List of chemical elements

This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2019. A chemical element, often simply called an element, is a species of atoms which all have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e., the same atomic number, or Z).[1]

Perhaps the most popular visualization of all 118 elements is the periodic table of the elements, a convenient tabular arrangement of the elements by their chemical properties that uses abbreviated chemical symbols in place of full element names, but the simpler list format presented here may also be useful. Like the periodic table, the list below organizes the elements by the number of protons in their atoms; it can also be organized by other properties, such as atomic weight, density, and electronegativity. For more detailed information about the origins of element names, see List of chemical element name etymologies.

List

Note that the densities of synthetic elements depend on the isotope.

See also

References

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "chemical element". doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022
  2. ^ "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. ^ Wieser, Michael E.; et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02. (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  5. ^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)
  6. ^ Holman, S. W.; Lawrence, R. R.; Barr, L. (1 January 1895). "Melting Points of Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Copper, and Platinum". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 31: 218–233. doi:10.2307/20020628. JSTOR 20020628.

External links

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared
Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm = 1%). Note that the noble gases are not included, as they form no part of the solid crust. Also not included are certain elements with extremely low crustal concentrations: technetium (atomic number 43), promethium (61), and all elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 except thorium (90) and uranium (92).

Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z). For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have exactly 8 protons.

118 elements have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radionuclides, which decay over time into other elements. Iron is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust.Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. However astronomical observations suggest that ordinary observable matter makes up only about 15% of the matter in the universe: the remainder is dark matter; the composition of this is unknown, but it is not composed of chemical elements.

The two lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were mostly formed in the Big Bang and are the most common elements in the universe. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium and boron) were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are thus rarer than heavier elements. Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. Elements with greater than 26 protons are formed by supernova nucleosynthesis in supernovae, which, when they explode, blast these elements as supernova remnants far into space, where they may become incorporated into planets when they are formed.The term "element" is used for atoms with a given number of protons (regardless of whether or not they are ionized or chemically bonded, e.g. hydrogen in water) as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element (e.g. hydrogen gas). For the second meaning, the terms "elementary substance" and "simple substance" have been suggested, but they have not gained much acceptance in English chemical literature, whereas in some other languages their equivalent is widely used (e.g. French corps simple, Russian простое вещество). A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure; they are called allotropes of the element.

When different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bonds, they form chemical compounds. Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as relatively pure minerals. Among the more common of such native elements are copper, silver, gold, carbon (as coal, graphite, or diamonds), and sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as noble gases and noble metals, are usually found on Earth in chemically combined form, as chemical compounds. While about 32 of the chemical elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms, most of these occur as mixtures. For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel.

The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold. Later civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin, lead and iron from their ores by smelting, using charcoal. Alchemists and chemists subsequently identified many more; all of the naturally occurring elements were known by 1950.

The properties of the chemical elements are summarized in the periodic table, which organizes the elements by increasing atomic number into rows ("periods") in which the columns ("groups") share recurring ("periodic") physical and chemical properties. Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-lives, all of the elements are available industrially, most of them in low degrees of impurities.

Light metal

A light metal is any metal of relatively low density. More specific definitions have been proposed; none have obtained widespread acceptance. Magnesium, aluminium and titanium are light metals of significant commercial importance. Their densities of 1.7, 2.7 and 4.5 g/cm3 range from 19 to 56% of the densities of the older structural metals, iron (7.9) and copper (8.9).

List of chemical element name etymologies

This article lists the etymology of chemical elements of the periodic table.

List of chemical elements naming controversies

The currently accepted names and symbols of the chemical elements are determined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), usually following recommendations by the recognized discoverers of each element. However the names of several elements have been the subject of controversies until IUPAC established an official name. In most cases the controversy was due to a priority dispute as to who first found conclusive evidence for the existence of an element, or as to what evidence was in fact conclusive.

List of data references for chemical elements

Values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages.

