List of countries by English-speaking population

The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speakers and second-language speakers.

Some of the entries in this list are dependent territories (eg: U.S. Virgin Islands), autonomous regions (eg: Hong Kong) or associated states (eg: Cook Islands) of other countries, rather than being fully sovereign countries in their own right.

List

Country Eligible population Total English speakers Total English speakers (%) As first language As first language (%) As an additional language[a] As an additional language (%) Comments
 United States 296,603,003 283,160,411 95.46 234,171,556 79.0 48,988,855 16.5 Figures are from the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-year estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau for persons age 5 and older. Total English speakers are those who either spoke English at home (i.e. as first language), or reported speaking another language at home but could speak English "very well" or "well" (i.e. as an additional language).[1]
 India 1,028,737,436 125,344,737 12.18 226,449 0.02 125,118,287 12.16 Official language. 2001 Census figures for population and first, second, and third languages. English as a first language is only spoken by 226,449 people, as a second language by 86,125,221, and as a third language by 38,993,066.[2][3]
 Nigeria 201,292,000 114,172,822 56.72[4] 114,172,822 56.72[4] [5]
 Pakistan 145,000,000 17,000,000 – 81,000,000 11.72 — 49.00 81,000,000 Official language of the state.[6]
The percentage of total speakers was 49% in 2009.[7]
 Philippines 110,437,852 70,371,000 63.72 36,935 0.0037 70,371,000 63.72 Total population: Census 2010. Proportion of total speakers: Census 2000, text above Figure 7. 63.71% of the then 66.7 million people aged 5 years or more could speak English.[8] Proportion of native speakers: Census 1995, as quoted by Andrew Gonzalez in "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines", Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19 (5&6), 487–525, p. 492: .04% of the then 68.4 million people were native speakers of English. (1998).[9] "Six out of 10 people aged 5 and over can speak english (63.71%)."[10]
 United Kingdom 64,000,000 59,600,000 97.74 54,400,000 92.14 5,128,000 5.60 [11] Additional English speaker figures are for usual residents aged 3 years and over with a main language other than English who can speak English "very well" or "well".
 Germany 80,600,000 45,400,000 56 272,000 0.338 45,100,000 56 Native speakers: Statistisches Bundesamt (cited here).
Non-native speakers: Eurobarometer report 2012
Does not include foreign military personnel based in Germany.
 Canada 34,767,255 29,973,590 86.21 19,460,850 52.40 10,287,415 28.69 Source: [3]. The 2016 count reported that 23,757,525 people were able to conduct a conversation in English but not French, while 6,216,065 were able to converse in both English and French. The census also asked for the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual: 52% or 19,460,850 reported English as their sole mother tongue, 165,320 reported both English and French as mother tongues, 533,265 reported English and a non-official language as mother tongues, and 33,900 reported English, French and a non-official language as mother tongues.
 Australia 21,394,309 17,357,833 97 15,013,965 70.17 2,343,868 17 [12][13] The 2001 census data is subject to multiple interpretations. The data noted that 18,972,350 persons out of 21,394,309 total were speakers of a language, and excluded young children. However, more than a million of those 18,972,350 persons provided no information; 879,778 did not give information on proficiency, and 203,101 were "overseas visitors" who were not asked. Of the 17,889,671 persons for whom an inquiry was made 17,357,833 spoke English only, or "well" or "very well" as a second language; while 531,838 spoke "not well" or "not at all".
