Some of the entries in this list are dependent territories (eg: U.S. Virgin Islands), autonomous regions (eg: Hong Kong) or associated states (eg: Cook Islands) of other countries, rather than being fully sovereign countries in their own right.
|Country||Eligible population||Total English speakers||Total English speakers (%)||As first language||As first language (%)||As an additional language[a]||As an additional language (%)||Comments|
|United States||296,603,003||283,160,411||95.46||234,171,556||79.0||48,988,855||16.5||Figures are from the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-year estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau for persons age 5 and older. Total English speakers are those who either spoke English at home (i.e. as first language), or reported speaking another language at home but could speak English "very well" or "well" (i.e. as an additional language).|
|India||1,028,737,436||125,344,737||12.18||226,449||0.02||125,118,287||12.16||Official language. 2001 Census figures for population and first, second, and third languages. English as a first language is only spoken by 226,449 people, as a second language by 86,125,221, and as a third language by 38,993,066.|
|Pakistan||145,000,000||17,000,000 – 81,000,000||11.72 — 49.00||81,000,000||Official language of the state.|
The percentage of total speakers was 49% in 2009.
|Philippines||110,437,852||70,371,000||63.72||36,935||0.0037||70,371,000||63.72||Total population: Census 2010. Proportion of total speakers: Census 2000, text above Figure 7. 63.71% of the then 66.7 million people aged 5 years or more could speak English. Proportion of native speakers: Census 1995, as quoted by Andrew Gonzalez in "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines", Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19 (5&6), 487–525, p. 492: .04% of the then 68.4 million people were native speakers of English. (1998). "Six out of 10 people aged 5 and over can speak english (63.71%)."|
|United Kingdom||64,000,000||59,600,000||97.74||54,400,000||92.14||5,128,000||5.60|| Additional English speaker figures are for usual residents aged 3 years and over with a main language other than English who can speak English "very well" or "well".|
|Germany||80,600,000||45,400,000||56||272,000||0.338||45,100,000||56||Native speakers: Statistisches Bundesamt (cited here).|
Non-native speakers: Eurobarometer report 2012
Does not include foreign military personnel based in Germany.
|Canada||34,767,255||29,973,590||86.21||19,460,850||52.40||10,287,415||28.69||Source: . The 2016 count reported that 23,757,525 people were able to conduct a conversation in English but not French, while 6,216,065 were able to converse in both English and French. The census also asked for the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual: 52% or 19,460,850 reported English as their sole mother tongue, 165,320 reported both English and French as mother tongues, 533,265 reported English and a non-official language as mother tongues, and 33,900 reported English, French and a non-official language as mother tongues.|
|Australia||21,394,309||17,357,833||97||15,013,965||70.17||2,343,868||17|| The 2001 census data is subject to multiple interpretations. The data noted that 18,972,350 persons out of 21,394,309 total were speakers of a language, and excluded young children. However, more than a million of those 18,972,350 persons provided no information; 879,778 did not give information on proficiency, and 203,101 were "overseas visitors" who were not asked. Of the 17,889,671 persons for whom an inquiry was made 17,357,833 spoke English only, or "well" or "very well" as a second language; while 531,838 spoke "not well" or "not at all".|
|South Africa||52,981,991||16,424,417||31||4,930,510||9.3||11,493,907||22||Native speakers from 2011 Census.|
Non-native speakers: Crystal (2003), p. 109.