List of elements by atomic properties

This is a list of chemical elements and their atomic properties, ordered by Atomic number.

Since valence electrons are not clearly defined for the d-block and f-block elements, there not being a clear point at which further ionisation becomes unprofitable, a purely formal definition as number of electrons in the outermost shell has been used.

List of people whose names are used in chemical element names

Below is the list of people whose names are used in chemical element names. Of the 118 chemical elements, 19 are connected with the names of 20 people. 15 elements were named to honor 16 scientists. Four other elements have indirect connection to the names of non-scientists. Only gadolinium and samarium occur in nature; the rest are synthetic.

List of places used in the names of chemical elements

40 of the 118 chemical elements have names associated with, or specifically named for, places around the world or among astronomical objects. 32 of these have names tied to the Earth and the other 8 have names connected to bodies in the Solar System. The first tables below list the terrestrial locations (excluding the entire Earth itself, taken as a whole) and the last table lists astronomical objects which the chemical elements are named after.

Lists of places

Here is a list of places on earth, based on specific categories.

Melting

Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the application of heat or pressure, which increases the substance's temperature to the melting point. At the melting point, the ordering of ions or molecules in the solid breaks down to a less ordered state, and the solid melts to become a liquid.

Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity as the temperature increases. An exception to this principle is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases to a point due to polymerization and then decreases with higher temperatures in its molten state.Some organic compounds melt through mesophases, states of partial order between solid and liquid.

Molar ionization energies of the elements

These tables list values of molar ionization energies, measured in kJ mol−1. This is the energy per mole necessary to remove electrons from gaseous atoms or atomic ions. The first molar ionization energy applies to the neutral atoms. The second, third, etc., molar ionization energy applies to the further removal of an electron from a singly, doubly, etc., charged ion. For ionization energies measured in the unit eV, see Ionization energies of the elements (data page). All data from rutherfordium onwards is predicted.

Outline of geology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geology:

Geology – one of the Earth sciences – is the study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which it is shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.

Speeds of sound of the elements

The speed of sound in any chemical element in the fluid phase has one temperature-dependent value. In the solid phase, different types of sound wave may be propagated, each with its own speed: among these types of wave are longitudinal (as in fluids), transversal, and (along a surface or plate) extensional.

Systematic element name

A systematic element name is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or not yet synthesized chemical element. A systematic symbol is also derived from this name. In chemistry, a transuranic element receives a permanent name and symbol only after its synthesis has been confirmed. In some cases, such as the Transfermium Wars, controversies over the formal name and symbol have been protracted and highly political. In order to discuss such elements without ambiguity, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) uses a set of rules to assign a temporary systematic name and symbol to each such element. This approach to naming originated in the successful development of regular rules for the naming of organic compounds.

Timeline of chemical element discoveries

The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist as of 2019 is presented in chronological order. The elements are listed generally in the order in which each was first defined as the pure element, as the exact date of discovery of most elements cannot be accurately determined. There are plans to synthesise more elements, and it is not known how many elements are possible.

Each element's name, atomic number, year of first report, name of the discoverer, and notes related to the discovery are listed.

Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. The name tungsten comes from the former Swedish name for the tungstate mineral scheelite, tung sten or "heavy stone". Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth almost exclusively combined with other elements in chemical compounds rather than alone. It was identified as a new element in 1781 and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include wolframite and scheelite.

The free element is remarkable for its robustness, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3422 °C (6192 °F, 3695 K). It also has the highest boiling point, at 5930 °C (10706 °F, 6203 K). Its density is 19.3 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold, and much higher (about 1.7 times) than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is an intrinsically brittle and hard material (under standard conditions, when uncombined), making it difficult to work. However, pure single-crystalline tungsten is more ductile and can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw.Tungsten's many alloys have numerous applications, including incandescent light bulb filaments, X-ray tubes (as both the filament and target), electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding, superalloys, and radiation shielding. Tungsten's hardness and high density give it military applications in penetrating projectiles. Tungsten compounds are also often used as industrial catalysts.