 Italy 59,619,290 17,000,000 34 17,000,000 34 [14]
 Bangladesh 163,323,100 30,108,031 18 709,873 29,398,158 [5][15]
 Egypt 83,289,500 28,101,325 35 28,101,325 35 [16][17]
 Thailand 63,038,247 17,121,187 27.16 17,121,187 27.16 [18]
 Netherlands 16,770,000 15,030,000 90 15,030,000 90 [14]
   Nepal 29,890,686 10,700,866 35.8 20,000 0.067 876,720 [19]
 South Africa 52,981,991 16,424,417 31 4,930,510 9.3 11,493,907 22 Native speakers from 2011 Census.[20]
Non-native speakers: Crystal (2003), p. 109.
 Poland 38,501,000 14,300,000 37 100,000 14,200,000 Source: Central Statistical Office[21] Additional language speakers are people age 18–69, who reported that the English language as their first of second best foreign language, Central Statistical Office[22] Native language counted as those who speak English at home.
 Turkey 70,586,256 12,000,000 17 12,000,000 17 [23]
 Iraq 31,700,000 11,095,000 35 11,000,000 [16]
 Spain 47,190,000 10,400,000 22 10,400,000 22 [14]
 China 1,270,000,000 81,700,000 6.43 81,700,000 6.43 [24]Among 390.16 mainland chineses who have learned english 20.94% are able to conduct daily conversations
 Brazil 205,000,000 10,542,000 5 292,000 0.14 10,250,000 5 Source: British council (2012) and EF. Only 5% of Brazilians have a proficient grasp of English as a second or foreign additional language and an additional 6% have a very rudimentary knowledge. Brazil has 240 thousand British descendants and 180 thousand North American ancestry citizens including the Confederados cultural sub-group, descendants of the Confederate colonies.
 Sweden 9,921,541 8,200,000 86 8,200,000 86 [14]
 Kenya 43,013,431 8,100,000 18.83 7,900,000 [18]
 Cameroon 19,740,000 7,500,000 38 7,500,000 38 [5]
 Russia 138,312,535 7,574,303 5.48 2,522 7,571,787 Source: Composition by Nationality and Language Ability, Citizenship, Tables 4.5 and 4.1, Russian Census (2010). The "total" figure is the number of residents who reported English as one of the languages they knew. The "first language" figure is the number of residents who reported "American" or "English" as their nationality. The "additional languages" figure is the difference. More than 9 million schoolgoers studied English as a foreign language in 2008–2009.
 Belgium 10,584,534 6,250,000 60 6,250,000 60 [23] (the 2012 report seems to have a critical typo) Note that the Belgian population is divided in two distinct linguistic regions: The Dutch-speaking Flanders, and the French-speaking Wallonia (note that the region of Brussels also has a majority of native French speakers). Like in the Netherlands, a high percentage of Flemish people speak English fluently, and in Wallonia, a lower percentage of people speak English, which brings down the total percentage.
 Israel 7,303,000 6,205,000 84.97 100,000 1.37 6,105,000 Source: Ethnologue (2005)[25]
English is widely spoken, both by the Jewish majority and by minority ethnic groups.[26][27]
 Austria 8,415,000 6,150,000 73 6,150,000 73 [14]
 Romania 19,043,767 5,900,000 31 5,900,000 31 [14]
 Zimbabwe 13,349,000 5,550,000 41.58 250,000 1.87 5,300,000 [18]
 Greece 10,787,690 5,500,000 51 5,500,000 51 [14]
 Sierra Leone 5,866,000 4,900,000 83.53 500,000 8.52 4,400,000 [18][b]
 Mexico 120,664,000 15,686,262 12.9 15,686,262 11.6 Consulta Mitofsky-Tracking Poll Roy Campos: Las Lenguas Extranjeras en México, January 2013;[28] and II Conteo de Población y Vivienda, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI).[29]
 Denmark 5,543,000 4,770,000 86 4,770,000 86 [14]
  Switzerland 7,637,300 4,680,000 61.28 73,400 0.96 4,606,600 Figure for speakers of English as "main language", according to Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel 2008[30] Source for number of non-native English speakers is a 1999 publication by Prof. François Grin cited here: http://switzerland.isyours.com/e/countries/uk/language.html
