List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom is considered as a single entity, while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1.

Also given in percent is each country's population compared with the population of the world, which the United Nations estimates at 7.7 billion as of today.

Countries and Dependencies by Population in 2014
A map of world population in 2014
World population percentage
World population percentage by country as of 2017
World Population Cartogram Map 2002
A cartogram of the world population in 2002

Method

Figures used in this chart are based on the most up to date estimate or projections[1] by the national census authority where available, and are usually rounded off.

Where updated national data are not available, figures are based on the projections for 2019 by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.[2]

Because the compiled figures are not collected at the same time in every country, or at the same level of accuracy, the resulting numerical comparisons may create misleading conclusions. Furthermore, the addition of figures from all countries may not equal the world total. A handful of nations have not conducted a census in over 30 years, providing high error margin estimates only.

Areas that form integral parts of sovereign states, such as the countries of the United Kingdom, are counted as part of the sovereign states concerned. Not included are other entities, such as the European Union,[Note 1] that are not sovereign states, and independent territories that do not have permanent populations, such as various countries' claims to Antarctica.

Sovereign states and dependencies by population

Note: All dependent territories or constituent countries that are parts of sovereign states are shown in italics and not assigned a numbered rank.

Rank Country
(or dependent territory)
Population Date % of world
population
Source
1 China[Note 2] 1,397,040,000 April 24, 2019 18.1% Official population clock
2 India[Note 3] 1,346,350,000 April 24, 2019 17.5% Official population clock
3 United States[Note 4] 329,085,000 April 24, 2019 4.27% Official population clock
4 Indonesia 268,074,600 July 1, 2019 3.48% Official annual projection
5 Pakistan 204,435,000 April 24, 2019 2.65% Official population clock
6 Brazil 209,815,000 April 24, 2019 2.72% Official population clock
7 Nigeria 193,392,517 July 1, 2016 2.51% Official estimate
8 Bangladesh 166,437,000 April 24, 2019 2.16% Official population clock
9 Russia[Note 5] 146,793,744 January 1, 2019 1.91% Official estimate
10 Mexico 126,577,691 July 1, 2019 1.64% Official annual projection
11 Japan 126,220,000 March 1, 2019 1.64% Monthly provisional estimate
12 Philippines 107,537,000 April 24, 2019 1.4% Official population clock
13 Ethiopia 98,665,000 July 1, 2019 1.28% Official annual projection
14 Egypt 98,601,800 April 24, 2019 1.28% Official population clock
15 Vietnam 95,354,000 July 1, 2019 1.24% Official annual projection
16 Democratic Republic of the Congo 86,727,573 July 1, 2019 1.13% UN Projection
17 Germany 82,979,100 September 30, 2018 1.08% Official estimate
18 Iran 82,392,600 April 24, 2019 1.07% Official population clock
19 Turkey 82,003,882 December 31, 2018 1.06% Official annual estimate
20 France[Note 6] 66,989,000 March 1, 2019 0.87% Monthly official estimate
21 Thailand 66,355,305 April 24, 2019 0.86% Official population clock
22 United Kingdom[Note 7] 66,040,229 June 30, 2017 0.86% Official annual estimate
23 Italy 60,375,749 November 30, 2018 0.78% Monthly official estimate
24 South Africa 57,725,600 July 1, 2018 0.75% Official annual estimate
25 Tanzania[Note 8] 55,890,747 July 1, 2019 0.73% Official annual projection
