List of birds of India

This is a list of the bird species of India and includes extant and recently extinct species recorded within the political limits of the Republic of India as defined by the Indian government are known to have around 1266 species as of 2016,[1] of which sixty-one are endemic to the country,[1] one has been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental. Two species are suspected have been extirpated in India and eighty-two species are globally threatened. The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India.[2] This list does not cover species in Indian jurisdiction areas such as Dakshin Gangothri and oceanic species are delineated by an arbitrary cutoff distance. The list does not include fossil bird species or escapees from captivity.

Two of the most recently discovered birds of India are the Himalayan forest thrush and Bugun liocichla both discovered in Arunachal Pradesh in 2016 and 2006. Also, a few birds considered to be extinct, such as the Jerdon's courser, have been rediscovered. Several species have been elevated from subspecies to full species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fit within any of these categories.

  • (A) Accidental - Also known as a rarity, it refers to a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in India-typically less than ten confirmed records.
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to India
  • (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in India although populations exist elsewhere
  • (NB) Non-breeding range
Table of contents

See also        Notes        References


Order: Galliformes   Family: Megapodiidae

The Megapodiidae are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet. All but the malleefowl occupy jungle habitats and most have brown or black colouring. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species within India.

Common name Binomial Status
Nicobar scrubfowl Megapodius nicobariensis Endemic; vulnerable

Pheasants and partridges

Jungle Bush-Quail Bandhavgarh1
A covey of jungle bush-quail

Order: Galliformes   Family: Phasianidae

Tibetan Snowcock family
Tibetan snowcock flock
Grey francolin DSC 6898
Grey francolin

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowl, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Hill partridge Arborophila torqueola
Chestnut-breasted partridge Arborophila mandellii Vulnerable
Rufous-throated partridge Arborophila rufogularis
White-cheeked partridge Arborophila atrogularis Near-threatened
Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus
Green peafowl Pavo muticus Endangered
Red spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea Endemic
Painted spurfowl Galloperdix lunulata Endemic
Grey peacock-pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum
Blue-breasted quail Coturnix chinensis
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica Near-threatened
Common quail Coturnix coturnix
Rain quail Coturnix coromandelica
Chukar partridge Alectoris chukar
Tibetan snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus
Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis
Jungle bush quail Perdicula asiatica
Rock bush quail Perdicula argoondah Endemic
Painted bush quail Perdicula erythrorhyncha Endemic
Manipur bush quail Perdicula manipurensis Endemic; endangered
Himalayan quail Ophrysia superciliosa Endemic; critically endangered[3]
Black francolin Francolinus francolinus
Painted francolin Francolinus pictus
Chinese francolin Francolinus pintadeanus
Grey francolin Francolinus pondicerianus
Swamp francolin Francolinus gularis Vulnerable
Mountain bamboo partridge Bambusicola fytchii
Red junglefowl Gallus gallus
Grey junglefowl Gallus sonneratii Endemic
Blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentus
Himalayan monal Lophophorus impejanus
Sclater's monal Lophophorus sclateri Vulnerable
Snow partridge Lerwa lerwa
Western tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus Vulnerable
Satyr tragopan Tragopan satyra Near-threatened
Blyth's tragopan Tragopan blythii Vulnerable
Temminck's tragopan Tragopan temminckii
Mrs. Hume's pheasant Syrmaticus humiae Near-threatened
Cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii Vulnerable
Kalij pheasant Lophura leucomelanos
Tibetan partridge Perdix hodgsoniae
Koklass pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha

Ducks, geese and swans

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 42 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor
Lesser whistling duck Dendrocygna javanica
Bar-headed goose Anser indicus
Greylag goose Anser anser
Greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons
Lesser white-fronted goose Anser erythropus Vagrant;[4][5] vulnerable
Taiga bean-goose Anser fabalis Vagrant
Tundra bean-goose Anser serrirostris Vagrant; by some authorities considered a variety of Anser fabalis
Red-breasted goose Branta ruficollis Vagrant;[6] vulnerable
Mute swan Cygnus olor Vagrant
Tundra swan Cygnus columbianus Vagrant; race bewickii sometimes treated as a species[7]
Whooper swan Cygnus cygnus Vagrant
Knob-billed duck Sarkidiornis melanotos
Ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea
Common shelduck Tadorna tadorna
Cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus
Mandarin duck Aix galericulata Vagrant
Baikal teal Sibirionetta formosa Vagrant
Garganey Spatula querquedula
Northern shoveler Spatula clypeata
Gadwall Mareca strepera
Falcated duck Mareca falcata Near-threatened
Eurasian wigeon Mareca penelope
Indian spot-billed duck Anas poecilorhyncha
Eastern spot-billed duck Anas zonorhyncha Vagrant
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Northern pintail Anas acuta
Eurasian teal Anas crecca
Andaman teal Anas albogularis Endemic; vulnerable
Marbled duck Marmaronetta angustirostris Vulnerable
Pink-headed duck Netta caryophyllacea Endemic; critically endangered (possibly extinct)
White-winged duck Asarcornis scutulata Endangered
Red-crested pochard Netta rufina
Common pochard Aythya ferina Vulnerable
Ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca Near-threatened
Baer's pochard Aythya baeri Critically endangered
Tufted duck Aythya fuligula
Greater scaup Aythya marila
Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis Vagrant; vulnerable
Common goldeneye Bucephala clangula
Smew Mergellus albellus
Common merganser Mergus merganser
Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator Vagrant
White-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala Endangered


Order: Gaviiformes   Family: Gaviidae

Loons, known as "divers", in Europe, are a group of aquatic birds found in northern North America and northern Eurasia. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resemble when swimming, but to which they are completely unrelated. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Red-throated loon Gavia stellata Vagrant
Black-throated loon Gavia arctica Vagrant

Shearwaters and petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Cape petrel Daption capense Vagrant
Barau's petrel Pterodroma baraui Endangered
Jouanin's petrel Bulweria fallax Near-threatened
Streaked shearwater Calonectris leucomelas Near-threatened
Scopoli's shearwater Calonectris diomedea Vagrant
Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis Vagrant [8]
Flesh-footed shearwater Ardenna carneipes Near-threatened
Wedge-tailed shearwater Ardenna pacifica
Short-tailed shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris Vagrant
Tropical shearwater Puffinus bailloni
Persian shearwater Puffinus persicus

Austral storm petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.

Common name Binomial Comments
Wilson's storm petrel Oceanites oceanicus
White-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina Vagrant
Black-bellied storm petrel Fregetta tropica Vagrant

Northern storm petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Swinhoe's storm petrel Oceanodroma monorhis Near-threatened


Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
Horned grebe Podiceps auritus Vagrant; vulnerable
Red-necked grebe Podiceps grisegena Vagrant
Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus
Black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis


Greater Flamingo 3
Greater flamingo

Order: Phoenicopteriformes   Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus
Lesser flamingo Phoenicopterus minor Near-threatened


Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.

Common name Binomial Comments
White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Vagrant
Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Vagrant
Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda


Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.

Common name Binomial Comments
Asian openbill Anastomus oscitans
Black stork Ciconia nigra
Woolly-necked stork Ciconia episcopus
White stork Ciconia ciconia
Black-necked stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Near-threatened
Lesser adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Vulnerable
Greater adjutant Leptoptilos dubius Endangered
Painted stork Mycteria leucocephala Near-threatened

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.

Common name Binomial Comments
Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Black-headed ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus Near-threatened
Red-naped ibis Pseudibis papillosa
Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia

Bitterns, herons and egrets

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills.

Common name Binomial Comments
Great bittern Botaurus stellaris
Yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis
Little bittern Ixobrychus minutus
Cinnamon bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Black bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis
Grey heron Ardea cinerea
White-bellied heron Ardea insignis Critically endangered
Goliath heron Ardea goliath Vagrant
Purple heron Ardea purpurea
Eastern great egret Ardea alba modesta Considered by Clements and other taxonomists a subspecies of Ardea alba
Intermediate egret Ardea intermedia
Chinese egret Egretta eulophotes Vagrant
Little egret Egretta garzetta
Western reef heron Egretta gularis
Pacific reef heron Egretta sacra
Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus Treated as a full species Bubulcus coromandus by Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005 and sometimes called the eastern cattle egret
Indian pond heron Ardeola grayii
Chinese pond heron Ardeola bacchus
Striated heron Butorides striata
Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Malayan night heron Gorsachius melanolophus


Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Great white pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
Spot-billed pelican Pelecanus philippensis
Dalmatian pelican Pelecanus crispus


Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.[9]

Common name Binomial Comments
Christmas frigatebird Fregata andrewsi Accidental
Great frigatebird Fregata minor
Lesser frigatebird Fregata ariel

Boobies and gannets

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

Common name Binomial Comments
Masked booby Sula dactylatra
Red-footed booby Sula sula Accidental
Brown booby Sula leucogaster Accidental


Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful.

Common name Binomial Comments
Indian cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
Little cormorant Microcarbo niger


Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.

Common name Binomial Comments
Oriental darter Anhinga melanogaster


Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Common name Binomial Comments
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

Hawks, kites and eagles

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight.