Tungsten is the only metal from the third transition series that is known to occur in biomolecules that are found in a few species of bacteria and archaea. It is the heaviest element known to be essential to any living organism. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper metabolism and is somewhat toxic to more familiar forms of animal life.

List of chemical elements
Z[I] Symbol Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Atomic weight[4][5] (u (±)) Density (g/cm3) Melting point (K)[6] Boiling point (K) C[I] (J/g · K) Electro­negativity (χ)[I] Abundance in Earth's crust[II] (mg/kg)
 
1 H Hydrogen Greek elements hydro- and -gen, meaning 'water-forming' 1 1 1.008[III][IV][V][VI] 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium Greek hḗlios, 'sun' 18 1 4.002602(2)[III][V] 0.0001785 [VII] 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium Greek líthos, 'stone' 1 2 6.94[III][IV][V][VIII][VI] 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium beryl, a mineral (ultimately from the name of Belur in southern India) 2 2 9.0121831(5) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron borax, a mineral (from Arabic bawraq) 13 2 10.81[III][IV][V][VI] 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon Latin carbo, 'coal' 14 2 12.011[III][V][VI] 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen Greek nítron and -gen, meaning 'niter-forming' 15 2 14.007[III][V][VI] 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen Greek oxy- and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming' 16 2 15.999[III][V][VI] 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine Latin fluere, 'to flow' 17 2 18.998403163(6) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon Greek néon, 'new' 18 2 20.1797(6)[III][IV] 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium English soda (the symbol Na is derived from New Latin natrium, coined from German Natron, 'natron') 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece 2 3 24.305[VI] 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium alumina, from Latin alumen (gen. aluminis), 'bitter salt, alum' 13 3 26.9815384(3) 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium) 14 3 28.085[V][VI] 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus Greek phōsphóros, 'light-bearing' 15 3 30.973761998(5) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur Latin sulphur, 'brimstone' 16 3 32.06[III][V][VI] 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine Greek chlōrós, 'greenish yellow' 17 3 35.45[III][IV][V][VI] 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon Greek argós, 'idle' (because of its inertness) 18 3 39.948[III][V][VI] 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium New Latin potassa, 'potash' (the symbol K is derived from Latin kalium) 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium Latin calx, 'lime' 2 4 40.078(4)[III] 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium Latin Scandia, 'Scandinavia' 3 4 44.955908(5) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium Greek chróma, 'colour' 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese corrupted from magnesia negra; see Magnesium 7 4 54.938043(2) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron English word (the symbol Fe is derived from Latin ferrum) 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt German Kobold, 'goblin' 9 4 58.933194(3) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel Nickel, a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper English word, from Latin cuprum, from Ancient Greek Kýpros 'Cyprus' 11 4 63.546(3)[V] 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc Most likely from German Zinke, 'prong' or 'tooth', though some suggest Persian sang, 'stone' 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium Latin Gallia, 'France' 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2673 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium Latin Germania, 'Germany' 14 4 72.630(8) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic French arsenic, from Greek arsenikón 'yellow arsenic' (influenced by arsenikós, 'masculine' or 'virile'), from a West Asian wanderword ultimately from Old Iranian *zarniya-ka, 'golden' 15 4 74.921595(6) 5.776 1090 [IX] 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium Greek selḗnē, 'moon' 16 4 78.971(8)[V] 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine Greek brômos, 'stench' 17 4 79.904[VI] 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton Greek kryptós, 'hidden' 18 4 83.798(2)[III][IV] 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 1×10−4
37 Rb Rubidium Latin rubidus, 'deep red' 1 5 85.4678(3)[III] 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a village in Scotland 2 5 87.62(1)[III][V] 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 3 5 88.90584(1) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium zircon, a mineral 4 5 91.224(2)[III] 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 92.90637(1) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum Greek molýbdaina, 'piece of lead', from mólybdos, 'lead' 6 5 95.95(1)[III] 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium Greek tekhnētós, 'artificial' 7 5 [98][X] 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 ~ 3×10−9[XI]