26 Myanmar 54,339,766 July 1, 2019 0.71% Official annual projection
27 Kenya 52,214,791 July 1, 2019 0.68% UN projection
28 South Korea 51,811,167 July 1, 2019 0.67% Official annual estimate
29 Colombia 49,850,000 July 1, 2019 0.65% UN projection
30 Spain 46,733,038 July 1, 2018 0.61% Official estimate
31 Argentina 44,938,712 July 1, 2019 0.58% Official annual projection
32 Algeria 43,378,027 July 1, 2019 0.56% Official annual projection
33 Ukraine[Note 9] 42,122,657 February 1, 2019 0.55% Monthly official estimate
34 Sudan 41,470,620 April 24, 2019 0.54% Official population clock
35 Uganda 40,006,700 July 1, 2019 0.52% Official annual projection
36 Iraq 39,127,900 July 1, 2019 0.51% Official annual projection
37 Poland 38,433,600 December 31, 2017 0.5% Official estimate
38 Canada 37,452,600 April 24, 2019 0.486% Official population clock
39 Morocco[Note 10] 34,999,200 April 24, 2019 0.454% Official population clock
40 Uzbekistan 33,460,073 April 24, 2019 0.43% Official population clock
41 Saudi Arabia 33,413,660 January 1, 2018 0.43% Official estimate
42 Malaysia 32,699,200 April 24, 2019 0.425% Official population clock
43 Peru 32,495,510 June 30, 2019 0.42% Official estimate
44 Venezuela 32,219,521 June 30, 2019 0.42% Official annual projection
45 Afghanistan 31,575,018 July 1, 2018 0.41% Official annual estimate
46 Ghana 30,280,811 July 1, 2019 0.39% Official projection
47 Angola 30,175,553 July 1, 2019 0.39% Official projection
48 Nepal 29,609,623 July 1, 2019 0.38% Official annual projection
49 Yemen 29,579,986 July 1, 2019 0.38% UN projection
50 Mozambique 28,861,863 August 1, 2017 0.37% Official census result
51 Ivory Coast 25,823,071 July 1, 2019 0.34% Official projection
52 North Korea 25,450,000 July 1, 2019 0.33% Official annual projection
53 Australia 25,336,000 April 24, 2019 0.329% Official population clock
54 Madagascar 25,263,000 July 1, 2019 0.33% Official annual projection
55 Cameroon 24,348,251 July 1, 2019 0.32% Official annual projection
Taiwan[Note 11] 23,589,192 March 31, 2019 0.31% Monthly official estimate
56 Niger 22,314,743 July 1, 2019 0.29% Official annual projection
57 Sri Lanka 21,670,112 July 1, 2018 0.28% Official estimate
58 Burkina Faso 20,870,060 July 1, 2019 0.27% Official annual projection
59 Mali 19,973,000 July 1, 2019 0.26% Official annual projection
60 Romania 19,523,621 January 1, 2018 0.25% Official annual estimate
61 Chile 19,107,216 July 1, 2019 0.25% Official annual projection
62 Syria 18,499,181 July 1, 2019 0.24% UN projection
63 Kazakhstan 18,462,568 April 24, 2019 0.24% Official population clock
64 Guatemala 17,679,735 June 30, 2019 0.23% Official annual projection
65 Malawi 17,563,749 September 3, 2018 0.23% Preliminary 2018 census result
66 Zambia 17,381,168 July 1, 2019 0.23% Official annual projection
67 Netherlands 17,313,600 April 24, 2019 0.225% Official population clock
68 Ecuador 17,224,200 April 24, 2019 0.224% Official population clock
69 Cambodia 16,289,270 July 1, 2019 0.21% Official annual projection
70 Senegal 16,209,125 July 1, 2019 0.21% Official annual projection
71 Chad 15,692,969 July 1, 2019 0.2% Official annual projection
72 Somalia[Note 12] 15,636,171 July 1, 2019 0.2% UN projection
73 Zimbabwe 15,159,624 July 1, 2019 0.2% Official annual projection
74 South Sudan 12,778,250 July 1, 2019 0.17% Official annual projection
75 Rwanda 12,374,397 July 1, 2019 0.16% Official projection annual
76 Guinea 12,218,357 July 1, 2019 0.16% Official projection
77 Benin 11,733,059 July 1, 2019 0.15% Official projection annual
78 Haiti 11,577,779 July 1, 2019 0.15% Official annual projection
79 Tunisia 11,551,448 July 1, 2018 0.15% Official estimate
80 Bolivia 11,469,896 July 1, 2019 0.15% Official projection annual