|Poland||38,501,000||14,300,000||37||100,000||14,200,000||Source: Central Statistical Office Additional language speakers are people age 18–69, who reported that the English language as their first of second best foreign language, Central Statistical Office Native language counted as those who speak English at home.|
|China||1,270,000,000||81,700,000||6.43||81,700,000||6.43||Among 390.16 mainland chineses who have learned english 20.94% are able to conduct daily conversations|
|Brazil||205,000,000||10,542,000||5||292,000||0.14||10,250,000||5||Source: British council (2012) and EF. Only 5% of Brazilians have a proficient grasp of English as a second or foreign additional language and an additional 6% have a very rudimentary knowledge. Brazil has 240 thousand British descendants and 180 thousand North American ancestry citizens including the Confederados cultural sub-group, descendants of the Confederate colonies.|
|Russia||138,312,535||7,574,303||5.48||2,522||7,571,787||Source: Composition by Nationality and Language Ability, Citizenship, Tables 4.5 and 4.1, Russian Census (2010). The "total" figure is the number of residents who reported English as one of the languages they knew. The "first language" figure is the number of residents who reported "American" or "English" as their nationality. The "additional languages" figure is the difference. More than 9 million schoolgoers studied English as a foreign language in 2008–2009.|
|Belgium||10,584,534||6,250,000||60||6,250,000||60|| (the 2012 report seems to have a critical typo) Note that the Belgian population is divided in two distinct linguistic regions: The Dutch-speaking Flanders, and the French-speaking Wallonia (note that the region of Brussels also has a majority of native French speakers). Like in the Netherlands, a high percentage of Flemish people speak English fluently, and in Wallonia, a lower percentage of people speak English, which brings down the total percentage.|
|Israel||7,303,000||6,205,000||84.97||100,000||1.37||6,105,000||Source: Ethnologue (2005)|
English is widely spoken, both by the Jewish majority and by minority ethnic groups.
|Mexico||120,664,000||15,686,262||12.9||15,686,262||11.6||Consulta Mitofsky-Tracking Poll Roy Campos: Las Lenguas Extranjeras en México, January 2013; and II Conteo de Población y Vivienda, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI).|
|Switzerland||7,637,300||4,680,000||61.28||73,400||0.96||4,606,600||Figure for speakers of English as "main language", according to Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel 2008 Source for number of non-native English speakers is a 1999 publication by Prof. François Grin cited here: http://switzerland.isyours.com/e/countries/uk/language.html|
|Ireland||4,422,100||4,350,000||98.37||4,122,100||93.21||237,900||; Central Statistics Office ; Travbla|
|Singapore||5,607,300||4,218,737||83.1||1,873,302||36.9||2,345,435||Source: 2015 Census. Second language speaker figure only includes those literate in English aged 15 or more and does not include third language proficiency. General Household Survey 2015 "Language Spoken at Home Among Residents Aged 5 Years and Over"|
|Ghana||27,000,000||18,000,000||66.67||18,000,000||66.67||Source: 2010 Ghanaian Census|
|New Zealand||4,275,100||3,673,623||97.82||3,673,623||85.93||There were 4,027,947 responses to 2006 Census: Language spoken. 3,673,679 gave English as a response, 81,936 had no English but another language. The balance of 272,382 were; no language (too young) 75,195, no response 196,221, response unidentifiable 588, response outside scope 378. Hence it is most meaningful to express the English-speaking per cent without including the figures for these 272,382. This gives 97.8% English-speaking, 2.2% non-English-speaking (3,673,679 and 81,936 divided by 3,755,565)|
Crystal (2003), p. 109, gives figures of 3,700,000 native speakers and 150,000 second language speakers.
|Papua New Guinea||6,331,000||3,150,000||49.76||150,000||2.37||3,000,000||[c]|
|Hong Kong||7,336,585||3,903,063||53.2||300,417||4.3||3,587,590||According to 2016 population census, Hong Kong has approximately 3.9 million speakers, of whom 300,417 regard English as their "usual" language.|
|Argentina||42,192,500||2,752,681||6.52|| Percentage of people who state to have a high level of English. Another 19.49% and 16.23% of people said they had an intermediate and low level, respectively, of English.|
|Colombia||47,661,368||2,012,950||4.22||75,600||1,937,350||Total was estimated by multiplying projected population for 2014 (DANE) by percentage of Colombian population that speaks English 4.09% then 63,600 was added to that figure which is the total of American and British residents. Figures for native speakers are as follows: 60,000 U.S. citizens that reside in Colombia 12,000 are Colombian Raizal from San Andrés and Isla de Providencia where they speak San Andrés–Providencia Creole 3,600 British expatriates|
|Kazakhstan||12,156,705||1,874,583||15.4||602||1,873,981||Number of those who understand spoken English, from these 1.9 million: 311,435 (2.6%/16.6%) can only read, 931,444 (7.7%/49.6%) can read and write in English. The number of native speakers is the sum of Americans and Englishmen "by nationality". (Census 2009)|
|Chile||16,634,603||1,585,027||9.53||Source: 2012 Census.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1,305,000||1,145,000||87.74||1,145,000||[f]|
|Madagascar||23,042,300||4,147,614||18||4,147,614||18||The main languages are French and Malagasy.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||120,000||114,000||95||114,000||[n]|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||108,448||113,000||95.97||98,000||15,000||[o]|
|Isle of Man||80,058||80,000||99.93||80,000|
|Northern Mariana Islands||84,000||70,000||83.33||5,000||65,000||[r]|
|Antigua and Barbuda||85,000||68,000||80||66,000||2,000||[s]|
|Federated States of Micronesia||111,000||64,000||57.66||4,000||60,000|||
