List of college athletics championship game outcomes
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), founded in 1906, is the major governing body for intercollegiate athletics in the United States and currently conducts national championships in its sponsored sports, except for the top level of football. Before the NCAA offered a championship for any particular sport, intercollegiate national championships in that sport were determined independently. Although the NCAA sometimes lists these historic championships in its official records, it has not awarded retroactive championship titles.
Prior to NCAA inception of a sport, intercollegiate championships were conducted and usually espoused in advance as competitions for the national championship. Many winners were recognized in contemporary newspapers and other publications as the "national intercollegiate" champions. These are not to be confused with the champions of early 20th-century single-sport alliances of northeastern U.S. colleges that were named "Intercollegiate League" or "Intercollegiate Association." These leagues generally included some of the colleges that later became the Ivy League, as well as an assortment of other northeastern universities.
Even after the NCAA began organizing national championships, some non-NCAA organizations conducted their own national championship tournaments, usually as a supplement to the NCAA events. A notable example is that of NCAA Division III men's volleyball. Although the NCAA Men's National Collegiate Volleyball Championship, established in 1970, was in theory open to D-III schools, none had received a berth in that tournament. As a result, a separate championship event, open only to D-III schools, was created in 1997. That event was discontinued after its 2011 edition once the NCAA announced it would sponsor an official Division III championship starting in 2012.
The historical championship event outcomes included in the Section 1 list were decided by actual games organized for the purpose of determining a champion on the field of play. Lists of other championships for collegiate athletic organizations are referenced in Sections 2.1 through 2.6 of this list. (See Table of Contents)
Championship game outcomes prior/concurrent to NCAA inception
1893 Yale def. Amherst, 9-0
Tournament was played at the Chicago World's Fair and included Virginia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Vanderbilt, Yale, Amherst, Wesleyan and Vermont.William McKinley attended the opening game. It was organized by the Columbian National Inter-Collegiate Baseball Association, notably by its secretary, Amos Alonzo Stagg, then the new head football coach at the University of Chicago.
1904 Hiram College won the 1904 Olympic Games collegiate championship tournament, def. Wheaton College, 25-20, and Latter-Day Saints University (later, Brigham Young University), 25-18.
1908 Chicago def. Pennsylvania, 2 games to 0 (21-18, 16-15)
Amateur Athletic Union annual United States championship – College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932, and 1934. Four college teams won the championship (final game results):
1916 Utah def. Illinois Athletic Club, 28-27
1920 New York University def. Rutgers, 49-24
1924 Butler (Indiana) def. Kansas City Athletic Club, 30-26
1925 Washburn College (Kansas) def. Hillyard Shine Alls, 42-30
1920 Pennsylvania def. Chicago, 2 games to 1 (24-28, 29-18, 23-21)
The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has never conducted a national championship event at the highest level of college football, currently its Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Neither has the NCAA ever officially endorsed an FBS national champion. Since 1978, it has held a championship playoff at the next lower level of college play. Prior to 1978, no divisions separated teams, and champions were independently designated by "selectors," composed of individuals and third-party organizations using experts, polls, and mathematical methods. These efforts have continued and thrived for the higher FBS level. From the beginning, the selectors' choices have frequently been at odds with each other. The NCAA has documented both contemporaneous and retroactive choices of several major national selectors in its official NCAA Football Records Book. These selections are often claimed as championships by individual schools.
In 1903, the Western Conference instituted an annual conference championship meet. Although early interest was expressed by the Intercollegiate Association in establishing a recognized national championship event with the Western Conference, that interest did not reach fruition. In later years, the University of Chicago, a perennial Western Conference power, participated in several of the annual championship meets of the Intercollegiate Association.
1925 Navy def. Chicago, 33 - 12, in a dual meet between winners of the Intercollegiate and Western Conference championship meets.
"[I]n the twenty year period from 1910 to (the end of 1929) ... Navy has participated in 91 tournaments and dual meets and won 87 of them, including all seven of the intercollegiate championship events entered." (Those seven events were conference, not national, championships.) Navy was so strong that the Intercollegiate Association asked Navy not to participate in the 1926 championship meet. Navy was not a participant in the 1926, 1927 and 1928 meets.