81 Belgium 11,460,522 February 1, 2019 0.15% Monthly official estimate
82 Cuba 11,221,060 December 31, 2017 0.15% Official annual estimate
83 Burundi 10,953,317 July 1, 2019 0.14% Official annual projection
84 Greece 10,741,165 January 1, 2018 0.14% Official estimate
85 Czech Republic 10,649,800 December 31, 2018 0.14% Official quarterly estimate
86 Jordan 10,400,300 April 24, 2019 0.135% Official population clock
87 Dominican Republic 10,358,320 July 1, 2019 0.13% Official projection
88 Portugal 10,291,027 December 31, 2017 0.13% Official annual estimate
89 Sweden 10,246,901 February 28, 2019 0.13% Official monthly estimate
90 Azerbaijan 9,981,457 January 1, 2019 0.13% Official estimate
91 Hungary 9,771,000 January 1, 2018 0.13% Official annual estimate
92 United Arab Emirates 9,682,088 July 1, 2019 0.13% UN projection
93 Belarus 9,475,200 January 1, 2019 0.12% Official quarterly estimate
94 Honduras 9,158,345 July 1, 2019 0.12% Official annual projection
95 Israel 9,022,470 April 24, 2019 0.117% Official population clock
96 Tajikistan 8,931,000 January 1, 2018 0.12% Official estimate
97 Austria 8,859,992 January 1, 2019 0.12% Quarterly provisional figure
98 Papua New Guinea 8,558,800 July 1, 2018 0.11% Official annual estimate
99 Switzerland 8,542,323 December 31, 2018 0.11% Official provisional figure
100 Sierra Leone 7,901,454 July 1, 2019 0.103% Official annual projection
101 Togo 7,538,000 July 1, 2019 0.098% Official annual projection
Hong Kong (China) 7,482,500 December 31, 2018 0.097% Official estimate
102 Paraguay 7,152,703 July 1, 2019 0.093% Official annual projection
103 Laos 7,123,205 July 1, 2019 0.092% Official annual projection
104 Serbia[Note 13] 7,001,444 January 1, 2018 0.091% Official annual estimate
105 Bulgaria 7,000,039 December 31, 2018 0.091% Official estimate
106 El Salvador 6,704,864 July 1, 2019 0.087% Official annual projection
107 Libya 6,569,864 July 1, 2019 0.085% UN projection
108 Nicaragua 6,393,824 June 30, 2017 0.083% Official estimate
109 Kyrgyzstan 6,389,500 January 1, 2019 0.083% Official estimate
110 Lebanon 6,065,922 July 1, 2019 0.079% UN projection
111 Turkmenistan 5,942,561 July 1, 2019 0.077% UN projection
112 Denmark 5,806,081 January 1, 2019 0.075% Official quarterly estimate
113 Singapore 5,638,700 June 30, 2018 0.073% Official estimate
114 Republic of the Congo 5,542,197 July 1, 2019 0.072% UN projection
115 Finland 5,522,018 February 28, 2019 0.072% Official monthly estimate
116 Central African Republic 5,496,011 July 1, 2019 0.071% Official annual projection
117 Slovakia 5,450,421 December 31, 2018 0.071% Official estimate
118 Norway 5,328,212 January 1, 2019 0.069% Official quarterly estimate
119 Eritrea 5,309,659 July 1, 2019 0.069% UN projection
120 Costa Rica 5,058,007 June 30, 2019 0.066% Official annual projection
121 New Zealand 4,957,870 April 24, 2019 0.0644% Official population clock
122 Ireland 4,857,000 April 1, 2018 0.063% Official estimate
123 Palestine 4,780,978 December 1, 2017 0.062% Official census result
124 Oman 4,688,571 April 19, 2019 0.061% Official estimate
125 Liberia 4,475,353 July 1, 2019 0.058% Official projection
126 Kuwait 4,226,920 January 1, 2018 0.055% Official annual estimate
127 Panama 4,218,808 July 1, 2019 0.055% Official annual projection
128 Croatia 4,105,493 January 1, 2018 0.053% Official estimate
129 Mauritania 4,077,347 July 1, 2019 0.053% Official annual projection
130 Georgia[Note 14] 3,729,600 January 1, 2018 0.048% Official annual estimate
131 Moldova[Note 15] 3,547,539 January 1, 2018 0.046% Official estimate
132 Uruguay 3,518,552 June 30, 2019 0.046% Official annual projection
133 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,502,550 January 1, 2018 0.045% Official estimate