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||50,000||39,000||78||39,000||[v]|
|British Virgin Islands||23,000||20,000||86.96||20,000||[x]|
|Nauru||12,000||11,600||96.67||900||10,700||English is spoken as the language of government and commerce.|
Non-English speaking populations:
The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking nations that share common cultural and historical ties to the United Kingdom, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military cooperation. While the nations included in different sources vary, the Anglosphere is usually not considered to include all countries where English is an official language (and the term is not, therefore, generally considered synonymous with anglophone), although the nations that are commonly included were all once part of the British Empire. Most definitions include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The term can also encompass the Republic of Ireland and English-speaking Caribbean countries such as The Bahamas, Barbados, and Jamaica.Education in Pakistan
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 18 years. "The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law".The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into six levels: preschool (for the age from 3 to 5 years), primary (grades one through five), middle (grades six through eight), high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC), intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC), and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in the Kohlu District. Between 2000 and 2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 38%, those ages 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 46%, those 25–34 had a literacy rate of 57%, and those ages 15–24 had a literacy rate of 72%. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%., while Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a literacy rate of 74%. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with more than 92 million Pakistanis (49% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it one of the top English-speaking nations in the world. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world and the second largest out of school population (5.1 million children) after Nigeria.Egyptian Knowledge Bank
The Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB) is an online library archive and resource that provides access to learning resources and tools for educators, researchers, students, and the general public of Egypt.Filipino women writers
The history of Filipino women writers is an account of how Philippine women became literary “mistresses of the ink” and “lady pen-pushers” who created works of fiction and non-fiction across the genres. Writing in English, Spanish, Filipino and other local languages and native dialects, female writers from the Philippine archipelago utilized literature, in contrast with the oral tradition of the past, as the living voices of their personal experiences, thoughts, consciousness, concepts of themselves, society, politics, Philippine and world history. They employed the “power of the pen” and the printed word in order to shatter the so-called "Great Grand Silence of the Centuries" of Filipino female members, participants, and contributors to the progress and development of the Philippine Republic, and consequently the rest of the world. Filipino women authors have “put pen to paper” to present, express, and describe their own image and culture to the world, as they see themselves.Ghanaian people
The Ghanaian people are a nationality originating in the Ghanaian Gold Coast. Ghanaians predominantly inhabit the republic of Ghana, and are the predominant cultural group and residents of Ghana, numbering 20 million people as of 2013. Ethnic Ghanaians make up 85.4% of the total population. The word "Ghana" means "warrior king".Approximately 20 million Ghanaians are residents of the Fourth Republic of Ghana; an additional estimated diaspora population of 4 million people worldwide are of Ghanaian descent. The term ethnic Ghanaian may also be used in some contexts to refer to a locus of ethnic groups native to the Gold Coast. The Republic of Ghana is a natural resource, mineral resource and fossil fuel-rich nation and is home to one of the world's largest gold and sweet crude oil reserves and they are the second major producers of cocoa in the world.The Republic of Ghana is an economic powerhouse in West Africa, and has one of the biggest economies on the African continent and one of the world's fastest growing economies.International rankings of Pakistan
These are the international rankings of Pakistan.List of territorial entities where English is an official language
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials. As of 2019, there are 55 sovereign states and 27 non-sovereign entities where English was an official language. Many country subdivisions have declared English an official language at the local or regional level.
The majority of states where English is an official language are former territories of the British Empire. Notable exceptions include Rwanda, which was formerly a Belgian territory, Cameroon, where only part of national territory were under British mandate, and Liberia, the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau, which were American territories. English is the sole official language of the Commonwealth of Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, NAFTA, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Caribbean Community, Union of South American Nations and many other international organisations. Although English is de jure not an official language at the national level in the United States, most states and territories within the United States have English as an official language. Only Puerto Rico uses a language other than English as a primary working language.
