanon 19,486
67  Gabon 19,266
68  Maldives 19,178
69  Turkmenistan 18,680
70  Belarus 18,616
71  Botswana 18,146
72  Thailand 17,786
73  Barbados 17,508
74  Montenegro 17,439
75  Azerbaijan 17,433
76  Costa Rica 17,149
77  Iraq 17,004
78  Dominican Republic 16,965
 World[n 1] 16,779
79  China 16,624
80  Palau 16,472
81  Brazil 15,500
82  Macedonia 15,203
83  Serbia 15,164
84  Algeria 15,150
85  Grenada 14,779
86  Colombia 14,455
87  Suriname 13,876
88  Saint Lucia 13,579
89  South Africa 13,403
90  Peru 13,342
91  Sri Lanka 13,001
92  Egypt 12,994
93  Mongolia 12,551
94  Jordan 12,487
95  Albania 12,472
96  Venezuela 12,388
97  Indonesia 12,378
98  Dominica 12,035
 Kosovo 12,003
99  Nauru 11,995
100  Tunisia 11,987
101  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,623
102  Namibia 11,528
103  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,404
104  Ecuador 11,234
105  Georgia 10,644
106  Swaziland 9,882
107  Fiji 9,857
108  Libya 9,792
109  Paraguay 9,785
110  Jamaica 9,212
111  Armenia 9,098
112  El Salvador 8,934
113  Bhutan 8,720
114  Ukraine 8,656
115  Morocco 8,612
116  Belize 8,341
117  Guyana 8,266
118  Philippines 8,229
119  Guatemala 8,173
120  Bolivia 7,543
121  Laos 7,367
122  India 7,174
123  Uzbekistan 6,990
124  Cape Verde 6,942
125  Vietnam 6,876
126  Angola 6,813
127  Congo, Rep. 6,707
128  Myanmar 6,285
129  Nigeria 5,927
130  Nicaragua 5,823
131  Samoa 5,737
132  Moldova 5,657
133  Tonga 5,605
134  Honduras 5,499
135  Pakistan 5,354
136  Timor-Leste 5,008
137  Ghana 4,605
138  Sudan 4,580
139  Bangladesh 4,561
140  Mauritania 4,474
141  Cambodia 4,010
142  Zambia 3,997
143  Lesotho 3,869
144  Côte d'Ivoire 3,857
145  Tuvalu 3,804
146  Papua New Guinea 3,803
147  Kyrgyzstan 3,652
148  Djibouti 3,567
149  Kenya 3,496
150  Marshall Islands 3,436
151  Micronesia 3,392
152  Cameroon 3,359
153  Tanzania 3,283
154  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,208
155  Tajikistan 3,131
156  Vanuatu 2,780
157    Nepal 2,690
158  Senegal 2,678
159  Chad 2,433
160  Uganda 2,352
161  Yemen 2,300
162  Zimbabwe 2,277
163  Benin 2,219
164  Mali 2,169
165  Solomon Islands 2,145
166  Ethiopia 2,113
167  Rwanda 2,081
168  Guinea 2,039
169  Kiribati 1,958
170  Afghanistan 1,889
171  Burkina Faso 1,884
172  Haiti 1,810
173  Guinea-Bissau 1,806
174  Sierra Leone 1,791
175  Gambia, The 1,686
176  South Sudan 1,503
177  Togo 1,612
178  Comoros 1,560
179  Madagascar 1,554
180  Eritrea 1,434
181  Mozambique 1,266
182  Malawi 1,172
183  Niger 1,153
184  Liberia 867
185  Burundi 808
186  Congo, Dem. Rep. 785
187  Central African Republic 681
Rank Country/Territory Int$
1  Qatar 128,378
 Macau 115,123
2  Luxembourg 103,662
3  Singapore 93,905
4  Brunei 78,836
5  Ireland 76,305