134 Mongolia 3,254,209 April 24, 2019 0.042% Official population clock
Puerto Rico (U.S.) 3,195,153 July 1, 2018 0.041% Official estimate
135 Armenia 2,969,200 September 30, 2018 0.039% Official quarterly estimate
136 Albania 2,862,427 January 1, 2019 0.037% Official annual estimate
137 Lithuania 2,790,322 April 1, 2019 0.036% Monthly official estimate
138 Qatar 2,760,586 March 31, 2019 0.036% Monthly official estimate
139 Jamaica 2,726,667 December 31, 2018 0.035% Official estimate
140 Namibia 2,458,936 July 1, 2019 0.032% Official projection
141 Botswana 2,338,851 July 1, 2019 0.03% Official annual projection
142 The Gambia 2,228,075 July 1, 2019 0.029% UN projection
143 Gabon 2,109,099 July 1, 2019 0.027% UN projection
144 Slovenia 2,076,595 October 1, 2018 0.027% Official estimate
145 North Macedonia 2,075,301 December 31, 2017 0.027% Official estimate
146 Lesotho 2,007,201 April 10, 2016 0.026% 2016 census result
147 Latvia 1,916,200 April 1, 2019 0.025% Monthly official estimate
Kosovo[Note 16] 1,798,506 December 31, 2017 0.023% Official annual estimate
148 Guinea-Bissau 1,604,528 July 1, 2019 0.021% Official annual projection
149 Bahrain 1,543,300 July 1, 2019 0.02% Official annual projection
150 East Timor 1,387,149 July 1, 2019 0.018% Official annual projection
151 Trinidad and Tobago 1,359,193 June 30, 2018 0.018% Official estimate
152 Equatorial Guinea 1,358,276 July 1, 2018 0.018% Official estimate
153 Estonia 1,323,820 January 1, 2019 0.017% Official estimate
154 Mauritius 1,265,577 July 1, 2018 0.016% Official estimate
155 Eswatini 1,093,238 May 11, 2017 0.014% Official census result
156 Djibouti 1,078,373 July 1, 2019 0.014% Official annual projection
157 Fiji 884,887 September 17, 2017 0.011% Official census result
158 Comoros 873,724 July 1, 2019 0.011% Official estimate
159 Cyprus 864,200 December 31, 2017 0.011% Official annual estimate
160 Guyana 786,508 July 1, 2019 0.0102% UN projection
161 Bhutan 741,672 July 1, 2019 0.0096% Official annual projection
162 Solomon Islands 680,806 July 1, 2019 0.0088% Official annual projection
Macau (China) 667,400 December 31, 2018 0.0087% Official quarterly estimate
163 Montenegro 622,359 January 1, 2018 0.0081% Official estimate
164 Luxembourg 613,894 January 1, 2019 0.008% Official estimate
Western Sahara[Note 17] 582,478 July 1, 2019 0.0076% UN projection
165 Suriname 573,085 July 1, 2019 0.0074% UN projection
166 Cape Verde 550,483 July 1, 2019 0.0071% Official annual projection
167 Malta 475,701 December 31, 2017 0.0062% Official estimate
Transnistria[Note 18] 469,000 January 1, 2018 0.0061% Official estimate
168 Brunei 421,300 July 1, 2017 0.0055% Official estimate
169 Belize 398,050 July 1, 2018 0.0052% Official estimate
170 Bahamas 385,340 July 1, 2019 0.005% Official annual projection
171 Maldives 378,114 December 31, 2017 0.0049% Official annual estimate
172 Iceland 357,050 December 31, 2018 0.0046% Official quarterly estimate
Northern Cyprus[Note 19] 351,965 December 31, 2017 0.0046% Official estimate
173 Vanuatu 304,500 July 1, 2018 0.004% Official annual estimate
174 Barbados 287,010 July 1, 2019 0.0037% UN projection
New Caledonia (France) 282,200 January 1, 2018 0.0037% Official annual estimate
French Polynesia (France) 275,918 August 17, 2017 0.0036% 2017 census results
Abkhazia[Note 20] 244,832 January 1, 2018 0.0032% Official estimate
175 São Tomé and Príncipe 201,784 July 1, 2018 0.0026% Official estimate
176 Samoa 200,874 July 1, 2019 0.0026% Official projection
177 Saint Lucia 180,454 July 1, 2019 0.0023% UN projection
Guam (U.S.) 172,400 July 1, 2018 0.0022% Official annual estimate
Curaçao (Netherlands) 160,012 January 1, 2018 0.0021% Official annual estimate
Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh[Note 21] 145,053 December 1, 2015 0.0019% 2015 census result
178 Kiribati 120,100 July 1, 2018 0.0016% Official annual estimate
Aruba (Netherlands) 111,849 December 31, 2018 0.0015% Official quarterly estimate
179 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 109,803 July 1, 2017 0.0014% Official estimate
180 Grenada 108,825 July 1, 2019 0.0014% UN projection
Jersey (UK) 105,500 December 31, 2017 0.0014% Official estimate
181 Federated States of Micronesia 105,300 July 1, 2018 0.0014% Official annual estimate
United States Virgin Islands (U.S.) 104,909 July 1, 2019 0.0014% UN projection
182 Antigua and Barbuda 104,084 July 1, 2019 0.0014% UN projection
183 Tonga 100,651 November 30, 2016 0.0013% 2016 census result
184 Seychelles 96,762 June 30, 2018 0.0013% Official estimate
Isle of Man (UK) 83,314 April 24, 2016 0.0011% 2016 census result
185 Andorra 74,794 December 31, 2017 0.001% Official estimate
186 Dominica 74,679 July 1, 2019 0.001% UN projection
Bermuda (UK) 64,027 July 1, 2019 0.00083% Official annual projection
Cayman Islands (UK) 63,415 December 31, 2017 0.00082% Official estimate
Guernsey (UK) 62,063 December 31, 2017 0.00081% Official estimate
American Samoa (U.S.) 56,700 July 1, 2018 0.00074% Official annual estimate
Northern Mariana Islands (U.S.) 56,200 July 1, 2018 0.00073% Official annual estimate
187 Saint Kitts and Nevis 56,345 July 1, 2019 0.0007% UN projection
Greenland (Denmark) 55,992 January 1, 2019 0.00073% Official estimate
188 Marshall Islands 55,500 July 1, 2018 0.00072% Official annual estimate
South Ossetia[Note 22] 53,532 October 15, 2015 0.0007% Preliminary 2015 census result
Faroe Islands (Denmark) 51,540 March 1, 2019 0.00067% Monthly official estimate
Turks and Caicos Islands (UK) 41,369 July 1, 2018 0.00054% Official estimate
Sint Maarten (Netherlands) 40,614 January 1, 2018 0.00053% Official estimate
189 Liechtenstein 38,380 December 31, 2018 0.0005% Official semi annual estimate
190 Monaco 38,300 December 31, 2017 0.0005% Official annual estimate
Flag of France.svg Saint-Martin (France) 35,746 January 1, 2016 0.00046% Official estimate
Gibraltar (UK) 33,573 December 31, 2015 0.00044% Official estimate
191 San Marino 33,419 December 31, 2018 0.00043% Official monthly estimate
British Virgin Islands (UK) 32,206 July 1, 2019 0.00042% UN projection
192 Palau 17,900 July 1, 2018 0.00023% Official annual estimate
Cook Islands (NZ) 15,200 July 1, 2018 0.0002% Official annual estimate
Anguilla (UK) 15,174 July 1, 2019 0.0002% UN projection
Wallis and Futuna (France) 11,700 July 1, 2018 0.00015% Official annual estimate
193 Nauru 11,000 July 1, 2018 0.00014% Official annual estimate
194 Tuvalu 10,200 July 1, 2018 0.00013% Official annual estimate
Saint Barthélemy (France) 9,793 January 1, 2016 0.00013% Official estimate
Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) 6,008 January 1, 2016 0.000078% Official estimate
Flag of Saint Helena.svg Saint Helena, Ascension
and Tristan da Cunha
(UK)
5,633 February 7, 2016 0.000073% 2016 census result
Montserrat (UK) 5,220 July 1, 2019 0.000068% UN projection
Falkland Islands (UK) 3,198 October 9, 2016 0.000042% 2016 census result
Christmas Island (Australia) 1,928 June 30, 2018 0.000025% Official estimate
Norfolk Island (Australia) 1,756 June 30, 2018 0.000023% Official estimate
Niue (NZ) 1,520 July 1, 2018 0.000020% Official annual estimate
Tokelau (NZ) 1,400 July 1, 2018 0.000018% Official annual estimate
195 Vatican City 800 January 1, 2014 0.000010% Official estimate
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) 538 June 30, 2018 0.0000070% Official estimate
Pitcairn Islands (UK) 50 January 1, 2019 0.00000065% Official estimate