Common name Binomial Comments
Jerdon's baza Aviceda jerdoni
Black baza Aviceda leuphotes
Crested honey buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus
Black-winged kite Elanus caeruleus
Red kite Milvus milvus Hypothetical according to Rasmussen and Anderton 2005; Accidental[10]
Black kite Milvus migrans
Brahminy kite Haliastur indus
White-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
Pallas's fish eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus
White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
Lesser fish eagle Ichthyophaga humilis
Grey-headed fish eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus
Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus Endangered
White-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis
Indian vulture Gyps indicus
Slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris
Himalayan vulture Gyps himalayensis
Griffon vulture Gyps fulvus
Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus
Red-headed vulture Sarcogyps calvus
Short-toed snake eagle Circaetus gallicus
Great Nicobar serpent eagle Spilornis klossi Endemic
Crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela
Andaman serpent eagle Spilornis elgini Endemic
Western marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus
Eastern marsh harrier Circus spilonotus Accidental
Hen harrier Circus cyaneus
Pallid harrier Circus macrourus Near threatened
Pied harrier Circus melanoleucos
Montagu's harrier Circus pygargus
Crested goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus
Shikra Accipiter badius
Nicobar sparrowhawk Accipiter butleri Endemic
Chinese sparrowhawk Accipiter soloensis
Japanese sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis Accidental
Besra Accipiter virgatus
Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis
White-eyed buzzard Butastur teesa
Grey-faced buzzard Butastur indicus Accidental
Eurasian buzzard Buteo buteo (race vulpinus)
Himalayan buzzard Buteo burmanicus (earlier treated under Buteo japonicus)
Long-legged buzzard Buteo rufinus
Upland buzzard Buteo hemilasius
Black eagle Ictinaetus malaiensis
Indian spotted eagle Clanga hastata (earlier treated as C. pomarina hastata)
Greater spotted eagle Clanga clanga
Tawny eagle Aquila rapax
Steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis Endangered
Eastern imperial eagle Aquila heliaca
Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos
Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata
Booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus Non-breeding range
Rufous-bellied hawk-eagle Lophotriorchis kienerii
Changeable hawk-eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus (Spizaetus restricted to the neotropics by Gjershaug et al., 2008)
Mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis
Legge's hawk-eagle Nisaetus kelaarti[11]


Pied falconet, (Microhierax melanoleucos) from pakke tiger reserve JEG3641 (cropped)
Pied falconet
Peregrine Falcon 1
Peregrine falcon

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Collared falconet Microhierax caerulescens
Pied falconet Microhierax melanoleucos
Lesser kestrel Falco naumanni
Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Red-necked falcon Falco chicquera Near threatened
Amur falcon Falco amurensis
Merlin Falco columbarius
Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo
Oriental hobby Falco severus
Laggar falcon Falco jugger Near threatened
Saker falcon Falco cherrug Endangered
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus
Barbary falcon Falco pelegrinoides disputed taxonomy


GIBustard DSC0851
Great Indian bustard courting pair

Order: Otidiformes   Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays.

Common name Binomial Comments
Great Indian bustard Ardeotis nigriceps Critically endangered
MacQueen's bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii Vulnerable; earlier as subspecies of houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata
Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengalensis Critically endangered
Lesser florican Sypheotides indicus Endangered
Little bustard Tetrax tetrax Accidental; near threatened


Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Masked finfoot Heliopais personata Endangered

Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots

Andaman crake
Andaman crake
WbWaterhen DSC 3501
White-breasted waterhen

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers.

Common name Binomial Comments
Andaman crake Rallina canningi Endemic
Slaty-legged crake Rallina eurizonoides
Slaty-breasted rail Lewinia striata
Water rail Rallus aquaticus
Brown-cheeked rail Rallus indicus
Corn crake Crex crex Accidental[12]
Brown crake Amaurornis akool
White-browed crake Amaurornis cinerea Accidental[13]
White-breasted waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
Black-tailed crake Amaurornis bicolor
Little crake Porzana parva
Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla
Spotted crake Porzana porzana Non-breeding range
Ruddy-breasted crake Porzana fusca
Watercock Gallicrex cinerea
Grey-headed swamphen Porphyrio poliocephalus
Common moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Eurasian coot Fulica atra


Order: Gruiformes   Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 5 species have been recorded from India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo Non-breeding range
Siberian crane Leucogeranus leucogeranus Critically endangered; perhaps have not wintered in India since 2002[14]
Sarus crane Antigone antigone Vulnerable
Common crane Grus grus
Black-necked crane Grus nigricollis Vulnerable

The hooded crane, Grus monacha, was included in many older lists but is considered hypothetical by more recent workers.(Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Common buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus
Yellow-legged buttonquail Turnix tanki
Barred buttonquail Turnix suscitator


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

Indian Stone Curlew
Indian stone-curlew

Stone-curlews are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

Common name Binomial Comments
Indian stone-curlew Burhinus indicus Occurrence of Eurasian stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus in India is not established[1]
Great stone-curlew Esacus recurvirostris Near threatened
Beach stone-curlew Esacus magnirostris Near threatened


Eurasian Oystercatcher from Kerala
Eurasian oystercatcher

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus Near threatened


Crab Plover (8556846776)

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Dromadidae

The crab-plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

Common name Binomial Comments
Crab-plover Dromas ardeola Non-breeding range


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Ibidorhynchidae

The ibisbill is related to the waders, but is sufficiently distinctive to be a family unto itself. The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs, a long down curved bill, and a black face and breast band.

Common name Binomial Comments
Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii

Avocets and stilts

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus
Pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta

Plovers and lapwings

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Northern lapwing Vanellus vanellus Near threatened
River lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii Near threatened
Yellow-wattled lapwing Vanellus malabaricus
Grey-headed lapwing Vanellus cinereus
Red-wattled lapwing Vanellus indicus
Sociable lapwing Vanellus gregarius Non-breeding range; critically endangered
White-tailed lapwing Vanellus leucurus Non-breeding range
Pacific golden-plover Pluvialis fulva
European golden-plover Pluvialis apricaria Accidental[15]
Grey plover Pluvialis squatarola
Common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula
Long-billed plover Charadrius placidus
Little ringed plover Charadrius dubius
Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus
White-faced plover Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus Accidental[16]
Lesser sandplover Charadrius mongolus Non-breeding range
Greater sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii Non-breeding range
Caspian plover Charadrius asiaticus
Oriental plover Charadrius veredus Accidental


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Rostratulidae

Painted-snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Greater painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis


Pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) from Aranthangi JEG3996
Pheasant-tailed jacana

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Pheasant-tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Bronze-winged jacana Metopidius indicus

Sandpipers and allies

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 43 species which have been recorded in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola
Jack snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
Solitary snipe Gallinago solitaria
Wood snipe Gallinago nemoricola Vulnerable
Pintail snipe Gallinago stenura Non-breeding range
Swinhoe's snipe Gallinago megala
Great snipe Gallinago media Accidental; near threatened
Common snipe Gallinago gallinago
Long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus Accidental[17]
Asian dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus Near threatened
Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa Near threatened
Asian black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa melanuroides coastal and possibly a full species according to Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005
Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica Near threatened
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata Near threatened
Spotted redshank Tringa erythropus
Common redshank Tringa totanus
Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
Common greenshank Tringa nebularia
Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus
Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola
Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus
Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres
Great knot Calidris tenuirostris Endangered
Red knot Calidris canutus Near threatened
Sanderling Calidris alba
Red-necked stint Calidris ruficollis Near threatened
Little stint Calidris minuta
Temminck's stint Calidris temminckii Non-breeding range
Long-toed stint Calidris subminuta
Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos Accidental
Sharp-tailed sandpiper Calidris acuminata Accidental
Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Near threatened
Dunlin Calidris alpina
Spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmeus Accidental; critically endangered
Broad-billed sandpiper Calidris falcinellus
Buff-breasted sandpiper Calidris subruficollis Accidental; near threatened
Ruff Calidris pugnax
Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
Red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius Accidental

Pratincoles and coursers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 6 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Cream-coloured courser Cursorius cursor
Indian courser Cursorius coromandelicus
Jerdon's courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus Endemic; critically endangered
Collared pratincole Glareola pratincola
Oriental pratincole Glareola maldivarum
Small pratincole Glareola lactea

Gulls, terns, and skimmers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns, and skimmers. Gulls are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.