6  United Arab Emirates 73,879
7  Kuwait 71,943
8   Switzerland 65,006
9  San Marino 62,425
 Hong Kong 61,540
10  Norway 60,978
11  United States 59,532
12  Saudi Arabia 53,845
13  Iceland 53,518
14  Netherlands 52,941
15  Austria 52,558
16  Germany 50,715
17  Denmark 50,541
18  Sweden 50,070
19  Belgium 47,561
20  Bahrain 47,527
21  Australia 47,047
22  Canada 46,378
23  Finland 45,192
24  United Kingdom 43,877
25  Japan 43,876
26  France 42,779
27  Oman 41,675
28  New Zealand 40,917
29  Italy 39,817
30  Malta 39,534
31  Israel 38,413
32  South Korea 38,260
33  Spain 38,091
34  Czech Republic 36,916
35  Slovenia 34,802
36  Cyprus 34,504
37  Portugal 32,199
38  Slovakia 32,111
39  Lithuania 32,093
40  Estonia 31,638
41  Trinidad and Tobago 31,578
42  Bahamas, The 30,430
43  Malaysia 29,432
44  Poland 29,291
45  Seychelles 28,964
46  Hungary 28,375
47  Turkey 27,916
48  Greece 27,809
49  Latvia 27,598
50  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27,067
51  Kazakhstan 26,410
52  Romania 25,841
53  Russia 25,533
54  Croatia 25,264
55  Equatorial Guinea 24,817
56  Panama 24,446
57  Chile 24,085
58  Antigua and Barbuda 23,594
59  Uruguay 22,563
60  Mauritius 22,279
61  Iran 20,950
62  Argentina 20,787
63  Bulgaria 20,329
64  Libya 19,631
65  Belarus 18,848
66  Montenegro 18,765
67  Barbados 18,640
68  Gabon 18,183
69  Mexico 18,149
70  Turkmenistan 17,993
71  Thailand 17,871
72  Azerbaijan 17,398
73  Botswana 17,354
74  Iraq 17,197
75  Costa Rica 17,044
 World 16,961
76  China 16,807
77  Maldives 16,669
78  Dominican Republic 16,030
79  Brazil 15,484
80  Algeria 15,275
81  Macedonia 15,231
82  Suriname 15,114
83  Serbia 15,090
84  Grenada 14,924
85  Lebanon 14,676
86  Colombia 14,552
87  Palau 14,536
88  Saint Lucia 14,219
89  Nauru 14,158
90  South Africa 13,498
91  Peru 13,434
92  Mongolia 13,000
93  Bosnia and Herzegovina 12,876
94  Sri Lanka 12,811
95  Indonesia 12,284
96  Albania 12,021
97  Tunisia 11,911
98  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,777
99  Ecuador 11,617
100  Egypt 11,583
 Kosovo 10,754
101  Georgia 10,699
102  Dominica 10,620
103  Namibia 10,476
104  Paraguay 9,691
105  Armenia 9,648
106  Bhutan 9,561
107  Fiji 9,555
108  Jordan 9,153
109  Jamaica 8,995
110  Ukraine 8,667
111  Belize 8,590
112  Swaziland 8,496
113  Philippines 8,342
114  Morocco 8,218
115  Guyana 8,163
116  Guatemala 8,150
117  El Salvador 8,006
118  Bolivia 7,560
119  Timor-Leste 7,213
120  India 7,056
121  Laos 7,023
122  Uzbekistan 6,865
123  Cape Verde 6,832
124  Vietnam 6,775
125  Samoa 6,611
126  Angola 6,389
127  Myanmar 6,139
128  Tonga 5,957
129  Nigeria 5,861
130  Nicaragua 5,842
131  Moldova 5,698
132  Pakistan 5,527
133  Congo, Rep. 5,359
134  Honduras 4,986