See also

Lists of countries by population

Continental

Intercontinental

Notes

  1. ^ The European Union is a sui generis supranational union whose sovereign members delegate to it by treaty certain powers that are often exercised by sovereign states. Its combined population has been estimated at 512,379,225 on January 1, 2018, and it would be ranked 3rd if it were included in the list. It has 6.65% of the world's population — see "Eurostat-Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface(TGM)table". European Commission.
  2. ^ The census figure refers to mainland China, excluding its special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, the former of which returned to Chinese sovereignty on 1 July 1997 and the latter on 20 December 1999.
  3. ^ Does not include the figures of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  4. ^ Population of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
  5. ^ Including the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol, Russia's disputed administrative areas on the Crimean Peninsula. The Ukrainian government and many of the world's other states consider the Crimean Peninsula de jure a part of Ukraine's territory.
  6. ^ Population of the 18 regions of France. Excluding Overseas Territories and Collectivities: French Polynesia, New Caledonia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Clipperton Island, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna.
  7. ^ Excluding the 14 Overseas Territories and 3 Crown dependencies shown separately.
  8. ^ Including Zanzibar.
  9. ^ Excluding the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and City of Sevastopol, Ukraine's administrative areas on the Crimean Peninsula which are disputed with and de facto administered by Russia. However includes all territory in the Donbass region where there are ongoing insurgencies by separatist forces.
  10. ^ Excluding the population of the disputed territory of Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic).
  11. ^ Taiwan (Republic of China) also includes the minor islands of Kinmen, Matsu, Penghu, etc. The UN does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state.
  12. ^ Includes Somaliland.
  13. ^ Excludes Kosovo.
  14. ^ Excludes Abkhazia (242,862, census 2011) and South Ossetia (53,559, census 2015).
  15. ^ Excludes Transnistria.
  16. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states. 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.
  17. ^ Administration is split between Morocco and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, both of which claim the entire territory.
  18. ^ De facto independent, de jure part of Moldova.
  19. ^ De facto independent, de jure part of Cyprus.
  20. ^ Abkhazia is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Abkhazia and Georgia. The Republic of Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence on 23 July 1992, but Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Abkhazia has received formal recognition as an independent state from 7 out of 193 United Nations member states, 2 of which have subsequently withdrawn their recognition.
  21. ^ De facto independent, de jure part of Azerbaijan.
  22. ^ South Ossetia's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is recognised by only a few other countries. The Georgian government and most of the world's other states consider South Ossetia de jure a part of Georgia's territory.

References

  1. ^ "China's Population: The Most Surprising Demographic Crisis". The Economist. 2013.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019".