1944 Penn State won the National AAU team title during a five-year hiatus in the NCAA championships for World War II.
Amateur Athletic Union conducted annual National Ice Hockey Championships during 1931–1948, except during most of the World War II years. College teams won the championship on at least two occasions:
The first intercollegiate lacrosse tournament was held in 1881 with Harvard beating Princeton in the championship game. New York University and Columbia University also participated. From 1882 through 1970 (excepting 1932–1935), the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association and the collegiate lacrosse associations from which it evolved chose annual champions based on season records. These associations were the ILA (1882-1905), IULL (1899-1905), USILL (1906-1925) and USILA (1926-1970). In 1912 and 1921, the USILL conducted championship games between the winners of its Northern and Southern Divisions. Efforts to conduct such games in other years during its existence were unsuccessful.
(This competition is not to be confused with the National ROTC outdoor rifle team championship for the William Randolph Hearst Team Trophy (first awarded circa 1922), which was not open to all students.)
Beginning in 1921, an intercollegiate winter sports championship was held annually at Lake Placid, New York, and involved colleges from the US and Canada. It combined events from downhill and slalom skiing, cross-country skiing and ski jumping, as well as speed skating, figure skating and snowshoeing in some years. The overall winning team received the President Harding Trophy. Prior to the 1940s, in end-of-year accounts of national sporting champions, major newspapers regarded the winning team at Lake Placid as intercollegiate champion.
In the late 1930s, a major annual "four-way" (downhill, slalom, jumping and cross-country) intercollegiate event began in Sun Valley, Idaho. From the start it attracted not only college teams from the West, but also strong teams that traditionally participated in the Lake Placid meet, such as Dartmouth. After interruption by World War II, it usurped the older event.
Newspaper coverage referred to the 1946 and 1947 Sun Valley winners (Utah and Middlebury, respectively) as national champions. A few days earlier than the 1947 Sun Valley meet, a similar skiing competition was held in Aspen, Colorado, overlapping the start date of the Sun Valley event. In 1948 and 1949, Aspen, rather than Sun Valley, hosted the national "four-way" intercollegiate ski championships.
All of these competitions were held in the middle of the ski season rather than at the end. Then in 1950, an official annual post-season national championship event was established. This event served to influence the NCAA to add skiing as a sponsored sport, with the first NCAA title event occurring in 1954.
The Intercollegiate Ski Union (ISU), a conference of schools primarily in the Northeast, also conducted annual championship events for its members. However, its geographic reach was more limited than the other competitions described.
The Soccer Bowl(played in 1950–52) attempted to settle the national championship on the field for the 1949, 1950 and 1951 seasons. The Soccer Bowl championship games were played in January,1950; December, 1950; and February, 1952, respectively.
^ abcdIn 1943 and 1947, NYU also won the AAU national senior indoor track and field meet. Villanova did so in 1957, as did the University of Pennsylvania in 1918. These are the only occasions that a college team won this open AAU title prior to collegiate sponsorship of the sport by the NCAA.
* University of Chicago won the 1904 Olympic Games collegiate championship meet, defeating Princeton, Illinois, Michigan State and Colgate.
† A contemporary source states, as part of an "international athletic games" (similar to the Olympics) in Chicago on June 28—July 6, 1913, "The national intercollegiate track and field meet was won by the University of Michigan," with Southern California second and Chicago third.
Until 1969, men's trampoline was one of the events that comprised the NCAA gymnastics championships. At that time, the event was removed in order to conform to the international gymnastics itinerary. The NCAA continued to bestow a national title in trampoline for two years.
This was a championship solely for NCAA Division III schools. It was discontinued after its 2011 edition when the NCAA announced it would organize an official Division III championship starting in 2012.
The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) has since 1926 conducted United States championship tournaments for women's amateur teams. On 28 occasions, small college teams (all from the central U.S.) have won the AAU women's basketball championship:
The National Women's Rowing Association (NWRA) sponsored an annual open eights national championship from 1971–1979, among college and non-college teams. (There were no eights before 1971.) During this period, only in 1973 and 1975 did a college team win the national eights championship outright. According to US Rowing Association, contemporary news reports in 1976 and 1977 do not mention a national collegiate title. Beginning in 1980, the NWRA sponsored the Women's Collegiate National Championship, including varsity eights. In 1986 the NWRA dissolved after recognizing US Rowing's assuming of responsibility as the national governing body for women's rowing.
NWRA Open National Championship, Eights top college finishers, 1971–1979 (champion in parentheses) :
The AAU conducted senior women's national track and field championships for all athletes, both indoors and outdoors, beginning in the 1920s. Two college teams won numerous championships in each sport against other clubs from throughout the country.