The United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, where the overwhelming majority of native English speakers reside, do not have English as an official language de jure, but English is considered to be their de facto official language due to its dominant position in these countries.Lists of countries and territories
This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).
List of countries by nameMember states of the Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 sovereign states. Nearly all of them are former British colonies or dependencies of those colonies.
No one government in the Commonwealth exercises power over the others, as is the case in a political union. Rather, the Commonwealth is an international organisation in which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status, and cooperate within a framework of common values and goals, as outlined in the Singapore Declaration issued in 1971. Such common values and goals include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace, which are promoted through multilateral projects and meetings, such as the Commonwealth Games, held once every four years.The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, who serves as the Head of the Commonwealth. This position, however, does not imbue her with any political or executive power over any Commonwealth member states; the position is purely symbolic, and it is the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is the chief executive of the Commonwealth.The Commonwealth was first officially formed in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster gave legal recognition to the sovereignty of dominions. Known as the "British Commonwealth", the original members were the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Irish Free State, and Newfoundland, although Australia and New Zealand did not adopt the statute until 1942 and 1947 respectively. In 1949, the London Declaration was signed and marked the birth of the modern Commonwealth and the adoption of its present name. The newest member is Rwanda, which joined on 29 November 2009. The most recent departure was the Maldives, which severed its connection with the Commonwealth on 13 October 2016.
As of April 2017, of the states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, three are in Europe, twelve in North America and the Caribbean, one in South America, nineteen in Africa, seven in Asia, and eleven in Oceania. There are seven former members, four of which no longer exist as independent entities (but form part of current member states). The members have a combined population of 2.4 billion, almost a third of the world population, of whom 1.21 billion live in India, and 95% live in Asia and Africa combined.Currently sixteen of the member states are Commonwealth realms, with the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state. Five others are monarchies with their own individual monarchs (Brunei, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, Tonga) and the rest are republics. Republic of Ireland (from 1949 according to the Commonwealth; 1936 according to Irish government), Zimbabwe (2003), and Maldives (2016) are former members of the Commonwealth. South Africa, Pakistan and The Gambia left and later rejoined the Commonwealth.Philippine literature in English
Philippine literature in English has its roots in the efforts of the United States, then engaged in a war with Filipino nationalist forces at the end of the 19th century. By 1901, public education was institutionalized in the Philippines, with English serving as the medium of instruction. That year, around 600 educators in the S.S. Thomas (the "Thomasites") were tasked to replace the soldiers who had been serving as the first teachers. Outside the academe, the wide availability of reading materials, such as books and newspapers in English, helped Filipinos assimilate the language quickly. Today, 78.53% of topulation can understand or speak English (see List of countries by English-speaking population).Scottish English
Scottish English is the set of English dialects spoken in Scotland. The transregional, standardized variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE). Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools". IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland.In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.
Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.
Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances. Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner. Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.Teaching English as a second or foreign language
Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching the English language to students with different first languages. TEFL can occur either within the state school system or more privately, at a language school or with a tutor. TEFL can also take place in an English-speaking country for people who have immigrated there (either temporarily for school or work, or permanently). TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. Other acronyms for TEFL are TESL (Teaching English as a second language), TESOL (Teaching English to speakers of other languages), and ESL (English as a second language, a term typically used in English-speaking countries, and more often referring to the learning than the teaching). Students who are learning English as a second language are known as ELLs (English language learners).World Englishes
World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States. The study of World Englishes consists of identifying varieties of English used in diverse sociolinguistic contexts globally and analyzing how sociolinguistic histories, multicultural backgrounds and contexts of function influence the use of English in different regions of the world.
The issue of World Englishes was first raised in 1978 to examine concepts of regional Englishes globally. Pragmatic factors such as appropriateness, comprehensibility and interpretability justified the use of English as an international and intra-national language. In 1988, at a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) conference in Honolulu, Hawaii, the International Committee of the Study of World Englishes (ICWE) was formed. In 1992, the ICWE formally launched the International Association for World Englishes (IAWE) at a conference of "World Englishes Today", at the University of Illinois, USA. There is now an academic journal devoted to the study of this topic, titled World Englishes.Currently, there are approximately 75 territories where English is spoken either as a first language (L1) or as an unofficial or institutionalized second language (L2) in fields such as government, law and education. It is difficult to establish the total number of Englishes in the world, as new varieties of English are constantly being developed and discovered.
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|Past and future|