External links

Aging of Japan

The aging of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations, with Japan being purported to have the highest proportion of elderly citizens. Japan is experiencing a “super-aging” society both in rural and urban areas. According to 2014 estimates, 33.0% of the Japanese population is above the age of 60, 25.9% are aged 65 or above, and 12.5% are aged 75 or above. People aged 65 and older in Japan make up a quarter of its total population, estimated to reach a third by 2050.Japan had a post war baby boom between 1947 and 1949. The law of 1948 led to easy access to abortions, followed by a prolonged period of low fertility, resulting in the aging population of Japan. The dramatic aging of Japanese society as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and high life expectancy is expected to continue. Japan's population began to decline in 2011. In 2014, Japan's population was estimated at 127 million; this figure is expected to shrink to 107 million (16%) by 2040 and to 97 million (24%) by 2050 should the current demographic trend continue.Japanese citizens largely view Japan as comfortable and modern, resulting in no sense of a population crisis. The government of Japan has responded to concerns about the stress that demographic changes place on the economy and social services with policies intended to restore the fertility rate and make the elderly more active in society.

Jagiellonian compromise

The Jagiellonian compromise is an electoral system for two-tier voting bodies originally proposed in 2004 for the Council of the European Union as a way of achieving "one person, one vote" within the Union.

The compromise was analysed by various authors and received attention in the popular press. The system is based on the square root law of Penrose, which implies that a priori voting power defined by the Penrose–Banzhaf index of a member of a voting body is inversely proportional to the square root of its size. Hence the number of votes obtained by a representative of a state with population is proportional to . Jagiellonian Compromise is based on a single criterion only. Decision of the Council of the Union of Member States is taken if the sum of the weights of States voting in favour of a given proposal exceeds the qualified majority quota equal to

For a generic distribution of population among States of the Union, the optimal threshold decreases with as .

List of continents by population

This is a list of all major regions' population.

List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "notes" column for each country for clarification.

Not included in the list are individual country claims to parts of the continent of Antarctica, entities such as the European Union that have some degree of sovereignty but do not consider themselves to be sovereign countries or dependent territories, and unrecognised micronations such as the Principality of Sealand.

This list includes three measurements of area:

Total area: the sum of land and water areas within international boundaries and coastlines.

Land area: the aggregate of all land within international boundaries and coastlines, excluding water area.

Water area: the sum of the surface areas of all inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, and rivers) within international boundaries and coastlines. Coastal internal waters (some small bays) may be included. Territorial waters are not included unless otherwise noted. Contiguous zones and exclusive economic zones are not included.Data is taken from the United Nations Statistics Division unless otherwise noted.

List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories based upon the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. The list also includes but does not rank unrecognized but de facto independent countries. The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Figures used in this article are mainly based on the latest censuses and official estimates (or projections). Where there is not such updated national data available, figures are based on the online projections provided by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

List of countries by population in 2000

This is harmonized list of population estimates for the year 2000. For a listing with more recent estimates, see List of countries and dependencies by population.

This is a list of countries by population in 2000. It is a list of countries in the world by population in the exact beginning of the year 2000.

Because the table contains data only for the 230 nations and territories at the start of 2000, there are no entries for national regions declared later in 2000.

This list adopts definitions of "country" on a case by case basis. The United Kingdom is considered as a single country while constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are regarded separately.

List of international rankings

This is a list of international rankings.

List of largest empires

The following is a list of the largest empires in world history. Rein Taagepera has defined an empire as "any relatively large sovereign political entity whose components are not sovereign" and its size as the area over which the empire has some undisputed military and taxation prerogatives, and these are the definitions used by this list.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America by population density

Sources: Wikipedia (List of countries and dependencies by population density)

List of states by population

List of states by population may refer to:

List of states and territories of the United States by population

List of countries and dependencies by population

List of states by population density

List of states by population density may refer to:

List of U.S. states and territories by population density

List of countries and dependencies by population density

List of territorial entities where Afrikaans and Dutch are official languages

The following is a list of the territorial entities where Afrikaans and Dutch are official languages. It includes countries, which have Afrikaans and/or Dutch as (one of) their nationwide official language(s), as well as dependent territories with Afrikaans and/or Dutch as a co-official language.