 Morocco 32,770,900 4,587,926 14 4,587,926 14 [16]
 Ireland 4,422,100 4,350,000 98.37 4,122,100 93.21 237,900 [23]; Central Statistics Office [4]; Travbla[31]
 Singapore 5,607,300 4,218,737 83.1 1,873,302 36.9 2,345,435 Source: 2015 Census. Second language speaker figure only includes those literate in English aged 15 or more and does not include third language proficiency. General Household Survey 2015 "Language Spoken at Home Among Residents Aged 5 Years and Over"
 Ghana 27,000,000 18,000,000 66.67 18,000,000 66.67 Source: 2010 Ghanaian Census[32]
 Tanzania 40,454,000 4,000,000 9.89 4,000,000 9.89[18]
 New Zealand 4,275,100 3,673,623 97.82 3,673,623 85.93 There were 4,027,947 responses to 2006 Census: Language spoken. 3,673,679 gave English as a response, 81,936 had no English but another language. The balance of 272,382 were; no language (too young) 75,195, no response 196,221, response unidentifiable 588, response outside scope 378. Hence it is most meaningful to express the English-speaking per cent without including the figures for these 272,382. This gives 97.8% English-speaking, 2.2% non-English-speaking (3,673,679 and 81,936 divided by 3,755,565)
Crystal (2003), p. 109, gives figures of 3,700,000 native speakers and 150,000 second language speakers.
 Finland 5,410,000 3,800,000 70 3,800,000 70 [14]
 Portugal 10,623,000 2,900,000 27 2,900,000 27 [14]
 Papua New Guinea 6,331,000 3,150,000 49.76 150,000 2.37 3,000,000 [18][c]
 Liberia 3,750,000 3,100,000 82.67 600,000 16 2,500,000 [18][d]
 Jordan 6,598,000 2,969,370 45 2,969,370 45 [16]
 Jamaica 2,714,000 2,650,000 97.64 2,600,000 95.8 50,000 [18][e]
 Algeria 35,954,000 2,516,780 7 2,516,780 7 [16]
 Uganda 30,884,000 2,500,000 8.09 2,500,000 8.09[18]
 Hong Kong 7,336,585 3,903,063 53.2 300,417 4.3 3,587,590 According to 2016 population census, Hong Kong has approximately 3.9 million speakers, of whom 300,417 regard English as their "usual" language.[33]
 Czech Republic 10,562,214 2,850,000 27 2,850,000 27 [14]
 Argentina 42,192,500 2,752,681 6.52 [34] Percentage of people who state to have a high level of English. Another 19.49% and 16.23% of people said they had an intermediate and low level, respectively, of English.
 Yemen 24,800,000 2,232,000 9 2,232,000 9 [16]
 Croatia 4,555,000 2,200,000 49 2,200,000 49 [23]
 Colombia 47,661,368 2,012,950 4.22 75,600 1,937,350 Total was estimated by multiplying projected population for 2014 (DANE) by percentage of Colombian population that speaks English 4.09%[35] then 63,600 was added to that figure which is the total of American and British residents. Figures for native speakers are as follows: 60,000 U.S. citizens that reside in Colombia[36] 12,000 are Colombian Raizal from San Andrés and Isla de Providencia where they speak San Andrés–Providencia Creole[37] 3,600 British expatriates[38]
 Hungary 9,982,000 2,000,000 20 2,000,000 20 [14]
 Puerto Rico 3,991,000 1,940,000 48.61 100,000 1,840,000 [18]
 Zambia 11,922,000 1,910,000 16.02 110,000 1,800,000 [18]
 Bulgaria 7,640,238 1,900,000 25 2,605 1,902,605 [14][39]
 Kazakhstan 12,156,705 1,874,583 15.4 602 1,873,981 Number of those who understand spoken English, from these 1.9 million: 311,435 (2.6%/16.6%) can only read, 931,444 (7.7%/49.6%) can read and write in English. The number of native speakers is the sum of Americans and Englishmen "by nationality". (Census 2009)
 Lebanon 4,265,600 1,706,000 40 1,706,000 40 [16]
 Chile 16,634,603 1,585,027 9.53 Source: 2012 Census.[40]
 Rwanda 10,137,400 1,520,610 15 1,520,610 15 [5]
 Slovakia 5,397,036 1,400,000 26 1,400,000 26 [14]
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,305,000 1,145,000 87.74 1,145,000 [18][f]
 Slovenia 2,050,000 1,210,000 59 1,210,000 59 [14]
 Lithuania 3,053,800 1,160,000 38 1,160,000 38 [14]