44 Ru Ruthenium New Latin Ruthenia, 'Russia' 8 5 101.07(2)[III] 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium Greek rhodóeis, 'rose-coloured', from rhódon, 'rose' 9 5 102.90549(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium the asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time 10 5 106.42(1)[III] 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver English word (The symbol derives from Latin argentum) 11 5 107.8682(2)[III] 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos 12 5 112.414(4)[III] 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium Latin indicum, 'indigo' (colour found in its spectrum) 13 5 114.818(1) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin English word (The symbol derives from Latin stannum) 14 5 118.710(7)[III] 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony Latin antimonium, the origin of which is uncertain: folk etymologies suggest it is derived from Greek antí ('against') + mónos ('alone'), or Old French anti-moine, 'Monk's bane', but it could plausibly be from or related to Arabic ʾiṯmid, 'antimony', reformatted as a Latin word. (The symbol derives from Latin stibium 'stibnite'.) 15 5 121.760(1)[III] 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium Latin tellus, 'the ground, earth' 16 5 127.60(3)[III] 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine French iode, from Greek ioeidḗs, 'violet') 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon Greek xénon, neuter form of xénos 'strange' 18 5 131.293(6)[III][IV] 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 3×10−5
55 Cs Caesium Latin caesius, 'sky-blue' 1 6 132.90545196(6) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium Greek barýs, 'heavy' 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum Greek lanthánein, 'to lie hidden' 3 6 138.90547(7)[III] 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium the dwarf planet Ceres, considered a planet at the time 6 140.116(1)[III] 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium Greek prásios dídymos, 'green twin' 6 140.90766(1) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium Greek néos dídymos, 'new twin' 6 144.242(3)[III] 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology 6 [145][X] 7.26 1315 3273 1.13 2×10−19[XI]
62 Sm Samarium samarskite, a mineral named after Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Russian mine official 6 150.36(2)[III] 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1)[III] 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium gadolinite, a mineral named after Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3)[III] 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 158.925354(8) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium Greek dysprósitos, 'hard to get' 6 162.500(1)[III] 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium New Latin Holmia, 'Stockholm' 6 164.930328(7) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 167.259(3)[III] 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for an unclear northern location 6 168.934218(6) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 173.045(10)[III] 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium Latin Lutetia, 'Paris' 6 174.9668(1)[III] 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium New Latin Hafnia, 'Copenhagen' (from Danish havn) 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (The symbol is from wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite) 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium Latin Rhenus, 'the Rhine' 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 7×10−4
76 Os Osmium Greek osmḗ, 'smell' 8 6 190.23(3)[III] 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(2) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum Spanish platina, 'little silver', from plata 'silver' 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold English word (The symbol derives from Latin aurum) 11 6 196.966570(4) 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury Mercury, Roman god of commerce, communication, and luck, known for his speed and mobility (The symbol is from the element's Latin name hydrargyrum, derived from Greek hydrárgyros, 'water-silver') 12 6 200.592(3) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium Greek thallós, 'green shoot or twig' 13 6 204.38[VI] 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead English word (The symbol derives from Latin plumbum) 14 6 207.2(1)[III][V] 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 1.87 14
83 Bi Bismuth German Wismut, from weiß Masse 'white mass', unless from Arabic 15 6 208.98040(1)[X] 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium Latin Polonia, 'Poland' (the home country of Marie Curie) 16 6 [209][X] 9.32 527 1235 2.0 2×10−10[XI]
