List of brightest stars

This is a list of stars down to magnitude +2.50, as determined by their maximum, total, or combined visual magnitudes as viewed from Earth. Although several of the brightest stars are known binary or multiple star systems and are relatively close to Earth, they appear to the naked eye as single stars. The list below combines/adds the magnitudes of bright individual components. Most of the proper names in this list are those approved by the Working Group on Star Names.[1] Popular star names here that have not been approved by the IAU appear with a short note.

Measurement

The Sun is the brightest star as viewed from Earth. The apparent visual magnitudes of the brightest stars can also be compared to non-stellar objects in our Solar System. Here the maximum visible magnitudes above the second brightest star, Sirius (−1.46), are as follows. Excluding the Sun, the brightest objects are the Moon (−12.7), Venus (−4.89), Jupiter (−2.94), Mars (−2.91), Mercury (−2.45), and Saturn (−0.49).

Any exact order of the visual brightness of stars is not perfectly defined for four reasons:

  • Stellar brightness is traditionally based on the apparent visual magnitude as perceived by the human eye, from the brightest stars of 1st magnitude to the faintest at 6th magnitude. Since the invention of the optical telescope and the documenting of binary stars and multiple star systems, stellar brightness could be expressed as either individual (separate) or total (combined) magnitude. The table is ordered by combined magnitude of all naked eye components appearing as if it they were single stars. Such multiple star systems are indicated by parentheses showing the individual magnitudes of component stars bright enough to make a detectable contribution. For example, the double star Alpha Centauri has the total or combined magnitude of −0.27, while its two component stars have magnitudes of +0.01 and +1.33.[2]
  • New or more accurate photometry, standard filters, or adopting differing methods using standard stars can measure stellar magnitudes slightly differently. This may change the apparent order of lists of bright stars. The table shows measured V magnitudes, which use a specific filter that closely approximates human vision. However, other kinds of magnitude systems do exist based on different wavelengths, some well away from the distribution of the visible wavelengths of light, and these apparent magnitudes vary dramatically in the different systems.[3] For example, Betelgeuse has the K-band (infra-red) apparent magnitude of −4.05.[4]
  • Some stars, like Betelgeuse and Antares, are variable stars, changing their magnitude over days, months or years. In the table, the range of variation is indicated with var. Single magnitude values quoted for variable stars come from a variety of sources. Magnitudes are expressed within the table are when the stars are either at maximum brightness, which is repeated for every cycle, e.g., the eclipsing binary Algol; or, if the variations are small, as a simple average magnitude. For all red variable stars, describing a single maximum brightness is often difficult because each cycle produces a different maximum brightness, which is thought to be caused by poorly understood pulsations in stellar evolution processes. Such quoted stellar brightness is sometimes based on the average maximum apparent magnitude [5] from estimated maximums over many observed light-curve cycles, sometimes spanning across centuries. Results often quoted in the literature are not necessarily straightforward and may differ in expressing an alternate value for a singular maximum brightness or as a range of values.
  • A select number of stars, thought to be uniformly fixed in brightness, are used as standard stars. These standard stars have carefully determined magnitudes that have been analysed over many years, and are often used to determine other star's magnitudes or their stellar parameters using comparatively consistent scales.[6]

Main table

The source of magnitudes cited in this list is the linked Wikipedia articles—this basic list is a catalog of what Wikipedia itself documents. References can be found in the individual articles.

