List of causes of death by rate

The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates. There were 57,029,000 deaths tabulated for that year. Some causes listed include deaths also included in more specific subordinate causes (as indicated by the "Group" column), and some causes are omitted, so the percentages do not sum to 100. According to the World Health Organization, about 58 million people died in 2005, using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD).[1] According to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, 52.77 million people died in 2010.[2]

Leading cause of death (2016) (world)

By frequency

The table below uses data from 2002 and is out of date. Data is now available for 2010.[3]

Note: Tinted backgrounds indicate items that also appear in the subsequent table. Percentage figures add to more than 100% because some deaths appear in both broadly-defined and narrowly defined categories; for example, Cardiovascular Deaths includes deaths from both Ischaemic Heart Disease and Stroke.

Mortality rates (death rate per year, from data for 2002[4])
Group[5] Cause Percent of deaths Deaths per 100,000
Group Subgroup All Male Female
All causes 100.0 100.0 916.1 954.7 877.1
A Cardiovascular diseases 29.34 268.8 259.3 278.4
B Infectious and parasitic diseases 23.04 211.3 221.7 200.4
A.1 Coronary artery disease 12.64 115.8 121.4 110.1
C Malignant neoplasms (cancers) 12.49 114.4 126.9 101.7
A.2 Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) 9.66 88.5 85.4 95.6
B.1 Respiratory infections 6.95 63.7 63.5 63.8
B.1.1 Lower respiratory tract infections 6.81 62.4 62.2 62.6
D Respiratory diseases 6.49 59.5 61.1 57.9
E Unintentional injuries 6.23 57.0 73.7 40.2
B.2 HIV/AIDS 4.87 44.6 46.2 43.0
D.1 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.82 44.1 45.1 43.1
Perinatal conditions 4.32 4.32 39.6 43.7 35.4
F Digestive diseases 3.45 31.6 34.9 28.2
B.3 Diarrhea diseases 3.15 28.9 30.0 27.8
G Intentional injuries (suicide, violence, war, etc.) 2.84 26.0 37.0 14.9
B.4 Tuberculosis 2.75 25.2 32.9 17.3
B.5 Malaria 2.23 20.4 19.4 21.5
C.1 Lung cancer 2.18 20.0 28.4 11.4
E.1 Road traffic accidents 2.09 19.1 40.8 10.4
B.6 Childhood diseases 1.97 18.1 18.0 18.2
H Neuropsychiatric disorders 1.95 17.9 18.4 17.3
Diabetes mellitus 1.73 1.73 15.9 14.1 17.7
A.3 Hypertensive heart disease 1.60 14.6 13.4 15.9
G.1 Suicide 1.53 14.0 17.4 10.6
C.2 Stomach cancer 1.49 13.7 16.7 10.5
I Diseases of the genitourinary system 1.49 13.6 14.1 13.1
F.1 Cirrhosis of the liver 1.38 12.6 16.1 9.1
I.1 Nephritis/nephropathy 1.19 10.9 11.0 10.7
C.3 Colorectal cancer 1.09 10.0 10.3 9.7
C.4 Liver cancer 1.08 9.9 13.6 6.2
B.6.1 Measles 1.07 9.8 9.8 9.9
G.2 Violence 0.98 9.0 14.2 3.7
Maternal conditions 0.89 0.89 8.2 0.0 16.5
Congenital abnormalities 0.86 0.86 7.9 8.1 7.7
J Nutritional deficiencies 0.85 7.8 6.9 8.7
C.5 Breast cancer 0.84 7.7 0.1 15.3
C.6 Esophageal cancer 0.78 7.2 9.1 5.2
A.4 Inflammatory heart disease 0.71 6.5 6.7 6.2
H.1 Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 0.70 6.4 4.7 8.1
E.2 Falls 0.69 6.3 7.5 5.0
E.3 Drowning 0.67 6.1 8.4 3.9
E.4 Poisoning 0.61 5.6 7.2 4.0
C.7 Lymphomas, multiple myeloma 0.59 5.4 5.4 5.4
A.5 Rheumatic heart disease 0.57 5.3 4.4 6.1
C.8 Oral and oropharynx cancers 0.56 5.1 7.1 3.1
E.5 Fires 0.55 5.0 3.8 6.2
B.6.2 Pertussis 0.52 4.7 4.7 4.8
C.9 Prostate cancer 0.47 4.3 8.6 0.0
C.10 Leukemia 0.46 4.2 4.7 3.8
F.2 Peptic ulcer disease 0.46 4.2 5.0 3.5
J.1 Protein-energy malnutrition 0.46 4.2 4.2 4.2
Endocrine/nutritional disorders 0.43 0.43 3.9 3.4 4.4
D.2 Asthma 0.42 3.9 3.9 3.8
C.11 Cervical cancer 0.42 3.8 0.0 7.7
C.12 Pancreatic cancer 0.41 3.7 3.9 3.5
B.6.3 Tetanus 0.38 3.4 3.4 3.5
B.7 Sexually transmitted diseases excluding HIV/AIDS 0.32 2.9 2.9 2.9
C.13 Bladder cancer 0.31 2.9 4.0 1.7
B.8 Meningitis 0.30 2.8 2.9 2.7
G.3 War 0.30 2.8 5.0 0.5
B.7.1 Syphilis 0.28 2.5 2.7 2.3
Neoplasms other than malignant 0.26 0.26 2.4 2.4 2.4
J.2 Iron deficiency anemia 0.24 2.2 1.5 2.9
C.14 Ovarian cancer 0.24 2.2 0.0 4.4
B.9 Tropical diseases excluding malaria 0.23 2.1 2.5 1.6
H.2 Epilepsy 0.22 2.0 2.2 1.8
Musculoskeletal diseases 0.19 0.19 1.7 1.2 2.2
B.10 Hepatitis B 0.18 1.7 2.3 1.0
H.3 Parkinson's disease 0.17 1.6 1.6 1.6
H.4 Alcohol use disorders 0.16 1.5 2.5 0.4
H.5 Drug use disorders 0.15 1.4 2.2 0.5
B.1.2 Upper respiratory infections 0.13 1.2 1.2 1.2
C.15 Uterine cancer 0.12 1.1 0.0 2.3
Skin diseases 0.12 0.12 1.1 0.8 1.4
C.16 Melanoma and other skin cancers 0.12 1.1 1.1 1.0
B.11 Hepatitis C 0.09 0.9 1.1 0.6
B.9.1 Leishmaniasis 0.09 0.8 1.0 0.7
B.9.2 Trypanosomiasis 0.08 0.8 1.0 0.5
I.2 Benign prostatic hyperplasia 0.06 0.5 1.0 0.0