 Latvia 2,070,371 950,000 46 950,000 46 [14]
 Guyana 751,000 680,000 90.55 650,000 30,000 [18][g]
 Botswana 1,639,833 630,000 38.42 630,000 38.42[18]
 Estonia 1,294,236 650,000 50 650,000 50 [14]
 Cyprus 839,000 610,000 73 610,000 73 [14]
 Malawi 13,931,831 540,209 3.88 209 540,000 [18][41]
 Lesotho 1,795,000 500,000 27.86 500,000 27.86[18]
 Suriname 470,784 410,000 87.09 260,000 150,000 [18][h]
 Malta 453,000 400,000 89 48,000 352,000 [14]
 Namibia 1,820,916 314,000 17.24 14,000 300,000 [18]
 Luxembourg 509,000 290,000 56 290,000 56 [14]
 Bahamas 330,549 288,000 87.13 260,000 28,000 [18][i]
 Barbados 279,000 275,000 98.57 262,000 13,000 [18][j]
 Belize 301,270 246,000 81.65 190,000 56,000 [18][k]
 Madagascar 23,042,300 4,147,614 18 4,147,614 18 The main languages are French and Malagasy.
 Costa Rica 4,910,526 400,415 8.2 400,415 8.2 [42]
 France 65,350,000 23,000,000 39 23,000,000 39 [14]
 Mauritius 1,264,866 202,000 15.97 2,000 200,000 [18]
 Vanuatu 215,446 180,000 83.55 60,000 120,000 [18][l]
 Fiji 853,445 176,000 20.62 6,000 170,000 [18]
 Solomon Islands 552,438 175,000 31.68 10,000 165,000 [18][m]
 Guam 173,456 158,000 91.09 58,000 100,000 [18]
 Brunei 381,371 144,000 39.07 10,000 134,000 [18]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 120,000 114,000 95 114,000 [18][n]
 U.S. Virgin Islands 108,448 113,000 95.97 98,000 15,000 [18][o]
 Grenada 110,000 100,000 90.91 100,000 [18][p]
 Samoa 188,540 94,000 49.86 1,000 93,000 [18]
 Isle of Man 80,058 80,000 99.93 80,000
 Myanmar 53,900,000 2,400,000 4.45 2,400,000 4.45[18]
 Saint Lucia 165,000 71,000 43.03 31,000 40,000 [18][q]
 Northern Mariana Islands 84,000 70,000 83.33 5,000 65,000 [18][r]
 Antigua and Barbuda 85,000 68,000 80 66,000 2,000 [18][s]
 American Samoa 57,345 45,933 80.1 1,791 44,142 [43]
 Federated States of Micronesia 111,000 64,000 57.66 4,000 60,000 [18]
 Bermuda 65,000 63,000 96.92 63,000 [18]
 Dominica 67,000 63,000 94.03 3,000 60,000 [18][t]
 Marshall Islands 59,000 60,000 98.33 60,000 98.33[18]
 Eswatini 1,141,000 50,000 4.38 50,000 4.38[18]
 Aruba 104,000 44,000 42.31 9,000 35,000 [18]
 The Gambia 1,709,000 40,000 2.34 40,000 2.34 [18][u]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 50,000 39,000 78 39,000 [18][v]
 Cayman Islands 47,000 36,000 76.6 36,000 [18][w]
 Seychelles 87,000 33,000 37.93 3,000 30,000 [18]
 Gibraltar 28,875 28,875 100 28,000 875 [18]
 Tonga 100,000 30,000 30 30,000 30[18]
 Kiribati 95,000 23,000 24.21 23,000 24.21[18]
 British Virgin Islands 23,000 20,000 86.96 20,000 [18][x]
 Palau 20,000 18,500 92.5 500 18,000 [18]
 Andorra 81,222 17,869 22 17,869 22 [44]
 Anguilla 13,000 12,000 92.31 12,000 [18]
 Nauru 12,000 11,600 96.67 900 10,700 English is spoken as the language of government and commerce.
 Cook Islands 20,200 4,000 19.8 1,000 3,000 [18]
 Montserrat 5,900 4,000 67.8 4,000 [18][y]
Total 5,102,585,737 1,179,874,130 23.12 336,358,172 28.5 838,676,510
  • European Union The European Union is a supranational union composed of 28 member states. The combined total English-speaking population (2012) is 256,876,220[45] (out of a total population of 500,000,000,[46] i.e. 51%) including 65,478,252 native speakers and 191,397,968 non-native speakers, and would be ranked 2nd if it were included. English native speakers amount to 13% of the whole Union population, while the percentage of people that speak English "well enough in order to be able to have a conversation", either as first (32%), second (11%) or third (3%) foreign language, was 38%.
  • When taken from this list and added together, the total number of English speakers in the world adds up to around 1,200,000,000. Likewise, the total number of native English speakers adds up to around 350,000,000. This implies that there are approximately 850,000,000 people who speak English as an additional language.