Rank Visual magnitude (mV) Proper name[1] Bayer designation Distance (ly) Spectral class
1 −26.74 Sun   0.000015813 G2 V
2 −1.46 Sirius α CMa 8.6 A0mA1 Va, DA2
3 −0.74 Canopus α Car 310 A9 II
4 −0.27 (0.01 + 1.33) Rigil Kentaurus & Toliman α Cen 4.4 G2 V, K1 V
5 −0.05 Arcturus α Boo 37 K0 III
6 0.03 (−0.02–0.07var) Vega α Lyr 25 A0 Va
7 0.08 (0.03–0.16var) Capella α Aur 42 K0 III, G1 III
8 0.13 (0.05–0.18var) Rigel β Ori 860 B8 Ia
9 0.34 Procyon α CMi 11 F5 IV-V
10 0.46 (0.40–0.46var) Achernar α Eri 140 B6 Vep
11 0.50 (0.2–1.2var) Betelgeuse α Ori 640 M1-M2 Ia-ab
12 0.61 Hadar β Cen 350 B1 III
13 0.76 Altair α Aql 17 A7 V
14 0.76 (1.33 + 1.73) Acrux α Cru 320 B0.5 IV, B1 V
15 0.86 (0.75–0.95var) Aldebaran α Tau 65 K5 III
16 0.96 (0.6–1.6var) Antares α Sco 600 M1.5 Iab-Ib, B2.5 V
17 0.97 (0.97–1.04var) Spica α Vir 260 B1 III-IV, B2 V
18 1.14 Pollux β Gem 34 K0 III
19 1.16 Fomalhaut α PsA 25 A3 V
20 1.25 (1.21–1.29var) Deneb α Cyg 2,600 A2 Ia
21 1.25 (1.23–1.31var) Mimosa β Cru 350 B0.5 III, B2 V
22 1.39 Regulus α Leo 77 B8 IVn
23 1.50 Adhara ε CMa 430 B2 II
24 1.62 Shaula λ Sco 700 B2 IV
25 1.62 (1.98 + 2.97) Castor α Gem 52 A1 V, Am
26 1.64 Gacrux γ Cru 88 M3.5 III
27 1.64 Bellatrix γ Ori 240 B2 III
28 1.65 Elnath β Tau 130 B7 III
29 1.69 Miaplacidus β Car 110 A1 III
30 1.69 (1.64–1.74var) Alnilam ε Ori 2,000 B0 Ia
31 1.72 (1.81–1.87var + 4.27) Regor[a] γ1,2 Vel 840 WC8, O7.5III
32 1.74 Alnair α Gru 100 B6 V
33 1.77 Alioth ε UMa 81 A1 III-IVp kB9
34 1.77 Alnitak ζ Ori A 820 O9.5 Iab, B1 IV, B0 III
35 1.79 Dubhe α UMa 120 K0 III, F0 V
36 1.80 Mirfak α Per 590 F5 Ib
37 1.82 Wezen δ CMa 1,800 F8 Ia
38 1.84 Sargas θ Sco 270 F0 II
39 1.85 Kaus Australis ε Sgr 140 B9.5 III
40 1.86 Avior ε Car 630 K3 III, B2 Vp
41 1.86 Alkaid η UMa 100 B3 V
42 1.90 (1.89–1.94var) Menkalinan β Aur 100 A1mIV+A1mIV
43 1.91 Atria α TrA 420 K2 IIb-IIIa
44 1.92 Alhena γ Gem 100 A1.5 IV+
45 1.94 Peacock α Pav 180 B3 V
46 1.96 (1.99–2.39var + 5.57) Alsephina δ Vel 80 A1 Va(n), F7.5 V
47 1.98 Mirzam β CMa 500 B1 II-III
48 2.00 Alphard α Hya 180 K3 II-III
49 1.98 (1.86–2.13var) Polaris α UMi 430 F7 Ib
50 2.00 Hamal α Ari 66 K1 IIIb
51 2.08 (2.37 + 3.64) Algieba γ1 Leo 130 K0 III, G7 IIIb
52 2.02 Diphda β Cet 96 K0 III
53 2.04 Mizar ζ UMa 78 A2 Vp, A2 Vp, Am
54 2.05 Nunki σ Sgr 220 B2.5 V
55 2.06 Menkent θ Cen 61 K0 III
56 2.05 (2.01–2.10var) Mirach β And 200 M0 III
57 2.06 Alpheratz α And 97 B8 IVpMnHg, A3 V
58 2.07 Rasalhague α Oph 47 A5 III
59 2.08 Kochab β UMi 130 K4 III
60 2.09 Saiph κ Ori 720 B0.5 Ia
61 2.11 Denebola β Leo 36 A3 Va
62 2.12 (2.1–3.39var) Algol β Per 93 B8 V, K0 IV, A7m
63 2.15 (2.0–2.3var) Tiaki β Gru 170 M5 III
64 2.17 Muhlifain γ Cen 130 A0 III, A0 III
65 2.21 Aspidiske ι Car 690 A9 Ib
66 2.21 (2.14–2.30var) Suhail λ Vel 570 K4 Ib
67 2.23 (2.21–2.32var) Alphecca α CrB 75 A0 V, G5 V
68 2.23 (2.23–2.35var) Mintaka δ Ori 900 O9.5 II, B1 V, B0 IV
69 2.23 Sadr γ Cyg 1,500 F8 Iab
70 2.23 Eltanin γ Dra 150 K5 III
71 2.24 Schedar α Cas 230 K0 IIIa
72 2.25 Naos ζ Pup 1,100 O4 If(n)p
73 2.26 Almach γ And 350 K3 IIb, B9.5 V, B9.5 V, A0 V
74 2.28 (2.25–2.31var) Caph β Cas 54 F2 III
75 2.29 Izar ε Boo 202 K0 II-III, A2 V
76 2.30 (2.29–2.34var) α Lup 550 B1.5 III
77 2.30 (2.29–2.31var) ε Cen 380 B1III
78 2.31 (1.6–2.32var) Dschubba δ Sco 400 B0.3 IV, B1-3 V
79 2.31 Larawag ε Sco 65 K1 III
80 2.35 (2.30–2.41var) η Cen 310 B1.5 Vne
81 2.37 Merak β UMa 79 A1 IVps
82 2.38 Ankaa α Phe 77 K0.5 IIIb
83 2.39 Girtab[b] κ Sco 460 B1.5 III
84 2.40 (0.7–3.0var) Enif ε Peg 670 K2 Ib
85 2.42 (2.31–2.74var) Scheat β Peg 200 M2.5 II-IIIe
86 2.43 Sabik η Oph 88 A1 IV, A1 IV
87 2.44 Phecda γ UMa 84 A0 Ve
88 2.45 Aludra η CMa 2,000 B5 Ia
89 2.46 Markeb κ Vel 540 B2 IV
90 2.47 (1.6–3.0var) Navi[c] γ Cas 610 B0.5 IVe
91 2.48 Markab α Peg 140 A0 IV
92 2.48 Aljanah ε Cyg 72 K0 III-IV
93 2.50 Acrab β Sco 404 B0.5 IV-V, B1.5 V, B2 V