Malnutrition can be identified as an underlying cause for shortened life.[6] 70% of childhood deaths (age 0-4) are reportedly due to diarrheal illness, acute respiratory infection, malaria and immunizable disease. However, of these childhood deaths, 56% can be attributed to the effects of malnutrition as an underlying cause.[7] The effects of malnutrition include increased susceptibility to infection,[8] musculature wasting, skeletal deformities and neurologic development delays.[9] According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is named as the biggest contributor to child mortality[10] with 36 million deaths in 2005 related to malnutrition.[11]

Developed vs. developing economies

Top causes of death, according to the World Health Organization report for the calendar year 2001:[12]

Causes of death in developing countries Number of deaths Causes of death in developed countries Number of deaths
HIV-AIDS 2,678,000 Ischaemic heart disease 3,512,000
Lower respiratory infections 2,643,000 Cerebrovascular disease 3,346,000
Ischaemic heart disease 2,484,000 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 1,829,000
Diarrhea 1,793,000 Lower respiratory infections 1,180,000
Cerebrovascular disease 1,381,000 Lung cancer 938,000
Childhood diseases 1,217,000 Car crash 669,000
Malaria 1,103,000 Stomach cancer 657,000
Tuberculosis 1,021,000 Hypertensive heart disease 635,000
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 748,000 Tuberculosis 571,000
Measles 674,000 Suicide 499,000

By age group

Causes of death by age group
Leading causes of death in the United States by age group.[13]
Causes of death by age group (percent)
Leading causes of death in the United States, as percentage of deaths in each age group.[13] Perinatal mortality (<1yrs of age) seldom falls in any of these causes.
Deaths by age group fixed
Death by age group as rate compared to the age group with highest rate.[13]

By occupation

With an average of 123.6 deaths per 100,000 from 2003 through 2010 the most dangerous occupation in the United States is the cell tower construction industry.[14]

Selected occupations with high fatality rate
Selected occupations with high fatality rates, 2011, in the United States.[15]