Indian river tern
Common name Binomial Comments
White-eyed gull Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus Accidental;[18] near threatened
Sooty gull Ichthyaetus hemprichii Accidental[19]
Pallas's gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus
Brown-headed gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus
Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
Slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei
Little gull Hydrocoloeus minutus Accidental[19][12]
Franklin's gull Leucophaeus pipixcan [19][20]
Common gull Larus canus Accidental[19]
Mongolian gull Larus smithsonianus mongolicus Accidental
Heuglin's gull Larus fuscus heuglini [19]
Steppe gull Larus fuscus barabensis
Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Accidental;[19] vulnerable
Sabine's gull Xema sabini Accidental[19][21]
Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica
Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia
Lesser crested tern Thalasseus bengalensis
Sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
Great crested tern Thalasseus bergii
River tern Sterna aurantia Near threatened
Roseate tern Sterna dougallii
Black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana
Common tern Sterna hirundo
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea Accidental[19]
White-cheeked tern Sterna repressa
Black-bellied tern Sterna acuticauda Endangered
Little tern Sternula albifrons
Saunders's tern Sternula saundersi
Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus
Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus
Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida
White-winged tern Chlidonias leucopterus Non-breeding range
Black tern Chlidonias niger Accidental[19]
Lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris Accidental[19]
Black noddy Anous minutus Accidental[19]
Brown noddy Anous stolidus
White tern Gygis alba Accidental[19][22]
Indian skimmer Rynchops albicollis Vulnerable


Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
South polar skua Stercorarius maccormicki Accidental[9]
Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus
Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus
Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus Accidental[23]
Brown skua Stercorarius antarcticus Accidental[9]


Order: Pterocliformes   Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India. India has the largest number of sandgrouse of any country.

Common name Binomial Comments
Tibetan sandgrouse Syrrhaptes tibetanus
Pallas's sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus
Pin-tailed sandgrouse Pterocles alchata
Chestnut-bellied sandgrouse Pterocles exustus
Spotted sandgrouse Pterocles senegallus
Black-bellied sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis
Painted sandgrouse Pterocles indicus

Pigeons and doves

Andaman Green-pigeon flight
Andaman green pigeon

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

Common name Binomial Comments
Rock pigeon Columba livia
Hill pigeon Columba rupestris
Snow pigeon Columba leuconota
Yellow-eyed pigeon Columba eversmanni Non-breeding range; vulnerable
Common wood pigeon Columba palumbus
Speckled wood pigeon Columba hodgsonii
Ashy wood pigeon Columba pulchricollis
Nilgiri wood pigeon Columba elphinstonii Endemic; vulnerable
Pale-capped pigeon Columba punicea Vulnerable
Andaman wood pigeon Columba palumboides Endemic; near threatened
European turtle dove Streptopelia turtur Accidental;[12] vulnerable
Oriental turtle dove Streptopelia orientalis
Eurasian collared dove Streptopelia decaocto
Red collared dove Streptopelia tranquebarica
Laughing dove Spilopelia senegalensis
Spotted dove Spilopelia chinensis
Barred cuckoo-dove Macropygia unchall
Andaman cuckoo-dove Macropygia rufipennis Endemic; near threatened
Emerald dove Chalcophaps indica
Nicobar pigeon Caloenas nicobarica Near threatened
Orange-breasted green pigeon Treron bicinctus
Grey-fronted green pigeon Treron pompadora affinis
Ashy-headed green pigeon Treron pompadora phayrei Near threatened
Andaman green pigeon Treron pompadora chloropterus Near threatened
Thick-billed green pigeon Treron curvirostra
Yellow-footed green pigeon Treron phoenicopterus
Pin-tailed green pigeon Treron apicauda
Wedge-tailed green pigeon Treron sphenurus
Green imperial pigeon Ducula aenea
Nicobar imperial pigeon Ducula aenea nicobarica
Mountain imperial pigeon Ducula badia
Nilgiri imperial pigeon Ducuala badia cuprea
Pied imperial pigeon Ducula bicolor

Parrots and allies

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittaculidae

Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Old World parrots are found from Africa east across south and southeast Asia and Oceania to Australia and New Zealand.

Common name Binomial Comments
Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria Near threatened
Rose-ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri
Slaty-headed parakeet Psittacula himalayana
Grey-headed parakeet Psittacula finschii Near threatened
Plum-headed parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala
Blossom-headed parakeet Psittacula roseata Near threatened
Blue-winged parakeet Psittacula columboides Endemic
Red-breasted parakeet Psittacula alexandri Near threatened
Lord Derby's parakeet Psittacula derbiana ;[24] near threatened
Nicobar parakeet Psittacula caniceps Endemic; near threatened
Long-tailed parakeet Psittacula longicauda Near threatened
Vernal hanging parrot Loriculus vernalis


Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Many are brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in India.

Pied cuckoo in Pune, Maharashtra
Common name Binomial Comments
Pied cuckoo Clamator jacobinus
Chestnut-winged cuckoo Clamator coromandus
Large hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides
Common hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx varius
Hodgson's hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx nisicolor
Indian cuckoo Cuculus micropterus
Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus
Himalayan cuckoo Cuculus saturatus
Lesser cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus
Banded bay cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii
Plaintive cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus
Grey-bellied cuckoo Cacomantis passerinus
Asian emerald cuckoo Chrysococcyx maculatus
Violet cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus
Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo Surniculus lugubris
Fork-tailed drongo-cuckoo Surniculus dicruroides
Asian koel Eudynamys scolopaceus
Blue-faced malkoha Phaenicophaeus viridirostris
Green-billed malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis
Sirkeer malkoha Taccocua leschenaultii
Greater coucal Centropus sinensis
Andaman coucal Centropus andamanensis
Lesser coucal Centropus bengalensis

Barn owls

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

Common name Binomial Comments
Australasian grass owl Tyto longimembris
Eastern barn owl Tyto javanica
Andaman masked owl Tyto deroepstorffi Endemic
Oriental bay owl Phodilus badius
Sri Lanka bay owl Phodilus assimilis Western Ghats subspecies ripleyi in India with nominate form in Sri Lanka

Typical owls

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

Common name Binomial Comments
Andaman scops owl Otus balli Endemic; near threatened
Mountain scops owl Otus spilocephalus
Indian scops owl Otus bakkamoena
Collared scops owl Otus lettia
Pallid scops owl Otus brucei
Andaman scops owl Otus balli Endemic; near threatened
Mountain scops owl Otus spilocephalus
Indian scops owl Otus bakkamoena
Collared scops owl Otus lettia
Pallid scops owl Otus brucei
Oriental scops owl Otus sunia
Nicobar scops owl Otus alius Endemic
Eurasian eagle-owl Bubo bubo
Indian eagle-owl Bubo bengalensis
Spot-bellied eagle-owl Bubo nipalensis
Dusky eagle-owl Bubo coromandus
Brown fish owl Ketupa zeylonensis
Tawny fish owl Ketupa flavipes
Buffy fish owl Ketupa ketupu
Mottled wood owl Strix ocellata
Brown wood owl Strix leptogrammica
Tawny owl Strix aluco
Himalayan owl Strix nivicolum
Collared owlet Glaucidium brodiei
Asian barred owlet Glaucidium cuculoides
Jungle owlet Glaucidium radiatum
Spotted owlet Athene brama
Forest owlet Athene blewitti Endemic; endangered
Little owl Athene noctua
Boreal owl Aegolius funereus Accidental
Andaman hawk-owl Ninox affinis Endemic, near threatened
Brown hawk-owl Ninox scutulata
Hume's hawk-owl Ninox obscura
Long-eared owl Asio otus
Short-eared owl Asio flammeus


Sri Lankan frogmouth DSC 2406
Ceylon frogmouth

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Ceylon frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger ssp. roonwali in India
Hodgson's frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni


Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.

Common name Binomial Comments
Great eared-nightjar Eurostopodus macrotis
Jungle nightjar Caprimulgus indicus
Grey nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka
Eurasian nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
Sykes's nightjar Caprimulgus mahrattensis
Large-tailed nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus
Andaman nightjar Caprimulgus andamanicus Endemic
Jerdon's nightjar Caprimulgus atripennis
Indian nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus
Savanna nightjar Caprimulgus affinis


Order: Apodiformes   Family: Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts, or crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Crested treeswift Hemiprocne coronata


Glossy Swiftlet collage
Glossy swiftlet

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 17 species which have been recorded in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Glossy swiftlet Collocalia esculenta
Indian swiftlet Aerodramus unicolor
Himalayan swiftlet Aerodramus brevirostris
Edible-nest swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus
White-rumped needletail Zoonavena sylvatica
White-throated needletail Hirundapus caudacutus
Silver-backed needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis
Brown-backed needletail Hirundapus giganteus
Asian palm-swift Cypsiurus balasiensis
Alpine swift Tachymarptis melba
Common swift Apus apus
Blyth's swift Apus leuconyx
Pacific swift Apus pacificus ssp. kurodae
Dark-rumped swift Apus acuticauda Vulnerable
Nepal house swift Apus nipalensis
Indian house swift Apus affinis


Malabar Trogon
Malabar trogon

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Malabar trogon Harpactes fasciatus
Red-headed trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus
Ward's trogon Harpactes wardi Near threatened

Typical rollers

Indian Roller (View Large) (7919700760)
Indian roller

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
European roller Coracias garrulus
Indian roller Coracias benghalensis
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis


Sb Kingfisher DSC 3816
Stork-billed kingfisher

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Blyth's kingfisher Alcedo hercules Near threatened
Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis
Blue-eared kingfisher Alcedo meninting
Oriental dwarf kingfisher Ceyx erithaca
Rufous-backed kingfisher Ceyx erithaca rufidorsa Accidental
Brown-winged kingfisher Pelargopsis amauroptera Near threatened
Stork-billed kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
Ruddy kingfisher Halcyon coromanda
White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
Black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata Non-breeding range
Collared kingfisher Todirhamphus chloris
Crested kingfisher Ceryle lugubris
Pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis


Green Bee-eater DSC 6246
Green bee-eater

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Meropidae

Chestnut-headed bee-eater (Merops leschenaulti) from nilgiris DSC 1097
Chestnut-headed bee-eater

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Blue-bearded bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni
Green bee-eater Merops orientalis
Blue-cheeked bee-eater Merops persicus
Blue-tailed bee-eater Merops philippinus
European bee-eater Merops apiaster
Chestnut-headed bee-eater Merops leschenaulti


EuHoopoe DSCN3199

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Hoopoe Upupa epops


Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.