See also

Non-English speaking populations:

Notes

  1. ^ Statistics on second language speakers are inevitably not precise; partly because there is no widely agreed definition of second language speakers – there is no differentiation between countries where English is the lingua franca and those where it is not.
  2. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  3. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  4. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  5. ^ Includes speakers of Jamaican English creole.
  6. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  7. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  8. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  9. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  10. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  11. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  12. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  13. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  14. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  15. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  16. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  17. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  18. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  19. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  20. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  21. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  22. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  23. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  24. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.
  25. ^ Includes speakers of an English creole.

References

  1. ^ "AGE BY LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER: 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  2. ^ S, Rukmini. "Sanskrit and English: there's no competition".
  3. ^ "Census of India : India at a glance / Population". www.censusindia.gov.in.
  4. ^ a b "EF EPI 2018 – Nigeria". www.ef.edu. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Euromonitor International 2009.
  6. ^ Crystal 2003, p. 64.
  7. ^ Pinon & Haydon 2010, pp. 114–115.
  8. ^ Before mistakenly correcting the percentage again, please note that there are fewer people aged 5 years or more in any country than there are people in that country, because some people are toddlers or infants. In other words, no, the numbers will not automatically add up. 63.71% is what the cited source, text above Figure 7 Archived 26 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, a report from the 2000 census, really says. This multiplied by the 2010 census's total population over 5 produces the number in the chart. The 2010 number comes from Philippines in Figures, 2013, Chapter 5, Demography Archived 26 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, table 5.1 or 5.6
  9. ^ From mid-2009 to late 2013 this entry overstated the number of native speakers by roughly 100fold, and inflated the number of total speakers, on the alleged basis of material in "Philippines". Ethnologue. 19 February 1999. Retrieved 16 October 2013.. In fact, Ethnologue as of 24 December 2013 simply repeats the number of native speakers, 20,000, reported in Crystal 2003, on the basis of an old (pre-1995) census, and does not address total speakers at all. This attempt to correct these errors in turn perpetrates both error and original research, by applying the old percentages listed above, 63.71% of people over 5 as total speakers in 2000, and .04% of people as native speakers in 1995, to the 2010 totals from Philippines in Figures, 2013, Chapter 5, Demography Archived 26 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, tables 5.1 and 5.6. Andrew Gonzalez died in 2006; someone else's attention to the 2010 census figures, which appear not to be online and may not have been printed yet in adequate detail, is needed to produce reliable, more or less current, numbers.
  10. ^ 2000 Census of population and Housing, Educational Characteristics of the Filipinos "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "2011 Census: Quick Statistics for England and Wales, March 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  12. ^ 2001 Australian Census
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Eurobarometer 2012.
  15. ^ Pinon & Haydon 2010.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Euromonitor International 2011.
  17. ^ "The Benefits of the English Language for Individuals and Societies: Quantitative Indicators from Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen" (PDF). Britishcouncil.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Crystal 2003, p. 109.
  19. ^ Nepalese census. (date not verified)
  20. ^ Census 2011: Census in brief (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 30. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2015.
  21. ^ "Human Capital in Poland in 2015, figure 15, p. 52" (PDF). stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  22. ^ Demographics Yearbook of Poland: 2014, Table 1, 32,44,190,
  23. ^ a b c d Eurobarometer 2006.
  24. ^ https://www.academia.edu/2034954/The_statistics_of_English_in_China_An_analysis_of_the_best_available_data_from_government_sources
  25. ^ Languages of Israel, Ethnologue.com
  26. ^ Multilingualism in Israel, Bar-Ilan University – Faculty of Humanities : Language Policy Research Center.
  27. ^ "ERIC – English Language Teaching Profile: Israel., 1976-Dec". Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  28. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ Resident population according to main language Archived 30 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel 2008
  31. ^ "The most complete list of English schools and courses in Ireland". Travbla.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  32. ^ "2010 Population & Housing Census" (PDF). Statsghana.gov.gh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  33. ^ Census2011.gov.hk (PDF). pp. 5, 22 & 45–46 https://www.bycensus2016.gov.hk/data/16bc-summary-results.pdf. Retrieved 30 August 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  34. ^ "Sociedad :: Los idiomas de los argentinos" (in Spanish). Página/12. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  35. ^ "¿Qué porcentaje de la población colombiana habla inglés?". Colombiestad.gov.co. 1 May 2006. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  36. ^ [2]
  37. ^ "Islander Creole English". Ethnologue.
  38. ^ "Special Reports | Brits Abroad". BBC News. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  39. ^ "2011 census of Bulgaria" (PDF). Retrieved 5 August 2016.
  40. ^ "Síntesis de resultados Censo 2012" (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  41. ^ Edrinnie Kayambizinthu (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in Malawi" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 19 (5&6): 369. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.125.1803. doi:10.1080/01434639808666363. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2008.
  42. ^ "Encuesta Nacional de Hogares 2017".
  43. ^ Central Intelligence Agency 2019.
  44. ^ "Census: Linguistic knowledge 2004" (PDF).
  45. ^ "European and their languages 2012" (PDF). Eurobarometer. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  46. ^ "Population at 1 January". Eurostat. Retrieved 2 January 2013.