Worldwide, Afrikaans and Dutch as native or second language are spoken by approximately 46 million people. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages, particularly in written form. As an estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages; however, Afrikaans has a considerably more regular morphology, grammar, and spelling.

List of territorial entities where German is an official language

The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language. It includes countries, which have German as (one of) their nationwide official language(s), as well as dependent territories with German as a co-official language.

Lists of countries and territories

This list is incomplete. You can help by expanding itThis is a list of many lists of countries and territories by various definitions, including FIFA countries, federations, and fictional countries. A country or territory is a geographical area, either in the sense of nation (a cultural entity) or state (a political entity).

List of countries by name

Microstate

A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both. The meanings of "state" and "very small" are not well-defined in international law. Recent attempts, since 2010, to define microstates have focused on identifying political entities with unique qualitative features linked to their geographic or demographic limitations. According to a qualitative definition, microstates are: "modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints." In line with this and most other definitions, examples of microstates include Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Andorra, the Cook Islands, Niue, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

The smallest political unit recognized as a sovereign state is Vatican City, with 842 citizens as of July 2013 and an area of only 44 hectares (110 acres). However, some scholars dispute qualifying the Vatican as a state, arguing that it does not meet the "traditional criteria of statehood" and that the "special status of the Vatican City is probably best regarded as a means of ensuring that the Pope can freely exercise his spiritual functions, and in this respect is loosely analogous to that of the headquarters of international organisations."Microstates are distinct from micronations, which are not recognized as sovereign states. Special territories without full sovereignty, such as the British Crown Dependencies, the Chinese Special Administrative Regions and overseas territories of Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Australia, Norway, the United States and the United Kingdom, are also not considered microstates.

Nauru

Nauru ( nah-OO-roo or NOW-roo; Nauruan: Naoero), officially the Republic of Nauru (Nauruan: Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest state on the list of countries and dependencies by area behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Its population is 11,347, making it the third smallest on the list of countries and dependencies by population, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.

Settled by people from Micronesia and Polynesia c.  1000 BC, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war ended, the country entered into United Nations trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968, and became a member of the Pacific Community (SPC) in 1969.

Nauru is a phosphate-rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations. It has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011, are not economically viable for extraction. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the island's environment had been seriously harmed by mining, the trust that had been established to manage the island's wealth diminished in value. To earn income, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre. From 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru Regional Processing Centre, an offshore Australian immigration detention facility. As a result of heavy dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia.

One-child policy

China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its population. Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after a decade-long two-child policy), modified in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. The term one-child policy is thus a misnomer, because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed (1979–2015) about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child.

Provincial governments could, and did, require the use of contraception, sterilizations and abortions to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work. China also rewards families with only one child. From 1982 onwards, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the CPC central committee and the state council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for only children. Parents who had one child would also get a “one-child glory certificate”.According to the Chinese government, 400 million births were prevented, starting from 1970, a decade before the start of the one child policy. Some scholars have disputed this claim, with Martin King Whyte and Wang et al contending that the policy had little effect on population growth or the size of the total population. China has been compared to countries with similar socioeconomic development like Thailand and Iran, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which achieved similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy. However, a recent demographic study challenged these scholars by showing that China's low fertility was achieved two or three decades earlier than would be expected given its level of development, and that more than 500 million births were prevented between 1970 and 2015 (a calculation based on an alternate model of fertility decline proposed by the scholars themselves), some 400 million of which may have been due to one-child restrictions. In addition, by 2060 China's birth planning policies may have averted as many as 1 billion people in China when one adds in all the eliminated descendants of the births originally averted by the policies. Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China.Effective from January 2016, the national birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children.

World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.World population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.

The highest population growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred between 1955 and 1975, peaking to 2.06% between 1965 and 1970. The growth rate has declined to 1.18% between 2010 and 2015 and is projected to decline further in the course of the 21st century. However, the global population is still growing and is projected to reach about 10 billion in 2050 and more than 11 billion in 2100.

Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million, and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially constant at a level of 135 million, while deaths numbered 56 million per year and were expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.

The median age of the world's population was estimated to be 30.4 years in 2018.

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