135  Sudan 4,904
136  West Bank and Gaza 4,885
137  Ghana 4,641
138  Papua New Guinea 4,197
139  Marshall Islands 4,192
140  Zambia 4,050
141  Cambodia 4,002
142  Côte d'Ivoire 3,953
143  Mauritania 3,950
144  Tuvalu 3,925
145  Bangladesh 3,869
146  Kyrgyzstan 3,726
147  Cameroon 3,694
148  Micronesia 3,622
149  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,351
150  Kenya 3,286
151  Vanuatu 3,208
152  Tajikistan 3,180
153  Lesotho 3,130
154  Tanzania 2,946
155  Senegal 2,712
156    Nepal 2,682
157  Solomon Islands 2,422
158  Guinea 2,285
159  Benin 2,266
160  Mali 2,211
161  Kiribati 2,175
162  Zimbabwe 2,086
163  Rwanda 2,036
164  Afghanistan 1,981
165  Chad 1,941
166  Ethiopia 1,899
167  Burkina Faso 1,870
168  Uganda 1,864
169  Haiti 1,815
170  Gambia, The 1,715
171  Guinea-Bissau 1,700
172  Togo 1,570
173  Madagascar 1,555
174  Comoros 1,552
175  Sierra Leone 1,526
176  Mozambique 1,247
177  Malawi 1,202
178  Niger 1,017
179  Congo, Dem. Rep. 887
180  Liberia 827
181  Burundi 771
182  Central African Republic 726
Rank Country/Territory Int$ Year
1  Liechtenstein 139,100 2009 est.
2  Qatar 124,900 2017 est.
3  Monaco 115,700 2015 est.
 Macau 114,400 2017 est.
4  Luxembourg 109,100 2017 est.
 Falkland Islands 96,200 2012 est.
5  Singapore 90,500 2017 est.
 Bermuda 85,700 2013 est.
 Isle of Man 84,600 2014 est.
6  Brunei 76,700 2017 est.
7  Ireland 72,600 2017 est.
8  Norway 70,600 2017 est.
9  Kuwait 69,700 2017 est.
10  United Arab Emirates 68,200 2017 est.
 Sint Maarten 66,800 2014 est.
 Gibraltar 61,700 2014 est.
11   Switzerland 61,400 2017 est.
 Hong Kong 61,000 2017 est.
12  San Marino 59,500 2017 est.
13  United States 59,500 2017 est.
14  Saudi Arabia 55,300 2017 est.
15  Netherlands 53,600 2017 est.
 Guernsey 52,500 2014 est.
16  Iceland 52,100 2017 est.
17  Bahrain 51,800 2017 est.
18  Sweden 51,300 2017 est.
19  Germany 50,200 2017 est.
20  Australia 49,900 2017 est.
21  Andorra 49,900 2015 est.
22  Taiwan 49,800 2017 est.
23  Denmark 49,600 2017 est.
 Jersey 49,500 2015 est.
24  Austria 49,200 2017 est.
25  Canada 48,100 2017 est.
26  Belgium 46,300 2017 est.
27  Oman 45,500 2017 est.
28  Finland 44,000 2017 est.
 Cayman Islands 43,800 2004 est.
29  France 43,600 2017 est.
30  United Kingdom 43,600 2017 est.
31  Japan 42,700 2017 est.
32  Malta 42,500 2017 est.
 British Virgin Islands 42,300 2010 est.
 Faroe Islands 40,000 2014 est.
33  South Korea 39,400 2017 est.
34  New Zealand 38,500 2017 est.
35  Spain 38,200 2017 est.
36  Italy 38,000 2017 est.
 Puerto Rico 37,900 2017 est.
 Greenland 37,600 2015 est.
37  Cyprus 36,600 2017 est.
38  Israel 36,200 2017 est.
 US Virgin Islands 36,100 2013 est.
39  Czech Republic 35,200 2017 est.
40  Equatorial Guinea 34,900 2017 est.