^"NCAA Tournament History". "The tournament now determines the national champion, but that wasn't always the case. Until the 1950's, the NIT was just as big a tournament as the NCAA, and teams often chose to enter the NIT and bypass the NCAA tourney.". Retrieved 2013-02-12.
^Davies, Richard O. (2007). "Sports in American Life: A History." Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated. p. 155. ISBN 9781405106474. "In 1938, [Ned] Irish invited 16 teams to compete in a new tournament that he called the National Invitation Tournament ..., and it would be the premiere college basketball event for more than a decade. The following year, the NCAA responded by creating its own tournament, but it did not surpass the NIT as the premier postseason tournament until the 1950s."
^Augustyn, Adam, ed. (2011). "The Britannica Guide to Basketball." Rosen Education Service. p. 17. ISBN 1615305289. "New York City basketball writers organized the first National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 1938, but a year later the New York City colleges took control of the event. Until the early 1950s, the NIT was considered the most prestigious U.S. tournament ..."
^Roth, John (2006). "The Encyclopedia of Duke Basketball." Duke University Press. p. 272. "During its early years the [NCAA] tourney was overshadowed by the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in New York."
^Glickman, Marty (1999). "The Fastest Kid on the Block: The Marty Glickman Story." Syracuse University Press. p. 75. ISBN 0815605749. "The first big tournament I covered was the 1946 National Invitation Tournament, the NIT, at Madison Square Garden. It, not the NCAA, was the big college basketball tournament in those days. Later the NCAA flexed its muscles to dominate college basketball, and the NIT became little more than an also-ran tourney. In its time, though, the NIT was enormous."
^McPhee, John (1999). "A Sense of Where You Are: Bill Bradley at Princeton." Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 114-115. ISBN 0374526893. "In the 1940's, when the N.C.A.A. tournament was less than 10 years old, the National Invitation Tournament ... was the most glamorous of the post-season tournaments and generally had the better teams. The winner of the National Invitation Tournament was regarded as more of a national champion than the actual, titular, national champion, or winner of the N.C.A.A. tournament."
^Hooper, Matt (2009-10-10). Noel, Tex, ed. "How many national titles can Alabama really lay claim to? Better yet, why is there more than one answer? (republished with permission from the Birmingham Weekly)". The College Football Historian. Intercollegiate Football Researchers Association. 2 (9). ISSN2326-3628. External link in |publisher= (help)
^Frank Moore Colby, ed. (1900). The International year book: a compendium of the world's progress during the year 1899. Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 394. Retrieved 2010-09-24. In 1899 the first important intercollegiate gymnastic association meeting was held, the result being as follows: Horizontal bar, E. B. Turner, Princeton, and R. G. Clapp, Yale, tied, 12 points; side horse, F. J. Belcher, New York University, 10 5/6; parallel bars, R. G. Clapp, 12⅓; flying rings, R. G. Clapp, 11 1/6; club swinging, R. G. Clapp, 13½; tumbling, W. L. Otis, Yale, 10; all-around championship, R. G. Clapp, Yale, 7 5/6 points.
^"College Gymnasts' Annual Meeting". American gymnasia and athletic record, Volume 1, No. 5. January 1905. p. 167. Retrieved 2010-09-23. With a view to bringing about a recognized national championship in collegiate gymnastics, Secretary T. H. Burch, Jr., of Columbia, was authorized to correspond with the Western Intercollegiate Gymnastic Association with the view of an affiliation, arranging for the Western champion team to meet the Eastern champion team in some city of the middle West, the winner of this competition to become known as the national champion. This course was heartily indorsed by all of the collegians present, and is one that has been the object of achievement for some years.
College athletics in the United States or college sports in the United States refers primarily to sports and athletic competition organized and funded by institutions of tertiary education (universities, or colleges in American English).
In the United States, college athletics is a two-tiered system.
The first tier includes the sports that are sanctioned by one of the collegiate sport governing bodies. The major sanctioning organizations include the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) and the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA). Individual sports not governed by umbrella organizations like the NCAA, NAIA, and NJCAA are overseen by their own organizations, such as the Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association, National Collegiate Boxing Association, USA Rugby, National Collegiate Roller Hockey Association and Intercollegiate Rowing Association. Additionally, the first tier is characterized by selective participation, since only the elite programs in their sport are able to participate; some colleges offer athletic scholarships to intercollegiate sports competitors. The second tier includes all intramural and recreational sports clubs, which are available to a larger portion of the student body. Competition between student clubs from different colleges, not organized by and therefore not representing the institutions or their faculties, may also be called "intercollegiate" athletics or simply college sports.