See also


  1. ^ WHO (2005). "Cancer".
  2. ^ Lozano, Rafael; et al. (Dec 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010" (PDF). Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
  3. ^ Lozano, Rafael; et al. (Dec 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010" (PDF). Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604. See also this CDC report from the US.
  4. ^ World Health Organization (2004). "Annex Table 2: Deaths by cause, sex and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2002" (PDF). The world health report 2004 - changing history. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  5. ^ Group is a value showing the relationship of groups of causes; for instance, statistics for "A" (cardiovascular diseases) include those for "A.1" (ischemic heart disease), "A.2" (cerebrovascular disease), and so on. If no value is shown for a cause, there are no other causes grouped with that cause.
  6. ^ "Mortality In Second And Third Degree Malnutrition". 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  7. ^ Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA, Schroeder DG, Habicht JP (2014-01-24). "The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries". Bull. World Health Organ. 73 (4): 443–8. PMC 2486780. PMID 7554015.
  8. ^ "Some effects of malnutrition on the immune response in man". 1974-06-01. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  9. ^ "Elsevier". Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  10. ^ Stay informed today; every day (2008-01-24). "Malnutrition: The starvelings". The Economist. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  11. ^ Ziegler, Jean (2007). L'Empire de la honte. Fayard
  12. ^ "Cause of Death". UC Atlas of Global Inequality. University of California, Santa Cruz. 18 February 2004. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-09.
  13. ^ a b c "National Vital Statistics Report" (PDF). National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 50, No. 15. September 16, 2002.
  14. ^ Day, Ryan Knutson, Liz (21 May 2012). "Methodology: How We Calculated the Tower Industry Death Rate".
  15. ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics; National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-09.

External links

Casualty (person)

A casualty, as a term in military usage, is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.

In civilian usage, a casualty is a person who is killed, wounded or incapacitated by some event; the term is usually used to describe multiple deaths and injuries due to violent incidents or disasters. It is sometimes misunderstood to mean "fatalities", but non-fatal injuries are also casualties.

Cause of death

In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death, which may be recorded on a death certificate. A cause of death is determined by a medical examiner. The cause of death is a specific disease or injury, in contrast to the manner of death which is a small number of categories like "natural", "accident", and "homicide", which have different legal implications.International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes are often used to record manner and cause of death in a systematic way that makes it easy to compile statistics and more feasible to compare events across jurisdictions.

Cause of death (disambiguation)

Cause of death may refer to:

Cause of death, a term typically used on official reports

List of causes of death by rate, a list of causes of death by rate

List of preventable causes of death, a list of preventable causes of death by rate

Cause of Death (novel), a 1996 crime fiction novel by Patricia Cornwell

Cause of Death (album), a 1990 album by Obituary

Cause of Death (game), 2010 visual novel

"The Cause of Death", a song by Immortal Technique from Revolutionary Vol. 2


Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Infections are caused by infectious agents (pathogens) including:

Viruses and related agents such as viroids and prions


Fungi, further subclassified into:

Ascomycota, including yeasts such as Candida, filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Pneumocystis species, and dermatophytes, a group of organisms causing infection of skin and other superficial structures in humans.

Basidiomycota, including the human-pathogenic genus Cryptococcus

Parasites, which are usually divided into

unicelllular organisms (e.g. malaria, Toxoplasma, Babesia)

macroparasites (worms or helminths) including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), and flukes (trematodes, such as schistosomiasis)

Arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, can also cause human disease, which conceptually are similar to infections, but invasion of a human or animal body by these macroparasites is usually termed infestation. ( Diseases caused by helminths, which are also macroparasites, are sometimes termed infestations as well, but are sometimes called infections.)Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in 2013 (about 17% of all deaths). The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease.


Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force. This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes. Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

In 2013, 4.8 million people world-wide died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries. In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990. Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.

List of countries by traffic-related death rate

This list of countries by traffic-related death rate shows the annual number of road fatalities per capita per year, per number of motor vehicles, and per vehicle-km in some countries in the year the data was collected.

According to the World Health Organization, road traffic injuries caused an estimated 1.35 million deaths worldwide in the year 2016.That is, one person is killed every 25 seconds. Only 28 countries, representing 449 million people (seven percent of the world's population), have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drunk driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints). Over a third of road traffic deaths in low- and middle-income countries are among pedestrians and cyclists. However, less than 35 percent of low- and middle-income countries have policies in place to protect these road users.