Common name Binomial Comments
Malabar grey hornbill Ocyceros griseus Endemic
Indian grey hornbill Ocyceros birostris
Malabar pied hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus Near threatened
Oriental pied hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris
Great hornbill Buceros bicornis Near threatened
Austen's brown hornbill Anorrhinus austeni Near threatened
Rufous-necked hornbill Aceros nipalensis Vulnerable
Wreathed hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus
Narcondam hornbill Rhyticeros narcondami Endemic; endangered


Order: Piciformes   Family: Megalaimidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.

Common name Binomial Comments
Great barbet Psilopogon virens
Brown-headed barbet Psilopogon zeylanicus
Lineated barbet Psilopogon lineatus
White-cheeked barbet Psilopogon viridis Endemic
Golden-throated barbet Psilopogon franklinii
Blue-throated barbet Psilopogon asiaticus
Blue-eared barbet Psilopogon duvaucelii
Malabar barbet Psilopogon malabaricus Endemic
Coppersmith barbet Psilopogon haemacephalus


Order: Piciformes   Family: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have harvested the honey, feeds on the remaining contents of the hive. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Yellow-rumped honeyguide Indicator xanthonotus Near threatened

Woodpeckers and allies

EurasianWryneck DSCN3223
Eurasian wryneck

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian wryneck Jynx torquilla
Speckled piculet Picumnus innominatus
White-browed piculet Sasia ochracea
Brown-capped pygmy woodpecker Yungipicus nanus
Grey-capped pygmy woodpecker Yungipicus canicapillus
Brown-fronted woodpecker Dendrocoptes auriceps
Fulvous-breasted woodpecker Dendrocopos macei
Stripe-breasted woodpecker Dendrocopos atratus
Darjeeling woodpecker Dendrocopos darjellensis
Great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major
Sind woodpecker Dendrocopos assimilis
Himalayan woodpecker Dendrocopos himalayensis
Rufous-bellied woodpecker Dendrocopos hyperythrus
Crimson-breasted woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius
Rufous woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus
Yellow-crowned woodpecker Leiopicus mahrattensis
White-bellied woodpecker Dryocopus javensis
Andaman woodpecker Dryocopus hodgei Endemic; near threatened
Greater yellownape Chrysophlegma flavinucha
Lesser yellownape Picus chlorolophus
Streak-throated woodpecker Picus xanthopygaeus
Scaly-bellied woodpecker Picus squamatus
Black-naped woodpecker Picus guerini
Himalayan flameback Dinopium shorii
Common flameback Dinopium javanense
Black-rumped flameback Dinopium benghalense
White-naped woodpecker Chrysocolaptes festivus
Greater flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus
Pale-headed woodpecker Gecinulus grantia
Bay woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis
Heart-spotted woodpecker Hemicircus canente
Great slaty woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus Vulnerable


Silver Breasted Broadbill DSCN9380 02
Silver-breasted broadbill

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Long-tailed broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae
Silver-breasted broadbill Serilophus lunatus


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards and are stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates.

Common name Binomial Comments
Blue-naped pitta Hydrornis nipalensis
Blue pitta Hydrornis cyanea
Hooded pitta Pitta sordida
Indian pitta Pitta brachyura
Mangrove pitta Pitta megarhyncha [25][26] Near threatened
Blue-winged pitta Pitta moluccensis [27]


Bar-Winged flycatcher Shrike DSC3833
Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vangidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Large woodshrike Tephrodornis virgatus
Malabar woodshrike Tephrodornis sylvicola Endemic
Common woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus
Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus


White-breasted Woodswallow Andamans1
White-breasted woodswallow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Artamidae

The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings. There are 11 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Ashy woodswallow Artamus fuscus
White-breasted woodswallow Artamus leucorynchus


Marshall's Iora f MG 6245 GarimaBhatia
White-tailed iora female

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Aegithinidae

The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Common iora Aegithina tiphia
White-tailed iora Aegithina nigrolutea


Scarlet Minivet Male
Scarlet minivet

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Campephagidae

The cuckooshrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Large cuckooshrike Coracina macei
Andaman cuckooshrike Coracina dobsoni Endemic; near threatened
Black-winged cuckooshrike Lalage melaschistos
Black-headed cuckooshrike Lalage melanoptera
Pied triller Lalage nigra
Rosy minivet Pericrocotus roseus
Ashy minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus
Small minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
White-bellied minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius
Long-tailed minivet Pericrocotus ethologus
Short-billed minivet Pericrocotus brevirostris
Orange minivet Pericrocotus flammeus
Scarlet minivet Pericrocotus speciosus Endemic
Grey-chinned minivet Pericrocotus solaris

Whistlers and allies

Mangrove Whistler
Mangrove whistler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pachycephalidae

The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and crested bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Mangrove whistler Pachycephala cinerea


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.

Long-tailed Shrike Anamalai
Long-tailed shrike
Common name Binomial Comments
Woodchat shrike Lanius senator [28]
Red-backed shrike Lanius collurio
Isabelline shrike Lanius isabellinus Non-breeding range
Red-tailed shrike Lanius phoenicuroides
Brown shrike Lanius cristatus
Burmese shrike Lanius collurioides
Bay-backed shrike Lanius vittatus
Long-tailed shrike Lanius schach
Grey-backed shrike Lanius tephronotus
Great grey shrike Lanius excubitor homeyeri
Lesser grey shrike Lanius minor [12]

Old World orioles

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oriolidae

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian golden oriole Oriolus oriolus
Indian golden oriole Oriolus kundoo [29]
Black-naped oriole Oriolus chinensis
Slender-billed oriole Oriolus tenuirostris
Black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus
Maroon oriole Oriolus traillii


Black Drongo DSC9893
Black drongo

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus
Ashy drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus
White-bellied drongo Dicrurus caerulescens
Crow-billed drongo Dicrurus annectens
Bronzed drongo Dicrurus aeneus
Lesser racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus remifer
Hair-crested drongo Dicrurus hottentottus
Andaman drongo Dicrurus andamanensis Near threatened
Greater racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseus


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhipiduridae

The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders. There are 44 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
White-throated fantail Rhipidura albicollis
White-spotted fantail Rhipidura albicollis albogularis
White-browed fantail Rhipidura aureola

Monarch flycatchers

Black Napped Monarch Prasanna Mamidala
Black-naped monarch

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Black-naped monarch Hypothymis azurea
Indian paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi

Crows, jays, ravens and magpies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.

Rufous-Treepie bird
Rufous treepie
Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius
Black-headed jay Garrulus lanceolatus
Red-billed blue magpie Urocissa erythrorhyncha
Yellow-billed blue magpie Urocissa flavirostris
Green magpie Cissa chinensis
Rufous treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda
Grey treepie Dendrocitta formosae
White-bellied treepie Dendrocitta leucogastra Endemic
Collared treepie Dendrocitta frontalis
Andaman treepie Dendrocitta bayleyii Endemic; near threatened
Black-rumped magpie Pica bottanensis
Eurasian nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes
Large-spotted nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes multipunctata
Red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Yellow-billed chough Pyrrhocorax graculus
Eurasian jackdaw Corvus monedula
House crow Corvus splendens
Rook Corvus frugilegus
Carrion crow Corvus corone
Hooded crow Corvus corone cornix
Large-billed crow Corvus macrorhynchos
Indian jungle crow Corvus culminatus
Eastern jungle crow Corvus levaillantii
Common raven Corvus corax


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Bohemian waxwing Bombycilla garrulus

Grey hypocolius

Hypocolius ampelinus pair

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hypocoliidae

The grey hypocolius is a small Middle Eastern bird with the shape and soft plumage of a waxwing. They are mainly a uniform grey colour except the males have a black triangular mask around their eyes.