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 34,900 2006 est.
41  Slovenia 34,100 2017 est.
42  Slovakia 32,900 2017 est.
43  Lithuania 31,900 2017 est.
44  Estonia 31,500 2017 est.
45  Trinidad and Tobago 31,200 2017 est.
 New Caledonia 31,100 2015 est.
 Guam 30,500 2013 est.
46  Portugal 30,300 2017 est.
47  Poland 29,300 2017 est.
 Turks and Caicos Islands 29,100 2007 est.
48  Seychelles 28,900 2017 est.
49  Hungary 28,900 2017 est.
50  Malaysia 28,900 2017 est.
51  Russia 27,900 2017 est.
52  Greece 27,800 2017 est.
53  Latvia 27,300 2017 est.
54  Saint Kitts and Nevis 26,800 2017 est.
55  Turkey 26,500 2017 est.
56  Antigua and Barbuda 26,300 2017 est.
57  Kazakhstan 26,100 2017 est.
 Aruba 25,300 2011 est.
58  The Bahamas 25,100 2017 est.
59  Chile 24,600 2017 est.
60  Panama 24,300 2017 est.
61  Croatia 24,100 2017 est.
62  Romania 24,000 2017 est.
63  Uruguay 22,400 2017 est.
64  Bulgaria 21,600 2017 est.
65  Mauritius 21,600 2017 est.
66  Argentina 20,700 2017 est.
67  Iran 20,000 2017 est.
68  Mexico 19,500 2017 est.
69  Lebanon 19,500 2017 est.
70  Gabon 19,300 2017 est.
 Saint Martin 19,300 2005 est.
71  Maldives 19,200 2017 est.
72  Turkmenistan 18,700 2017 est.
73  Belarus 18,600 2017 est.
74  Botswana 18,100 2017 est.
75  Thailand 17,800 2017 est.
76  Barbados 17,500 2017 est.
77  Azerbaijan 17,400 2017 est.
78  Montenegro 17,400 2017 est.
79  Costa Rica 17,200 2017 est.
80  Iraq 17,000 2017 est.
 French Polynesia 17,000 2015 est.
81  Dominican Republic 17,000 2017 est.
82  Palau 16,700 2017 est.
83  China 16,600 2017 est.
84  Brazil 15,500 2017 est.
85  Serbia 15,200 2017 est.
86  Macedonia 15,200 2017 est.
87  Algeria 15,100 2017 est.
 Curaçao 15,000 2004 est.
88  Grenada 14,700 2017 est.
89  Colombia 14,500 2017 est.
90  Suriname 13,900 2017 est.
91  Saint Lucia 13,500 2017 est.
92  South Africa 13,400 2017 est.
 Northern Mariana Islands 13,300 2013 est.
93  Peru 13,300 2017 est.
94  Egypt 13,000 2017 est.
 American Samoa 13,000 2013 est.
95  Sri Lanka 13,000 2017 est.
96  Mongolia 12,600 2017 est.
97  Jordan 12,500 2017 est.
98  Albania 12,500 2017 est.
99  Indonesia 12,400 2017 est.
100  Venezuela 12,400 2017 est.
101  Cook Islands 12,300 2010 est.
102  Nauru 12,200 2017 est.
 Anguilla 12,200 2008 est.
103  Dominica 12,000 2017 est.
104  Tunisia 12,000 2017 est.
105  Cuba 11,900 2016 est.
106  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 11,600 2017 est.
107  Namibia 11,500 2017 est.
108  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11,400 2017 est.
109  Ecuador 11,200 2017 est.
110  Georgia 10,600 2017 est.
 Kosovo 10,400 2017 est.
111  Fiji 9,900 2017 est.
112  Swaziland 9,900 2017 est.
113  Paraguay 9,800 2017 est.