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Name does not appear in the IAU Catalog of Star Names
  2. ^ Name does not appear in the IAU Catalog of Star Names
  3. ^ Name does not appear in the IAU Catalog of Star Names

References

  1. ^ a b "Naming Stars". IAU Division C WG Star Names. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  2. ^ Hoffleit, Dorrit; Jaschek, Carlos (1991). "The Bright star catalogue". New Haven. Bibcode:1991bsc..book.....H.
  3. ^ Bessell, Michael S. (2005). "Standard Photometric Systems". Annual Review of Astronomy & Astrophysics. 43: 293. Bibcode:2005ARA&A..43..293B. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.41.082801.100251.
  4. ^ Ducati, J. R. (2002). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2237. Bibcode:2002yCat.2237....0D.
  5. ^ "Macmillan Dictionary of Astronomy (Illingworth, Valerie, 1985)". Dictionary Series (Second ed.). Springer. p. 237. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  6. ^ Landolt, Arlo U. (2009). "UBVRI Photometric Standard Stars Around the Celestial Equator: Updates and Additions". The Astronomical Journal. 137 (5): 4186. arXiv:0904.0638. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4186L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/137/5/4186.

External links

Bright Star

Bright Star may refer to:

Bright Star (film), 2009 feature about the life of poet John Keats

"Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art", the sonnet from which the film takes its name

Bright Star (musical), 2015 American musical

Bright Star (radio), 1950s American drama series

Bright Star, Alabama

SS Bright Star, a Panamanian coaster

Operation Bright Star, name given to a number of U.S. military operations

Bright Stars FC, Ugandan football clubBrightstar may refer to:

Brightstar, Arkansas

Brightstar Corporation, a logistics and supply chain company

Carina (constellation)

Carina () is a constellation in the southern sky. Its name is Latin for the keel of a ship, and it was formerly part of the larger constellation of Argo Navis (the ship Argo) until that constellation was divided into three pieces, the other two being Puppis (the poop deck), and Vela (the sails of the ship).