The average rate was 17.4 per 100,000 people. Low-income countries now have the highest annual road traffic fatality rates, at 24.1 per 100,000, while the rate in high-income countries is lowest, at 9.2 per 100,000.Seventy-four percent of road traffic deaths occur in middle-income countries, which account for only 53 percent of the world's registered vehicles. In low-income countries it is even worse. Only one percent of the world's registered cars produce 16 percent of world's road traffic deaths. This indicates that these countries bear a disproportionately high burden of road traffic deaths relative to their level of motorization.There are large disparities in road traffic death rates between regions. The risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the African Region (26.6 per 100 000 population), and lowest in the European Region (9.3 per 100 000).Half of the world's road traffic deaths occur among motorcyclists (23 percent), pedestrians (22 percent) and cyclists (5 percent) – i.e., "vulnerable road users" – with 31 percent of deaths among car occupants and the remaining 19 percent among unspecified road users.Adults aged between 15 and 44 years account for 59 percent of global road traffic deaths. Seventy-seven percent of road deaths are males.The total fatalities figures comes from the WHO report (table A2, column point estimate, pp. 264–271) and are often an adjusted number of road traffic fatalities in order to reflect the different reporting and counting methods among the many countries (e.g., "a death after how many days since accident event is still counted as a road fatality?" (by international standard adjusted to a 30-day period), or "to compensate for under-reporting in some countries".

List of human disease case fatality rates

This is a list of human disease case fatality rates ( CFRs ). A CFR is the proportion of people diagnosed with a disease who die during the course of the disease (cf. mortality rate). Data are based on optimally treated patients and exclude isolated cases or minor outbreaks, unless otherwise indicated.

List of unusual deaths

This is a list of unusual deaths. This list includes only unique or extremely rare circumstances of death recorded throughout history, noted as being unusual by multiple sources. Oxford Dictionaries defines the word unusual as "not habitually or commonly occurring or done" and "remarkable or interesting because different from or better than others".Some other articles also cover deaths that might be considered unusual or ironic, including list of entertainers who died during a performance, list of inventors killed by their own inventions, list of association footballers who died while playing, list of cyclists with a cycling-related death and the list of political self-immolations.

Lists of people by cause of death

This is an index of lists of people by cause of death, in alphabetical order of cause.

List of fatalities from aviation accidents

List of deaths through alcohol

List of deaths from anorexia nervosa

List of people who were beheaded

List of choking deaths

List of professional cyclists who died during a race

List of drowning victims

List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication

List of people killed in duels

List of deaths from legal euthanasia and assisted suicide

List of people executed by lethal injection

List of people who were executed

List of hazing deaths in the United States

List of horse accidents (deaths and serious injuries)

List of inventors killed by their own inventions

List of marathon fatalities

List of deaths by motorcycle accident

List of deaths on eight-thousanders (mountains)

Lists of murders

List of pneumonia victims

List of poisonings

List of prison deaths

List of racing drivers who died in racing crashes

List of people who died in road accidents

List of skiing deaths

List of victims of fatal snake bites in the United States by decade

List of fatal shark attacks in the United States

List of fatal shark attacks in Australia

List of fatal shark attacks in South Africa

List of fatal alligator attacks in the United States

Space accidents and incidents

List of people who died of starvation

List of notable stunt accidents

List of suicides

List of television actors who died during production

List of tuberculosis victims

List of volcanic eruption deaths

List of unusual deaths

List of women who died in childbirth


Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.Medicine has been around for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science.

Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for any condition, but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner. In contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery.

Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from "morbidity", which is either the prevalence or incidence of a disease, and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time).

In the generic form, mortality rates are calculated as:

where d represents the deaths occurring within a given time period and p represents the size of the population in which the deaths occur.

Preventable causes of death

The World Health Organization has traditionally classified death according to the primary type of disease or injury. However, causes of death may also be classified in terms of preventable risk factors—such as smoking, unhealthy diet, sexual behavior, and reckless driving—which contribute to a number of different diseases. Such risk factors are usually not recorded directly on death certificates, although they are acknowledged in medical reports.


Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.

There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term. It is often used with the connotation of something that is "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups use the term to abuse or denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives. These organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments. Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to whether or not terrorism should be regarded as a war crime.The Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014.

In medicine
After death

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