Bibliography

Anglosphere

The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language (and the term is not, therefore, generally considered synonymous with anglophone), although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire. Most definitions include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The term can also encompass the Republic of Ireland and English-speaking Caribbean countries such as The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica.

Education in Pakistan

Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 18 years. "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law".The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to 5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC), intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in the Kohlu District. Between 2000 and 2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 38%, those ages 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 46%, those 25–34 had a literacy rate of 57%, and those ages 15–24 had a literacy rate of 72%. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%., while Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a literacy rate of 74%. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with more than 92 million Pakistanis (49% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it one of the top English-speaking nations in the world. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world and the second largest out of school population (5.1 million children) after Nigeria.

Egyptian Knowledge Bank

The Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB) is an online library archive and resource that provides access to learning resources and tools for educators, researchers, students, and the general public of Egypt.

Filipino women writers

The history of Filipino women writers is an account of how Philippine women became literary “mistresses of the ink” and “lady pen-pushers” who created works of fiction and non-fiction across the genres. Writing in English, Spanish, Filipino and other local languages and native dialects, female writers from the Philippine archipelago utilized literature, in contrast with the oral tradition of the past, as the living voices of their personal experiences, thoughts, consciousness, concepts of themselves, society, politics, Philippine and world history. They employed the “power of the pen” and the printed word in order to shatter the so-called "Great Grand Silence of the Centuries" of Filipino female members, participants, and contributors to the progress and development of the Philippine Republic, and consequently the rest of the world. Filipino women authors have “put pen to paper” to present, express, and describe their own image and culture to the world, as they see themselves.

Ghanaian people

The Ghanaian people are a nationality originating in the Ghanaian Gold Coast. Ghanaians predominantly inhabit the republic of Ghana, and are the predominant cultural group and residents of Ghana, numbering 20 million people as of 2013. Ethnic Ghanaians make up 85.4% of the total population. The word "Ghana" means "warrior king".Approximately 20 million Ghanaians are residents of the Fourth Republic of Ghana; an additional estimated diaspora population of 4 million people worldwide are of Ghanaian descent. The term ethnic Ghanaian may also be used in some contexts to refer to a locus of ethnic groups native to the Gold Coast. The Republic of Ghana is a natural resource, mineral resource and fossil fuel-rich nation and is home to one of the world's largest gold and sweet crude oil reserves and they are the second major producers of cocoa in the world.The Republic of Ghana is an economic powerhouse in West Africa, and has one of the biggest economies on the African continent and one of the world's fastest growing economies.

International rankings of Pakistan

These are the international rankings of Pakistan.

List of territorial entities where English is an official language

The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials. As of 2019, there are 55 sovereign states and 27 non-sovereign entities where English was an official language. Many country subdivisions have declared English an official language at the local or regional level.