Common name Binomial Comments
Hypocolius Hypocolius ampelinus

Fairy flycatchers

Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis from nilgiris DSC 1436
Grey-headed canary-flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Stenostiridae

Common name Binomial Comments
Yellow-bellied fantail Chelidorhynx hypoxanthus
Grey-headed canary-flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

Common name Binomial Comments
Coal tit Periparus ater
Spot-winged tit Periparus ater melanolophus
Black-breasted tit Periparus rufonuchalis
Rufous-vented tit Periparus rubidiventris
Black-crested tit Periparus melanolophus
Grey-crested tit Lophophanes dichrous
Cinereous tit Parus cinereus [30]
Green-backed tit Parus monticolus
White-naped tit Machlolophus nuchalis Endemic; vulnerable
Himalayan black-lored tit Machlolophus xanthogenys
Indian yellow tit Machlolophus aplonotus [31]
Yellow-cheeked tit Machlolophus spilonotus
Yellow-breasted tit Cyanistes flavipectus
Yellow-browed tit Sylviparus modestus
Sultan tit Melanochlora sultanea
Hume's ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis
Fire-capped tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps

Penduline tits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There is 1 species which has been recorded in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
White-crowned penduline tit Remiz coronatus


Bird Malabar crested lark IMG 2983 01
Malabar lark

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Alaudidae

Rt Lark DSC0344
Rufous-tailed lark

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

Common name Binomial Comments
Singing bushlark Mirafra cantillans
Indian bushlark Mirafra erythroptera
Bengal bushlark Mirafra assamica
Jerdon's bushlark Mirafra affinis
Black-crowned sparrow-lark Eremopterix nigriceps
Ashy-crowned sparrow-lark Eremopterix griseus
Rufous-tailed lark Ammomanes phoenicura
Desert lark Ammomanes deserti
Bimaculated lark Melanocorypha bimaculata
Tibetan lark Melanocorypha maxima
Greater short-toed lark Calandrella brachydactyla
Mongolian short-toed lark Calandrella dukhunensis
Hume's short-toed lark Calandrella acutirostris
Lesser short-toed lark Alaudala rufescens
Sand lark Alaudala raytal
Crested lark Galerida cristata
Malabar lark Galerida malabarica Endemic
Sykes's lark Galerida deva Endemic
Eurasian skylark Alauda arvensis
Oriental skylark Alauda gulgula
Horned lark Eremophila alpestris
Greater hoopoe-lark Alaemon alaudipes


Yellow-throated Bulbul
Yellow-throated bulbul
WEBulbul DSC0308
White-eared bulbul

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pycnonotidae

Aravalli BiodivPark Gurgaon DSC9137 rv bulbul
Red-vented bulbul

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.

Common name Binomial Comments
Crested finchbill Spizixos canifrons
Grey-headed bulbul Brachypodius priocephalus Endemic; near threatened
Black-headed bulbul Brachypodius atriceps
Andaman bulbul Brachypodius fuscoflavescens Endemic; near threatened
Striated bulbul Pycnonotus striatus
Red-whiskered bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
White-eared bulbul Pycnonotus leucotis
White-cheeked bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys
Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer
Yellow-throated bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus Endemic; vulnerable
Flavescent bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens
White-browed bulbul Pycnonotus luteolus
Black-crested bulbul Rubigula flaviventris
Flame-throated bulbul Rubigula gularis
Olive bulbul Iole virescens
Yellow-browed bulbul Acritillas indica
Ashy bulbul Hemixos flavala
Mountain bulbul Hypsipetes mcclellandi
Black bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus
Square-tailed bulbul Hypsipetes ganeesa
Nicobar bulbul Hypsipetes nicobariensis Endemic; near threatened

Swallows and martins

St Swallow DSC0359
Streak-throated swallow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

Common name Binomial Comments
Sand martin Riparia riparia
Pale martin Riparia diluta
Grey-throated martin Riparia chinensis
Eurasian crag martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris
Dusky crag martin Ptyonoprogne concolor
Barn swallow Hirundo rustica
Pacific swallow Hirundo tahitica
Hill swallow Hirundo domicola
Wire-tailed swallow Hirundo smithii
Streak-throated swallow Hirundo fluvicola
Red-rumped swallow Cecropis daurica
Striated swallow Cecropis striolata
Common house martin Delichon urbicum
Asian martin Delichon dasypus
Nepal martin Delichon nipalense

Long-tailed tits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Aegithalidae

Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects.

Common name Binomial Comments
White-cheeked bushtit Aegithalos leucogenys
Black-throated bushtit Aegithalos concinnus
Black-browed bushtit Aegithalos bonvaloti [32]
White-throated bushtit Aegithalos niveogularis
Rufous-fronted bushtit Aegithalos iouschistos
Crested tit-warbler Leptopoecile elegans [33]
White-browed tit-warbler Leptopoecile sophiae

Cettid warblers

Chestnut-headed tesia
Chestnut-headed tesia

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cettiidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Slaty-bellied tesia Tesia olivea
Grey-bellied tesia Tesia cyaniventer
Asian stubtail Urosphena squameiceps [34]
Pale-footed bush warbler Urosphena pallidipes
Manchurian bush warbler Horornis borealis
Brown-flanked bush warbler Horornis fortipes
Aberrant bush warbler Horornis flavolivacea
Hume's bush warbler Horornis brunnescens
Chestnut-headed tesia Cettia castaneocoronata
Chestnut-crowned bush warbler Cettia major
Grey-sided bush warbler Cettia brunnifrons
Cetti's warbler Cettia cetti
Mountain tailorbird Phyllergates cuculatus
Rufous-faced warbler Abroscopus albogularis
Yellow-bellied warbler Abroscopus superciliaris
Black-faced warbler Abroscopus schisticeps
Broad-billed warbler Tickellia hodgsoni

Locustellid warblers

Broad-Tailed Grassbird 1
Broad-tailed grassbird

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Locustellidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Spotted bush warbler Locustella thoracica
West Himalayan bush warbler Locustella kashmirensis Endemic
Long-billed bush warbler Locustella major Near threatened
Chinese bush warbler Locustella tacsanowskia
Russet bush warbler Locustella mandelli
Brown bush warbler Locustella luteoventris
Lanceolated warbler Locustella lanceolata
Common grasshopper warbler Locustella naevia
Baikal bush warbler Locustella davidi [35]
Pallas's grasshopper warbler Helopsaltes certhiola
Striated grassbird Megalurus palustris
Bristled grassbird Schoenicola striatus Vulnerable
Broad-tailed grassbird Schoenicola platyura Endemic; vulnerable

Acrocephalid warblers

Thick-billed warbler (Iduna aedon) from The Anamalai hills JEG0635
Thick-billed warbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Acrocephalidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Moustached warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon
Sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus [12]
Black-browed reed warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps [12]
Paddyfield warbler Acrocephalus agricola Non-breeding range
Blunt-winged warbler Acrocephalus concinens
Blyth's reed warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum
Great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus [12]
Oriental reed warbler Acrocephalus orientalis
Clamorous reed warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
Large-billed reed warbler Acrocephalus orinus Non-breeding range
Thick-billed warbler Arundinax aedon Non-breeding range
Booted warbler Iduna caligata Non-breeding range
Sykes's warbler Iduna rama Non-breeding range

Phylloscopid warblers

Tickell's Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus affinis from the Anaimalai hills JEG2540 a
Tickell's leaf warbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Phylloscopidae

Lemon-rumped Warbler MG 2373 GarimaBhatia
Pale-rumped warbler
Common name Binomial Comments
Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
Mountain chiffchaff Phylloscopus sindianus
Plain leaf warbler Phylloscopus neglectus
Dusky warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus Non-breeding range
Smoky warbler Phylloscopus fuligiventer
Tickell's leaf warbler Phylloscopus affinis Non-breeding range
Buff-throated warbler Phylloscopus subaffinis Accidental
Sulphur-bellied warbler Phylloscopus griseolus Non-breeding range
Buff-barred warbler Phylloscopus pulcher
Ashy-throated warbler Phylloscopus maculipennis
Pale-rumped warbler Phylloscopus chloronotus
Brooks's leaf warbler Phylloscopus subviridis
Yellow-browed warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
Hume's leaf warbler Phylloscopus humei Non-breeding range
Arctic warbler Phylloscopus borealis
Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides Non-breeding range
Green warbler Phylloscopus nitidus
Pale-legged leaf warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes
Large-billed leaf warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Non-breeding range
Tytler's leaf warbler Phylloscopus tytleri Near threatened
Western crowned leaf warbler Phylloscopus occipitalis
Blyth's leaf warbler Phylloscopus reguloides
Yellow-vented warbler Phylloscopus cantator
Golden-spectacled warbler Phylloscopus burkii
Whistler's warbler Phylloscopus whistleri
Grey-crowned warbler Phylloscopus tephrocephalus
Grey-hooded warbler Phylloscopus xanthoschistos
White-spectacled warbler Phylloscopus affinis
Grey-cheeked warbler Phylloscopus poliogenys
Chestnut-crowned warbler Phylloscopus castaniceps

Old World warblers

Aravalli BiodivPark Gurgaon DSC9051 lesser whitethroat
Lesser whitethroat

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sylviidae

Chrysomma sinense
Yellow-eyed babbler

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Many species are difficult to identify by appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

Common name Binomial Comments
Garden warbler Sylvia borin [12]
Greater whitethroat Sylvia communis
Lesser whitethroat Sylvia curruca
Small whitethroat Sylvia minula
Hume's whitethroat Sylvia althaea Non-breeding range
Asian desert warbler Sylvia nana
Barred warbler Sylvia nisoria [12]
Eastern Orphean warbler Sylvia crassirostris
Golden-breasted fulvetta Lioparus chrysotis
Yellow-eyed babbler Chrysomma sinense
Jerdon's babbler Chrysomma altirostre Vulnerable
White-browed fulvetta Fulvetta vinipectus
Manipur fulvetta Fulvetta manipurensis
Brown-throated fulvetta Fulvetta ludlowi
Fire-tailed myzornis Myzornis pyrrhoura
Great parrotbill Conostoma aemodium
Brown parrotbill Cholornis unicolor
Grey-headed parrotbill Psittiparus gularis
Rufous-headed parrotbill Psittiparus bakeri
Black-breasted parrotbill Paradoxornis flavirostris Vulnerable
Spot-breasted parrotbill Paradoxornis guttaticollis
Fulvous parrotbill Suthora fulvifrons
Black-throated parrotbill Suthora nipalensis
Pale-billed parrotbill Chleuasicus atrosuperciliaris

Cisticolas and allies

Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis from Tiruchirapalli district JEG1267 b
Zitting cisticola

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.