114  Libya 9,800 2017 est.
115  Jamaica 9,200 2017 est.
116  Armenia 9,100 2017 est.
117  El Salvador 8,900 2017 est.
118  Ukraine 8,700 2017 est.
119  Bhutan 8,700 2017 est.
120  Morocco 8,600 2017 est.
 Montserrat 8,500 2006 est.
121  Guyana 8,300 2017 est.
122  Belize 8,300 2017 est.
123  Guatemala 8,200 2017 est.
124  Philippines 8,200 2017 est.
 Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
7,800 2010 est.
125  Bolivia 7,500 2017 est.
126  Laos 7,400 2017 est.
127  India 7,200 2017 est.
128  Uzbekistan 7,000 2017 est.
129  Vietnam 6,900 2017 est.
130  Cape Verde 6,900 2017 est.
131  Angola 6,800 2017 est.
132  Congo, Rep. 6,700 2017 est.
133  Myanmar 6,300 2017 est.
134  Nigeria 5,900 2017 est.
135  Nicaragua 5,800 2015 est.
136  Niue 5,800 2003 est.
137  Moldova 5,700 2017 est.
138  Samoa 5,700 2017 est.
139  Tonga 5,600 2017 est.
140  Honduras 5,500 2017 est.
141  Pakistan 5,400 2017 est.
142  Timor-Leste 5,000 2017 est.
143  Ghana 4,600 2017 est.
144  Sudan 4,600 2017 est.
145  Mauritania 4,500 2017 est.
146  State of Palestine 4,300 2014 est.
147  Bangladesh 4,200 2017 est.
148  Cambodia 4,000 2017 est.
149  Zambia 4,000 2017 est.
150  Lesotho 3,900 2017 est.
151  Côte d'Ivoire 3,900 2017 est.
152  Tuvalu 3,800 2017 est.
153  Papua New Guinea 3,800 2017 est.
 Wallis and Futuna 3,800 2004 est.
154  Kyrgyzstan 3,700 2017 est.
155  Djibouti 3,600 2017 est.
156  Kenya 3,500 2017 est.
157  Cameroon 3,400 2017 est.
158  Marshall Islands 3,400 2017 est.
160  Micronesia 3,400 2017 est.
161  Tanzania 3,300 2017 est.
162  São Tomé and Príncipe 3,200 2017 est.
163  Tajikistan 3,100 2017 est.
164  Syria 2,900 2015 est.
165  Vanuatu 2,800 2017 est.
166    Nepal 2,700 2017 est.
167  Senegal 2,700 2017 est.
 Western Sahara 2,500 2007 est.
168  Chad 2,400 2017 est.
169  Uganda 2,400 2017 est.
170  Zimbabwe 2,300 2017 est.
171  Yemen 2,300 2017 est.
172  Mali 2,200 2017 est.
173  Benin 2,200 2017 est.
174  Rwanda 2,100 2017 est.
175  Ethiopia 2,100 2017 est.
176  Solomon Islands 2,100 2017 est.
177  Guinea 2,000 2017 est.
178  Burkina Faso 1,900 2017 est.
179  Kiribati 1,900 2017 est.
180  Afghanistan 1,900 2017 est.
181  Sierra Leone 1,800 2017 est.
182  Guinea-Bissau 1,800 2017 est.
183  Haiti 1,800 2017 est.
184  North Korea 1,700 2015 est.
185  The Gambia 1,700 2017 est.
186  Togo 1,600 2017 est.
187  Madagascar 1,600 2017 est.
188  Comoros 1,600 2017 est.
189  South Sudan 1,500 2017 est.
190  Eritrea 1,400 2017 est.
191  Mozambique 1,300 2017 est.
192  Niger 1,200 2017 est.
193  Malawi 1,200 2017 est.
 Tokelau 1,000 1993 est.
194  Liberia 900 2017 est.
195  Congo, Dem. Rep. 800 2017 est.
196  Burundi 800 2017 est.
197  Central African Republic 700 2017 est.
198  Somalia N/A 2017 est.