Unlike in the rest of the world, in the United States today, many college sports are extremely popular on both regional and national scales, in many cases competing with professional championships for prime broadcast, print coverage and for the top athletes. The average university sponsors at least twenty different sports and offers a wide variety of intramural sports as well. In total, there are approximately 400,000 men and women student-athletes that participate in sanctioned athletics each year. The largest collegiate sanctioning organization is the NCAA, and the sport that most schools participate in the most is basketball, with 2,197 men's and women's basketball teams at all levels. A close second is cross crounty (with 2,065 NCAA teams) and baseball/softball is third (1,952).Principles for inter-collegiate athletics include "gender equity, sportsmanship and ethical conduct, sound academic standards, nondiscrimination, diversity within governance, rules compliance, amateurism, competitive equity, recruiting, eligibility, financial aid, playing and practice seasons, postseason competition and contests sponsored by non-collegiate organizations, and the economy of athletic program operations to ensure fair play and equality throughout all college athletic programs and associations."
The Indiana State Sycamores are the NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletic teams of Indiana State University. Since the 1977–78 academic year, Indiana State has been a member of the Missouri Valley Conference (MVC). The Indiana State football team has competed in the second-tier Division I FCS since the 1982 season, and has been a member of the Missouri Valley Football Conference (MVFC) since it was spun off from the Gateway Collegiate Athletic Conference (Gateway) when the latter league merged into the MVC in 1992. Past conference memberships include the Indiana College Athletic League (1895–1922), the Indiana Intercollegiate Conference (1922–1950), the Indiana Collegiate Conference (1950–1968) and the Midwestern Conference (1970–1972). The women's teams were Gateway members from the league's 1982 founding until its absorption by the MVC. In 1986, a year after the Gateway took on football as its only men's sport, the Sycamores football team joined that conference.
This is a list of U.S. universities and colleges that have won the most team sport national championships that have been bestowed for the highest level of collegiate athletic competition, be that at either the varsity or club level, as determined by the governing organization of each sport.
The following is a list of current Pac-12 Conference members' NCAA and AIAW championships. The Pac-12 was the first conference to win 500 team titles & currently (As of December 15, 2018) Pac-12 members have won 517 NCAA national championships, which is 215 more than the next closest conference, The Big Ten. Since the 1999-2000 academic year, the Pac-12 claims a total of 150 NCAA team titles, including 10 in 2013-2014. They have also led or tied the nation in NCAA Championships in 48 of the last 54 years, the only exceptions being in 1980-81, 1988–89, 1990–91 and 1995-96 when the conference finished second, and finished third in 1998-99 and 2004-2005.
This list also includes championships won by current Pac-12 schools while members of the Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a closely related league that was formed in 1916 and disbanded in 1959. Although the current charter of what is now known as the Pac-12 dates only to the formation of the Athletic Association of Western Universities immediately after the demise of the PCC, the Pac-12 claims the PCC's history as its own. There is considerable continuity between the PCC and Pac-12—eight of the nine final members of the PCC (all except Idaho) are now Pac-12 members; five of these schools had founded the AAWU, and all eight had joined the AAWU by the 1964–65 school year.
The Michigan State Spartans are the athletic teams that represent Michigan State University. The school's athletic program includes 25 varsity sports teams. Their mascot is a Spartan warrior named Sparty, and the school colors are green and white. The university participates in the NCAA's Division I and the Football Bowl Subdivision for football. The Spartans participate as members of the Big Ten Conference in all varsity sports. Michigan State offers 12 varsity sports for men and 13 for women.The university's previous athletic director was Mark Hollis, who served in the position from January 1, 2008 to January 26, 2018, when he resigned, along with others at the University, due to fallout from the USA Gymnastics sex abuse scandal involving former MSU Medical School faculty member Dr. Larry Nassar. Bill Beekman assumed the position on an interim basis, until July 17, 2018 when he was named to the permanent post.MSU's football team has won or shared six national championships in 1951, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1965 and 1966, and has won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014. Its men's basketball team won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000. The MSU men's ice hockey team won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007.
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