Common name Binomial Comments
Zitting cisticola Cisticola juncidis
Golden-headed cisticola Cisticola exilis
Striated prinia Prinia criniger
Hill prinia Prinia superciliaris
Black-throated prinia Prinia atrogularis
Grey-crowned prinia Prinia cinereocapilla
Rufous-fronted prinia Prinia buchanani
Rufescent prinia Prinia rufescens
Grey-breasted prinia Prinia hodgsonii
Graceful prinia Prinia gracilis
Jungle prinia Prinia sylvatica
Yellow-bellied prinia Prinia flaviventris
Ashy prinia Prinia socialis
Plain prinia Prinia inornata
Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius
Dark-necked tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis


Black-chinned laughingthrush (Trochalopteron cachinnans) from Ooty JEG3561
Black-chinned laughingthrush

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Leiothrichidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Moustached laughingthrush Ianthocincla cineracea
Rufous-chinned laughingthrush Ianthocincla rufogularis
White-throated laughingthrush Ianthocincla albogularis
White-browed laughingthrush Ianthocincla sannio
Greater necklaced laughingthrush Ianthocincla pectoralis
Rufous-necked laughingthrush Ianthocincla ruficollis
Chestnut-backed laughingthrush Ianthocincla nuchalis
Yellow-throated laughingthrush Ianthocincla galbana
Wynaad laughingthrush Ianthocincla delesserti Endemic
Rufous-vented laughingthrush Ianthocincla gularis
Spotted laughingthrush Ianthocincla ocellata
Grey-sided laughingthrush Ianthocincla caerulata
Striated laughingthrush Garrulax striatus
White-crested laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus
Lesser necklaced laughingthrush Garrulax monileger
Spot-breasted laughingthrush Garrulax merulinus
Nilgiri laughingthrush Montecincla cachinnans Endemic
Banasura laughingthrush Montecincla jerdoni Endemic
Palani laughingthrush Montecincla fairbanki Endemic
Ashambu laughingthrush Montecincla meridionalis Endemic
Streaked laughingthrush Trochalopteron lineatum
Bhutan laughingthrush Trochalopteron imbricatum
Striped laughingthrush Garrulax virgatus
Scaly laughingthrush Garrulax subunicolor
Elliot's laughingthrush Trochalopteron elliotii Accidental[36]
Brown-capped laughingthrush Garrulax austeni
Blue-winged laughingthrush Garrulax squamatus
Variegated laughingthrush Garrulax variegatus
Black-faced laughingthrush Garrulax affinis
Chestnut-crowned laughingthrush Trochalopteron erythrocephalum
Assam laughingthrush Trochalopteron chrysopterum
Red-faced liocichla Liocichla phoenicea
Bugun liocichla Liocichla bugunorum Endemic[37]
Common babbler Argya caudata
Striated babbler Argya earlei
Slender-billed babbler Argya longirostris
Large grey babbler Argya malcolmi
Rufous babbler Argya subrufa Endemic
Jungle babbler Argya striata
Yellow-billed babbler Argya affinis
Chinese babax Babax lanceolatus
Silver-eared mesia Leiothrix argentauris
Red-billed leiothrix Leiothrix lutea
Himalayan cutia Cutia nipalensis
Rusty-fronted barwing Actinodura egertoni
Hoary-throated barwing Actinodura nipalensis
Streak-throated barwing Actinodura waldeni
Blue-winged minla Minla cyanouroptera
Chestnut-tailed minla Minla strigula
Red-tailed minla Minla ignotincta
Rufous-backed sibia Heterophasia annectens
Rufous sibia Heterophasia capistrata
Grey sibia Heterophasia gracilis
Beautiful sibia Heterophasia pulchella
Long-tailed sibia Heterophasia picaoides

Ground babblers

Brown cheeked fulvetta
Brown-cheeked fulvetta or Quaker babbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pellorneidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Abbott's babbler Malacocincla abbotti
Marsh babbler Pellorneum palustre
Buff-breasted babbler Pellorneum tickelli
Spot-throated babbler Pellorneum albiventre
Puff-throated babbler Pellorneum ruficeps
Long-billed wren-babbler Rimator malacoptilus
Streaked wren-babbler Napothera brevicaudata
Eyebrowed wren-babbler Napothera epilepidota
Indian grassbird Graminicola bengalensis
White-hooded babbler Gampsorhynchus rufulus
Yellow-throated fulvetta Alcippe cinerea
Rufous-winged fulvetta Alcippe castaneceps
Rufous-throated fulvetta Alcippe rufogularis
Rusty-capped fulvetta Alcippe dubia
Quaker babbler Alcippe poioicephala
Nepal fulvetta Alcippe nipalensis
Swamp grass babbler Laticilla cinerascens
Rufous-vented grass babbler Laticilla burnesii


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Timaliidae

Rusty-cheeked scimitar babbler 5626 GarimaBhatia
Rusty-cheeked scimitar babbler

The babblers, or timaliids, are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage.

Golden Babbler 9414 GarimaBhatia
Golden babbler
Indian Scimitar Babbler DSC 4978
Indian scimitar babbler
Common name Binomial Comments
Large scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus hypoleucos
Spot-breasted scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus mcclellandi
Rusty-cheeked scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys
Indian scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus horsfieldii
White-browed scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps
Streak-breasted scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus ruficollis
Red-billed scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps
Coral-billed scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus
Slender-billed scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus superciliaris
Rufous-throated wren-babbler Spelaeornis caudatus
Mishmi wren-babbler Spelaeornis badeigularis Endemic
Bar-winged wren-babbler Spelaeornis troglodytoides
Naga wren-babbler Spelaeornis chocolatinus Endemic
Grey-bellied wren-babbler Spelaeornis reptatus
Chin Hills wren-babbler Spelaeornis oatesi
Tawny-breasted wren-babbler Spelaeornis longicaudatus Endemic
Sikkim wedge-billed babbler Sphenocichla humei
Cachar wedge-billed babbler Sphenocichla roberti
Buff-chested babbler Stachyridopsis ambigua
Rufous-capped babbler Stachyridopsis ruficeps
Black-chinned babbler Stachyridopsis pyrrhops
Golden babbler Stachyridopsis chrysaea
Grey-throated babbler Stachyris nigriceps
Snowy-throated babbler Stachyris oglei
Tawny-bellied babbler Dumetia hyperythra
Dark-fronted babbler Rhopocichla atriceps
Pin-striped tit-babbler Macronus gularis
Chestnut-capped babbler Timalia pileata


Scaly-breasted Wren-Babbler - Eaglenest - India FJ0A9148 (33901552680)
Scaly-breasted wren-babbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pnoepygidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Scaly-breasted wren-babbler Pnoepyga albiventer
Immaculate wren-babbler Pnoepyga immaculata
Pygmy wren-babbler Pnoepyga pusilla


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

Common name Binomial Comments
Black-headed shrike-babbler Pteruthius rufivente
Himalayan shrike-babbler Pteruthius ripleyi
Blyth's shrike-babbler Pteruthius aeralatus validirostris
Green shrike-babbler Pteruthius xanthochlorus
Black-eared shrike-babbler Pteruthius melanotis
Clicking shrike-babbler Pteruthius intermedius
White-bellied erpornis Erpornis zantholeuca

Spotted elachura

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Elachuridae

Common name Binomial Comments
Spotted elachura Elachura formosa


Oriental white-eye (Zosterops palpebrosus) from nilgiris DSC 0890
Oriental white-eye

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye.

Common name Binomial Comments
Oriental white-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
Striated yuhina Yuhina castaniceps
White-naped yuhina Yuhina bakeri
Whiskered yuhina Yuhina flavicollis
Stripe-throated yuhina Yuhina gularis
Rufous-vented yuhina Yuhina occipitalis
Black-chinned yuhina Yuhina nigrimenta


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Irenidae

The fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Asian fairy-bluebird Irena puella


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Regulidae

The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Goldcrest Regulus regulus


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Eurasian wren Troglodytes troglodytes


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.