Distorted GDP-per-capita for tax havens

There are many natural economic reasons for GDP-per-capita to vary between jurisdictions (e.g. places rich in Oil & Gas reserves tend to have high GDP-per-capita figures). However, it is increasingly being recognized that tax havens, or corporate tax havens, have distorted economic data which produces artificially high, or inflated, GDP-per-capita figures.[8] It is estimated that over 15% of global jurisdictions are tax havens (see tax haven lists).[9] An IMF investigation estimates that circa 40% of global FDI flows, which heavily influence the GDP of various jurisdictions, are described as "phantom" transactions.[10]

A stunning $12 trillion—almost 40 percent of all foreign direct investment positions globally—is completely artificial: it consists of financial investment passing through empty corporate shells with no real activity. These investments in empty corporate shells almost always pass through well-known tax havens. The eight major pass-through economies—the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Hong Kong SAR, the British Virgin Islands, Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Ireland, and Singapore—host more than 85 percent of the world’s investment in special purpose entities, which are often set up for tax reasons.

— "Piercing the Veil", International Monetary Fund, June 2018[10]

In 2017, Ireland's economic data became so distorted by U.S. multinational tax avoidance strategies (see leprechaun economics), also known as BEPS actions, that Ireland effectively abandoned GDP (and GNP) statistics as credible measures of its economy, and created a replacement statistic called Modified gross national income (or GNI*). Ireland is one of the world's largest corporate tax havens.

Ireland has, more or less, stopped using GDP to measure its own economy. And on current trends [because Irish GDP is distorting EU-28 aggregate data], the eurozone taken as a whole may need to consider something similar.

— Brad Setser, Council on Foreign Relations, "Ireland exports its Leprechaun", 25 April 2018[11]

The statistical distortions created by the impact on the Irish National Accounts of the global assets and activities of a handful of large multinational corporations have now become so large as to make a mockery of conventional uses of Irish GDP.

— Patrick Honohan, ex-Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland, 13 July 2016[12]

A list of the top 15 GDP-per-capita countries from 2016-2017, contains most of the major global tax havens (see GDP-per-capita tax haven proxy for more detail):

International Monetary Fund (2017) World Bank (2016)[5][6]
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
6  Norway Oil & Gas
7  Kuwait Oil & Gas
8  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
9   Switzerland Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax Haven (Sink OFC)
10  San Marino Tax haven (Sink OFC)
11  United States 59,495
12  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
13  Netherlands Top 10 Tax Haven (Conduit OFC)
14  Iceland 52,150
15  Bahrain Oil & Gas
Rank Country/Territory Type
1  Qatar Oil & Gas
2  Luxembourg Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
 Macau Tax haven (Sink OFC)
3  Singapore Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
4  Brunei Oil & Gas
5  United Arab Emirates Oil & Gas
6  Ireland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
7   Switzerland Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
8  Norway Oil & Gas
 Hong Kong Top 10 Tax haven (Sink OFC)
9  United States 57,467
10  Saudi Arabia Oil & Gas
11  Iceland 51,399
12  Netherlands Top 10 Tax haven (Conduit OFC)
13  Austria 50,078
14  Denmark 49,496
15  Sweden 49,175

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Calculated by dividing total world GDP according to IMF by total world population based on 2017 projection published by the United Nations.

References

  1. ^ "World GDP – per capita (PPP) – Economy". www.indexmundi.com.
  2. ^ "Sarkozy attacks focus on economic growth (French president urges more emphasis on quality of life)", The Guardian, 14-09-2009.
  3. ^ "Alternative progress indicators to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a means towards sustainable development"
  4. ^ World Economic Outlook Database, January 2018, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2017. Accessed on 21 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database, World Bank. Database updated on 1 July 2017. Accessed on 2 July 2017.
  6. ^ a b "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  7. ^ GDP – per capita (PPP), The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 7 March 2014.
  8. ^ "How tax havens turn economic statistics into nonsense". Quartz. 11 June 2018.
  9. ^ Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hines, James R., Jr. (2009). "Which Countries Become Tax Havens?". Journal of Public Economics. 93 (9–10): 1058–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.07.005. The paper implicitly adopts the "smaller" tax haven approach, i.e., disregarding larger countries which have either low taxes rates (for example, Russia), or systems of taxation which permit them to be used to structure tax avoidance schemes (for example, the United Kingdom). It also excludes non-sovereign tax havens (for example, Delaware or Labuan).
  10. ^ a b "Piercing the Veil, FINANCE & DEVELOPMENT, JUNE 2018, VOL. 55, NO. 2". IMF Finance & Development. June 2018.
  11. ^ "Ireland Exports its Leprechaun". Council on Foreign Relations. 11 May 2018.
  12. ^ "The Irish National Accounts: Towards some do's and don'ts". irisheconomy.ie. 13 July 2016.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.