Carina in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Carina lies across one of the quadrants symbolized by the Vermillion Bird of the South (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què) and The Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu), that divide the sky in traditional Chinese uranography.

According to the quadrant, possibly constellation Carina in Chinese sky is almost not seen, except Canopus (Alpha Carinae), and Canopus is "south pole" in Chinese sky, and Miaplacidus (Beta Carinae), Aspidiske (Iota Carinae) and Avior (Epsilon Carinae) are bright stars in this constellation that are possibly never seen in the Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 船底座 (chuán dǐ zuò), meaning "the bottom of boat constellation".

Centaurus

Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky. One of the largest constellations, Centaurus was included among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. In Greek mythology, Centaurus represents a centaur; a creature that is half human, half horse (another constellation named after a centaur is one from the zodiac: Sagittarius). Notable stars include Alpha Centauri, the nearest star system to the Solar System, its neighbour in the sky Beta Centauri, and V766 Centauri, one of the largest stars yet discovered. The constellation also contains Omega Centauri, the brightest globular cluster as visible from Earth and the largest identified in the Milky Way, possibly a remnant of a dwarf galaxy.

Centaurus in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Centaurus lies across two of the quadrants symbolized by the Azure Dragon of the East (東方青龍, Dōng Fāng Qīng Lóng), the Vermillion Bird of the South (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què), and the Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu).

According to the quadrant, Centaurus is possibly not fully visible in the Chinese sky. Hadar (Beta Centauri) is a bright star in this constellation that is possibly never seen in Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 半人馬座 (bàn rén mǎ zuò), meaning "the centaur constellation".

Crux in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Crux is not included in the Three Enclosures and Twenty-Eight Mansions system of traditional Chinese uranography because its stars are too far south for observers in China to know about them prior to the introduction of Western star charts. Based on the work of Xu Guangqi and the German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell in the late Ming Dynasty, this constellation has been classified as one of the 23 Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu) under the name Cross (十字架, Shízìjià).

Possibly Acrux (Alpha Crucis), Mimosa (Beta Crucis) and Gacrux (Gamma Crucis) are bright stars in this constellation that never seen in Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 南十字座 (nán shí zì zuò), meaning "the southern cross-shaped constellation".

Eridanus (constellation)

Eridanus () is a constellation in the southern hemisphere. It is represented as a river. It was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, and it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. It is the sixth largest of the modern constellations. The same name was later taken as a Latin name for the real Po River and also for the name of a minor river in Athens.

Grus in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Grus lies across one of the quadrants symbolized by the Black Tortoise of the North (北方玄武, Běi Fāng Xuán Wǔ), and The Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu), that divide the sky in traditional Chinese uranography.

Constellation Grus in Chinese sky is not fully seen. Alnair (Alpha Gruis) and Tiaki (Beta Gruis) are bright stars in this constellation that possibly never seen in Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 天鶴座 (tiān hè zuò), meaning "the heaven crane constellation".

List of brightest stars and other record stars

This is a list of the brightest stars together with record holders of other categories with many details in compact form that can be compared. The brightest stars are completely listed until apparent magnitude of 2 including Polaris. Some record holders, like the nearest star, the largest star, the most luminous star in the Milky Way etc. are added to the list.

The main purpose for this list is the possibility to compare stars of different categories, like to compare the most luminous known star R136a1 with the brightest star of our sky Sirius, which is not possible with the existing lists in Lists of stars.

For multiple values from different sources the average value is displayed. From binary star systems the brighter (A) star is considered except for magnitude and luminosity, where it is combined. More Properties (e.g. Temperature, Age) will be added. Data is yet to be added, verified and corrected.

List of most massive stars

This is a list of the most massive stars so far discovered, in solar masses (M☉).