Common name Binomial Comments
Indian nuthatch Sitta castanea
Chestnut-bellied nuthatch Sitta cinnamoventris
Chestnut-vented nuthatch Sitta nagaensis
Kashmir nuthatch Sitta cashmirensis
White-tailed nuthatch Sitta himalayensis
White-cheeked nuthatch Sitta leucopsis
Velvet-fronted nuthatch Sitta frontalis
Beautiful nuthatch Sitta formosa
Yunnan nuthatch Sitta yunnanensis [38]


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tichodromidae

The wallcreeper is a small bird related to the nuthatch family, which has stunning crimson, grey and black plumage.

Common name Binomial Comments
Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.

Common name Binomial Comments
Himalayan treecreeper Certhia himalayana
Hodgson's treecreeper Certhia hodgsoni
Nepal treecreeper Certhia nipalensis
Sikkim treecreeper Certhia discolor
Manipur treecreeper Certhia manipurensis [39][40]
Indian spotted creeper Salpornis spilonota Endemic


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.

Common name Binomial Comments
Asian glossy starling Aplonis panayensis
Spot-winged starling Saroglossa spilopterus
Golden-crested myna Ampeliceps coronatus
Common hill myna Gracula religiosa
Southern hill myna Gracula indica
Great myna Acridotheres grandis
Jungle myna Acridotheres fuscus
Collared myna Acridotheres albocinctus
Bank myna Acridotheres ginginianus
Common myna Acridotheres tristis
Asian pied starling Gracupica contra
Daurian starling Agropsar sturninus
Chestnut-cheeked starling Agropsar philippensis Accidental[41]
Chestnut-tailed starling Sturnia malabarica [42]
Malabar starling Sturnia blythii [42]
White-headed starling Sturnia erythropygia Endemic[42]
Brahminy starling Sturnia pagodarum [42]
Rosy starling Pastor roseus Non-breeding range
European starling Sturnus vulgaris

Thrushes and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

Common name Binomial Comments
Pied thrush Geokichla wardii
Orange-headed thrush Geokichla citrina
Siberian thrush Geokichla sibirica
Chinese thrush Otocichla mupinensis [43]
Alpine thrush Zoothera mollissima
Himalayan thrush Zoothera salimalii [44]
Long-tailed thrush Zoothera dixoni
Scaly thrush Zoothera dauma
Nilgiri thrush Zoothera neilgherriensis
Long-billed thrush Zoothera monticola
Dark-sided thrush Zoothera marginata
Tickell's thrush Turdus unicolor
Black-breasted thrush Turdus dissimilis
White-collared blackbird Turdus albocinctus
Grey-winged blackbird Turdus boulboul
Tibetan blackbird Turdus maximus
Indian blackbird Turdus simillimus
Chestnut thrush Turdus rubrocanus
White-backed thrush Turdus kessleri
Grey-sided thrush Turdus feae
Eyebrowed thrush Turdus obscurus
Red-throated thrush Turdus ruficollis
Black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis
Dusky thrush Turdus euonomus
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
Redwing Turdus iliacus
Song thrush Turdus philomelos [12]
Mistle thrush Turdus viscivorus
Purple cochoa Cochoa purpurea
Green cochoa Cochoa viridis
Grandala Grandala coelicolor

Old World flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.

Common name Binomial Comments
Common rock thrush Monticola saxatilis
Blue-capped rock thrush Monticola cinclorhyncha
Chestnut-bellied rock thrush Monticola rufiventris
Blue rock thrush Monticola solitarius
Rusty-bellied shortwing Brachypteryx hyperythra
Gould's shortwing Brachypteryx stellata
Lesser shortwing Brachypteryx leucophrys
White-browed shortwing Brachypteryx montana
Nilgiri sholakili Sholicola major Endemic
White-bellied sholakili Sholicola albiventris Endemic
Ashambu blue robin Sholicola ashambuensis Endemic
Malabar whistling thrush Myophonus horsfieldii Endemic
Blue whistling thrush Myophonus caeruleus
Nicobar jungle flycatcher Rhinomyias nicobaricus Endemic
Spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata
Dark-sided flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica
Asian brown flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica
Brown-breasted flycatcher Muscicapa muttui
Ferruginous flycatcher Muscicapa ferruginea
Rusty-tailed flycatcher Ficedula ruficauda
Yellow-rumped flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia
Mugimaki flycatcher Ficedula mugimaki Accidental[45]
Slaty-backed flycatcher Ficedula erithacus
Rufous-gorgeted flycatcher Ficedula strophiata
Red-breasted flycatcher Ficedula parva
Taiga flycatcher Ficedula albicilla
Kashmir flycatcher Ficedula subrubra
Snowy-browed flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra
Little pied flycatcher Ficedula westermanni
Ultramarine flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris
Slaty-blue flycatcher Ficedula tricolor
Pygmy flycatcher Ficedula hodgsoni
Black-and-orange flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa Endemic
Sapphire flycatcher Ficedula sapphira
White-gorgeted flycatcher Anthipes monileger
Verditer flycatcher Eumyias thalassinus
Nilgiri flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus Endemic
Large niltava Niltava grandis
Small niltava Niltava macgrigoriae
Rufous-bellied niltava Niltava sundara
Vivid niltava Niltava vivida
Blue-and-white flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana Accidental[46]
White-tailed flycatcher Cyornis concretus
White-bellied blue flycatcher Cyornis pallidipes Endemic
Pale-chinned blue flycatcher Cyornis poliogenys
Pale blue flycatcher Cyornis unicolor
Blue-throated flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides
Hill blue flycatcher Cyornis banyumas
Large blue flycatcher Cyornis magnirostris
Tickell's blue flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
Indian blue robin Luscinia brunnea
Siberian blue robin Luscinia cyane
White-bellied redstart Luscinia phoenicuroides
Siberian rubythroat Calliope calliope
Himalayan rubythroat Calliope pectoralis
Chinese rubythroat Calliope tschebaiewi
Firethroat Calliope pectardens
Red-flanked bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus
Himalayan bluetail Tarsiger rufilatus
Golden bush-robin Tarsiger chrysaeus
White-browed bush-robin Tarsiger indicus
Rufous-breasted bush-robin Tarsiger hyperythrus
Rufous-tailed scrub-robin Cercotrichas galactotes
Oriental magpie-robin Copsychus saularis
White-rumped shama Copsychus malabaricus
Andaman shama Copsychus albiventris
Indian robin Copsychus fulicatus
Rufous-backed redstart Phoenicurus erythronotus
Blue-capped redstart Phoenicurus caeruleocephala
Common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus [12]
Black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
Hodgson's redstart Phoenicurus hodgsoni
White-throated redstart Phoenicurus schisticeps
Daurian redstart Phoenicurus auroreus
White-winged redstart Phoenicurus erythrogaster
Blue-fronted redstart Phoenicurus frontalis
White-capped redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus [47]
Plumbeous redstart Rhyacornis fuliginosa
White-tailed robin Myiomela leucura
Blue-fronted robin Cinclidium frontale
Little forktail Enicurus scouleri
Black-backed forktail Enicurus immaculatus
Slaty-backed forktail Enicurus schistaceus
White-crowned forktail Enicurus leschenaulti
Spotted forktail Enicurus maculatus
Siberian stonechat Saxicola maurus
White-browed bush chat Saxicola macrorhynchus
White-throated bush chat Saxicola insignis
White-tailed stonechat Saxicola leucurus
Pied bushchat Saxicola caprata
Jerdon's bush chat Saxicola jerdoni
Grey bushchat Saxicola ferreus
Hume's wheatear Oenanthe alboniger
Northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe Accidental[48]
Variable wheatear Oenanthe picata
Pied wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka
Red-tailed wheatear Oenanthe chrysopygia
Desert wheatear Oenanthe deserti
Isabelline wheatear Oenanthe isabellina
Brown rock chat Oenanthe fusca


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
White-throated dipper Cinclus cinclus
Brown dipper Cinclus pallasii


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Chloropseidae

The leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows.

Common name Binomial Comments
Jerdon's leafbird Chloropsis jerdoni
Golden-fronted leafbird Chloropsis aurifrons
Orange-bellied leafbird Chloropsis hardwickii


Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Dicaeum agile) on Helicteres isora W2 IMG 1379
Thick-billed flowerpecker

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Dicaeidae

PbFlowerpecker DSC 3272 crop
Pale-billed flowerpecker

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues.

Common name Binomial Comments
Thick-billed flowerpecker Dicaeum agile
Yellow-vented flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum
Yellow-bellied flowerpecker Dicaeum melanoxanthum
Pale-billed flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos
Nilgiri flowerpecker Dicaeum concolor
Andaman flowerpecker Dicaeum virescens
Plain flowerpecker Dicaeum minullum
Fire-breasted flowerpecker Dicaeum ignipectus
Scarlet-backed flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum

Sunbirds and spiderhunters

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Nectariniidae

GarimaBhatia Green-tailed Sunbird MG 1191
Green-tailed sunbird
Female Purple-rumped sunbird in the backyard of an empty plot in Judicial Layout, Bangalore. 29 March 2016
Purple-rumped sunbird

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed.