The majority of states where English is an official language are former territories of the British Empire. Notable exceptions include Rwanda, which was formerly a Belgian territory, Cameroon, where only part of national territory were under British mandate, and Liberia, the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau, which were American territories. English is the sole official language of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, NAFTA, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Caribbean Community, Union of South American Nations and many other international organisations. Although English is de jure not an official language at the national level in the United States, most states and territories within the United States have English as an official language. Only Puerto Rico uses a language other than English as a primary working language.

The United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, where the overwhelming majority of native English speakers reside, do not have English as an official language de jure, but English is considered to be their de facto official language due to its dominant position in these countries.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 sovereign states. Nearly all of them are former British colonies or dependencies of those colonies.

No one government in the Commonwealth exercises power over the others, as is the case in a political union. Rather, the Commonwealth is an international organisation in which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status, and cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration issued in 1971. Such common values and goals include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace, which are promoted through multilateral projects and meetings, such as the Commonwealth Games, held once every four years.The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, who serves as the Head of the Commonwealth. This position, however, does not imbue her with any political or executive power over any Commonwealth member states; the position is purely symbolic, and it is the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is the chief executive of the Commonwealth.The Commonwealth was first officially formed in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster gave legal recognition to the sovereignty of dominions. Known as the "British Commonwealth", the original members were the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Irish Free State, and Newfoundland, although Australia and New Zealand did not adopt the statute until 1942 and 1947 respectively. In 1949, the London Declaration was signed and marked the birth of the modern Commonwealth and the adoption of its present name. The newest member is Rwanda, which joined on 29 November 2009. The most recent departure was the Maldives, which severed its connection with the Commonwealth on 13 October 2016.

As of April 2017, of the states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, three are in Europe, twelve in North America and the Caribbean, one in South America, nineteen in Africa, seven in Asia, and eleven in Oceania. There are seven former members, four of which no longer exist as independent entities (but form part of current member states). The members have a combined population of 2.4 billion, almost a third of the world population, of whom 1.21 billion live in India, and 95% live in Asia and Africa combined.Currently sixteen of the member states are Commonwealth realms, with the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state. Five others are monarchies with their own individual monarchs (Brunei, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, Tonga) and the rest are republics. Republic of Ireland (from 1949 according to the Commonwealth; 1936 according to Irish government), Zimbabwe (2003), and Maldives (2016) are former members of the Commonwealth. South Africa, Pakistan and The Gambia left and later rejoined the Commonwealth.

Philippine literature in English

Philippine literature in English has its roots in the efforts of the United States, then engaged in a war with Filipino nationalist forces at the end of the 19th century. By 1901, public education was institutionalized in the Philippines, with English serving as the medium of instruction. That year, around 600 educators in the S.S. Thomas (the "Thomasites") were tasked to replace the soldiers who had been serving as the first teachers. Outside the academe, the wide availability of reading materials, such as books and newspapers in English, helped Filipinos assimilate the language quickly. Today, 78.53% of topulation can understand or speak English (see List of countries by English-speaking population).

Scottish English

Scottish English is the set of English dialects spoken in Scotland. The transregional, standardized variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE). Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools". IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland.In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.

Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.

Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.

Teaching English as a second or foreign language

Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching the English language to students with different first languages. TEFL can occur either within the state school system or more privately, at a language school or with a tutor. TEFL can also take place in an English-speaking country for people who have immigrated there (either temporarily for school or work, or permanently). TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. Other acronyms for TEFL are TESL (Teaching English as a second language), TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages), and ESL (English as a second language, a term typically used in English-speaking countries, and more often referring to the learning than the teaching). Students who are learning English as a second language are known as ELLs (English language learners).

World Englishes

World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world.

The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu, Hawaii, the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed. In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the International Association for World Englishes (IAWE) at a conference of "World Englishes Today", at the University of Illinois, USA. There is now an academic journal devoted to the study of this topic, titled World Englishes.Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalized second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered.

Global
(Sub-)continents
Intercontinental
Cities/urban regions
Past and future
Population density
Growth indicators
Other
demographics
Health
Education
and innovation
Economic

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.