List of star extremes

A star is a sphere that is mainly composed of hydrogen and plasma, held together by gravity and is able to produce light through nuclear fusion. Stars exhibit many diverse properties, resulting from different masses, volumes, velocities, stage in stellar evolution and even proximity to earth. Some of these properties are considered extreme and sometimes disproportionate by astronomers.

Lists of astronomical objects

This is a list of lists, grouped by type of astronomical object.

Lists of stars

The following are lists of stars. These are astronomical objects that spend some portion of their existence generating energy through thermonuclear fusion.

Luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object. As a term for energy emitted per unit time, luminosity is synonymous with power.In SI units luminosity is measured in joules per second or watts. Values for luminosity are often given in the terms of the luminosity of the Sun, L⊙. Luminosity can also be given in terms of the astronomical magnitude system: the absolute bolometric magnitude (Mbol) of an object is a logarithmic measure of its total energy emission rate, while absolute magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the luminosity within some specific wavelength range or filter band.

In contrast, the term brightness in astronomy is generally used to refer to an object's apparent brightness: that is, how bright an object appears to an observer. Apparent brightness depends on both the luminosity of the object and the distance between the object and observer, and also on any absorption of light along the path from object to observer. Apparent magnitude is a logarithmic measure of apparent brightness. The distance determined by luminosity measures can be somewhat ambiguous, and is thus sometimes called the luminosity distance.

Magnitude (astronomy)

In astronomy, magnitude is a unitless measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths. An imprecise but systematic determination of the magnitude of objects was introduced in ancient times by Hipparchus.

The scale is logarithmic and defined such that each step of one magnitude changes the brightness by a factor of the fifth root of 100, or approximately 2.512. For example, a magnitude 1 star is exactly 100 times brighter than a magnitude 6 star. The brighter an object appears, the lower the value of its magnitude, with the brightest objects reaching negative values.

Astronomers use two different definitions of magnitude: apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude. The apparent magnitude (m) is the brightness of an object as it appears in the night sky from Earth. Apparent magnitude depends on an object's intrinsic luminosity, its distance, and the extinction reducing its brightness. The absolute magnitude (M) describes the intrinsic luminosity emitted by an object and is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were placed at a certain distance from Earth, 10 parsecs for stars. A more complex definition of absolute magnitude is used for planets and small Solar System bodies, based on its brightness at one astronomical unit from the observer and the Sun.

The Sun has an apparent magnitude of −27 and Sirius, the brightest visible star in the night sky, −1.46. Apparent magnitudes can also be assigned to artificial objects in Earth orbit with the International Space Station (ISS) sometimes reaching a magnitude of −6.

Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy:

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

Pavo in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Pavo is not included in the Three Enclosures and Twenty-Eight Mansions system of traditional Chinese uranography because its stars are too far south for observers in China to know about them prior to the introduction of Western star charts. Based on the work of Xu Guangqi and the German Jesuit missionary Johann Adam Schall von Bell in the late Ming Dynasty, this constellation has been classified as one of the 23 Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu) under the name Peacock (孔雀, Kǒngqiāo).

Possibly Peacock (Alpha Pavonis) is the bright star in this constellation that never seen in Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 孔雀座 (kǒng què zuò), which means "the peacock constellation".

Phoenix in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Phoenix lies across one of the quadrants symbolized by the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ), and The Southern Asterisms (近南極星區, Jìnnánjíxīngōu), that divide the sky in traditional Chinese uranography.

According to the quadrant, constellation Phoenix in Chinese sky is not fully seen. Ankaa (Alpha Phoenicis) are bright stars in this constellation that possibly never seen in Chinese sky.

The name of the western constellation in modern Chinese is 鳳凰座 (fèng huáng zuò), which means "the phoenix constellation".

Starlight

Starlight is the light emitted by stars. It typically refers to visible electromagnetic radiation from stars other than the Sun observable from Earth during the night time although a component of starlight is observable from the Earth during the daytime.

Sunlight is the term used for the Sun's starlight observed during daytime. During nighttime, albedo describes solar reflections from other Solar System objects including moonlight.

Formation
Evolution
Spectral
classification
Remnants
Hypothetical
Nucleosynthesis
Structure
Properties
Star systems
Earth-centric
observations
Lists
Related articles

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.