85 At Astatine Greek ástatos, 'unstable' 17 6 [210][X] 7 575 610 2.2 3×10−20[XI]
86 Rn Radon radium 18 6 [222][X] 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 2.2 4×10−13[XI]
87 Fr Francium France 1 7 [223][X] 1.87 300 950 0.7 ~ 1×10−18[XI]
88 Ra Radium French radium, from Latin radius, 'ray' 2 7 [226][X] 5.5 973 2010 0.094 0.9 9×10−7[XI]
89 Ac Actinium Greek aktís, 'ray' 3 7 [227][X] 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 5.5×10−10[XI]
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.0377(4)[X][III] 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium proto- (from Greek prôtos, 'first, before') + actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(1)[X] 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 1.4×10−6[XI]
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3)[X] 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 [237][X] 20.45 917 4273 1.36 ≤ 3×10−12[XI]
94 Pu Plutonium the dwarf planet Pluto, considered the ninth planet in the Solar System at the time 7 [244][X] 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 ≤ 3×10−11[XI]
95 Am Americium The Americas, as the element was first synthesised on the continent, by analogy with europium 7 [243][X] 13.69 1449 2880 1.13 0[XII]
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, French physicists and chemists 7 [247][X] 13.51 1613 3383 1.28 0[XII]
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with terbium 7 [247][X] 14.79 1259 2900 1.3 0[XII]
98 Cf Californium California, where the element was first synthesised 7 [251][X] 15.1 1173 (1743)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, German physicist 7 [252][X] 8.84 1133 (1269)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, Italian physicist 7 [257][X] (9.7)[XIII] (1125)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who proposed the periodic table 7 [258][X] (10.3)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer 7 [259][X] (9.9)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, American physicist 7 [266][X] (15.6)[XIII] (1900)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist from New Zealand 4 7 [267][X] (23.2)[XIII] (2400)[XIII] (5800)[XIII] 0[XII]
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia, where the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is located 5 7 [268][X] (29.3)[XIII] 0[XII]
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, American chemist 6 7 [269][X] (35.0)[XIII] 0[XII]
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, Danish physicist 7 7 [270][X] (37.1)[XIII] 0[XII]
108 Hs Hassium New Latin Hassia, 'Hesse' (a state in Germany) 8 7 [270][X] (40.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, Austrian physicist 9 7 [278][X] (37.4)[XIII] 0[XII]
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised 10 7 [281][X] (34.8)[XIII] 0[XII]
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist 11 7 [282][X] (28.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer 12 7 [285][X] (23.7)[XIII] ~357[XIV] 0[XII]
113 Nh Nihonium Japanese Nihon, 'Japan' (where the element was first synthesised) 13 7 [286][X] (16)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
114 Fl Flerovium Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR, where the element was synthesised; itself named after Georgy Flyorov, Russian physicist 14 7 [289][X] (14)[XIII] ~210 0[XII]
115 Mc Moscovium Moscow Oblast, Russia, where the element was first synthesised 15 7 [290][X] (13.5)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis 16 7 [293][X] (12.9)[XIII] (709)[XIII] (1085)[XIII] 0[XII]
117 Ts Tennessine Tennessee, United States 17 7 [294][X] (7.2)[XIII] (723)[XIII] (883)[XIII] 0[XII]
118 Og Oganesson Yuri Oganessian, Russian physicist 18 7 [294][X] (5.0)[XIII][XV] (350)[XIII] 0[XII]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Z is the standard symbol for atomic number; C is the standard symbol for heat capacity; and χ is the standard symbol for electronegativity on the Pauling scale.
  2. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, elements are primordial – they occur naturally, and not through decay.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Argon: [39.792, 39.963]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  7. ^ Helium does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmospheres, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero.
  8. ^ The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  9. ^ This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k This element is transient – it occurs only through decay.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x This element is synthetic – the transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but they can all be produced artificially.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  14. ^ With error bars: 357+112
    −108
     K.
  15. ^ This predicted value is for liquid oganesson, not gaseous oganesson.
Periodic table (Large cells)
Periodic table forms
Sets of elements
Elements
History
See also

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