Common name Binomial Comments
Ruby-cheeked sunbird Chalcoparia singalensis
Purple-rumped sunbird Leptocoma zeylonica
Crimson-backed sunbird Leptocoma minima Endemic
Van Hasselt's sunbird Leptocoma brasiliana
Purple sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus
Olive-backed sunbird Cinnyris jugularis
Long-billed sunbird Cinnyris lotenius
Mrs. Gould's sunbird Aethopyga gouldiae
Green-tailed sunbird Aethopyga nipalensis
Black-throated sunbird Aethopyga saturata
Vigors's sunbird Aethopyga vigorsii Endemic
Crimson sunbird Aethopyga siparaja
Fire-tailed sunbird Aethopyga ignicauda
Little spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra
Streaked spiderhunter Arachnothera magna


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects.

Common name Binomial Comments
House sparrow Passer domesticus
Spanish sparrow Passer hispaniolensis
Sind sparrow Passer pyrrhonotus
Russet sparrow Passer cinnamomeus
Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus
Yellow-throated sparrow Gymnornis xanthocollis
Rock sparrow Petronia petronia [49]
Pale rock sparrow Carpospiza brachydactyla [50][51]
Black-winged snowfinch Montifringilla adamsi
White-rumped snowfinch Montifringilla taczanowskii
Rufous-necked snowfinch Montifringilla ruficollis
Plain-backed snowfinch Montifringilla blanfordi

Weavers and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Streaked weaver Ploceus manyar
Baya weaver Ploceus philippinus
Finn's weaver Ploceus megarhynchus
Black-breasted weaver Ploceus benghalensis

Waxbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns.

Common name Binomial Comments
Red avadavat Amandava amandava
Green avadavat Amandava formosa Endemic
White-throated munia Euodice malabarica
White-rumped munia Lonchura striata
Black-throated munia Lonchura kelaarti
Scaly-breasted munia Lonchura punctulata
Tricoloured munia Lonchura malacca
Chestnut munia Lonchura malacca atricapilla


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Alpine accentor Prunella collaris
Himalayan accentor Prunella himalayana
Robin accentor Prunella rubeculoides
Rufous-breasted accentor Prunella strophiata
Brown accentor Prunella fulvescens
Black-throated accentor Prunella atrogularis
Maroon-backed accentor Prunella immaculata

Wagtails and pipits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Aravalli BiodivPark Gurgaon DSC9162 long-billed pipit
Long-billed pipit

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Forest wagtail Dendronanthus indicus Non-breeding range
White wagtail Motacilla alba
White-browed wagtail Motacilla maderaspatensis
Citrine wagtail Motacilla citreola
Yellow wagtail Motacilla flava
Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea
Oriental pipit Anthus rufulus
Tawny pipit Anthus campestris
Blyth's pipit Anthus godlewskii
Richard's pipit Anthus richardi
Long-billed pipit Anthus similis
Tree pipit Anthus trivialis
Olive-backed pipit Anthus hodgsoni
Red-throated pipit Anthus cervinus
Rosy pipit Anthus roseatus
Water pipit Anthus spinoletta
Upland pipit Anthus sylvanus
American pipit Anthus rubescens
Nilgiri pipit Anthus nilghiriensis Endemic


Order: Passeriformes   Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.

Common name Binomial Comments
Crested bunting Emberiza lathami
Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella [12][52]
Pine bunting Emberiza leucocephalos
Rock bunting Emberiza cia
Godlewski's bunting Emberiza godlewskii [53]
Grey-hooded bunting Emberiza buchanani
Ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana
Chestnut-breasted bunting Emberiza stewarti
Striolated bunting Emberiza striolata
Chestnut-eared bunting Emberiza fucata
Little bunting Emberiza pusilla
Yellow-breasted bunting Emberiza aureola
Chestnut bunting Emberiza rutila
Black-headed bunting Emberiza melanocephala
Red-headed bunting Emberiza bruniceps
Black-faced bunting Emberiza spodocephala
Reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus
Tristram's bunting Emberiza tristrami [54]

Siskins, crossbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 45 species which have been recorded in India.

Common name Binomial Comments
Common chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
Plain mountain-finch Leucosticte nemoricola
Black-headed mountain-finch Leucosticte brandti
Tawny-headed mountain-finch Leucosticte sillemi
Crimson-browed finch Pinicola subhimachalus
Crimson rosefinch Carpodacus rubescens
Dark-breasted rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis
Common rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus
Beautiful rosefinch Carpodacus pulcherrimus
Pink-browed rosefinch Carpodacus rhodochrous
Vinaceous rosefinch Carpodacus vinaceus
Dark-rumped rosefinch Carpodacus edwardsii
Spot-winged rosefinch Carpodacus rhodopeplus
Himalayan white-browed rosefinch Carpodacus thura
Pale rosefinch Carpodacus stoliczkae Accidental
Chinese white-browed rosefinch Carpodacus dubius [55]
Blyth's rosefinch Carpodacus grandis
Streaked rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides
Great rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla
Red-fronted rosefinch Carpodacus puniceus
Common crossbill Loxia curvirostra
Black-headed greenfinch Chloris ambigua [24][36][53]
Yellow-breasted greenfinch Chloris spinoides
Fire-fronted serin Serinus pusillus
Tibetan serin Spinus thibetanus
Eurasian siskin Spinus spinus
European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
Twite Linaria flavirostris
Eurasian linnet Linaria cannabina [12]
Brown bullfinch Pyrrhula nipalensis
Orange bullfinch Pyrrhula aurantiaca
Red-headed bullfinch Pyrrhula erythrocephala
Grey-headed bullfinch Pyrrhula erythaca
Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Black-and-yellow grosbeak Mycerobas icterioides
Collared grosbeak Mycerobas affinis
Spot-winged grosbeak Mycerobas melanozanthos
White-winged grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes
Golden-naped finch Pyrrhoplectes epauletta
Spectacled finch Callacanthis burtoni
Mongolian finch Rhodopechys mongolica
Trumpeter finch Bucanetes githaginea
Scarlet finch Haematospiza sipahi

See also


  1. ^ a b c Praveen, J; Jayapal, Rajah; Pittie, Aasheesh. (2016). A checklist of the birds of India. Indian Birds. 11 (5&6): 113–172
  2. ^ "National bird of India". Know India. Govt. of India. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  3. ^ Dunn, J.C.; Buchanan, G.M.; Cuthbert, R.J.; Whittingham, M.J.; McGowan,P.J.K. (2015). "Mapping the potential distribution of the Critically Endangered Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa using proxy species and species distribution modelling". Bird Conservation International. 25 (4): 1–13. doi:10.1017/S095927091400046X.
  4. ^ Baker, E. C. S. (1904). "Occurrence of the Dwarf Goose Anser erythropus in Assam". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 15 (3): 524.
  5. ^ Khan, Asif N. (2013-12-01). "First Record of Lesser White-Fronted Goose Anser erythropus from Gujarat, India". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). 110 (3): 224. doi:10.17087/jbnhs/2013/v110i3/94037 (inactive 2019-02-18). ISSN 2454-1095.
  6. ^ Baker, E. C. S. (1904). "The occurrence of the Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis in India". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 16 (1): 155–156.
  7. ^ Lewis, ES (1938). "Bewick's Swan (Cygnus bewickii Yarrell) near Delhi". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 40 (2): 333.
  8. ^ Praveen, J.; Palot, M.J.; Karuthedathu, D. (2013). "Recovery of a Cory's Shearwater Calonectris borealis from Thaikadapuram beach, Kasaragod district, Kerala". Indian Birds. 8 (8): 152–153.
  9. ^ a b c Praveen J.; Jayapal, R.; Pittie, A. (2013). "Notes on Indian rarities—1: Seabirds". Indian Birds. 8 (5): 113–125.
  10. ^ Naoroji, Rishad; D'Silva, Carl (1998). "Sighting of Red Kite Milvus milvus at Ranikhet". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 95 (2): 339–340.
  11. ^ Lerner, Heather; Christidis, LES; Gamauf, Anita; Griffiths, Carole; Haring, Elisabeth; Huddleston, Christopher J.; Kabra, Sonia; Kocum, Annett; Krosby, Meade; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Mindell, David; Rasmussen, Pamela; Røv, Nils; Wadleigh, Rachel; Wink, Michael; Gjershaug, JAN OVE (2017). "Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)". Zootaxa. 4216 (4): 301. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4216.4.1. PMID 28183111.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Delany, S.; Garbutt, D.; Williams, C.; Sulston, C.; Norton, J. & Denby, C. (2014). "The Southampton University Ladakh Expeditions 1976–1982: Full details of nine species previously unrecorded in India and four second records". Indian Birds. 9 (1): 1–13.
  13. ^ Gogoi, Deborshee;Phukan, Porag Jyoti 2016. White-browed Crake Amaurornis cinerea in maguri-Motapung Beel, Assam, India: A new species for South Asia. Indian Birds. 11: (3) 79–80
  14. ^ International Crane Foundation - Siberian Crane Archived 2008-11-14 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Abhinav, C. & Dhadwal, D. S. (2014). "European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria at Pong Lake, Himachal Pradesh, India". Indian Birds. 9 (5&6): 149–151.
  16. ^ Bhopale, Nikhil 2010. Additions to the avifauna of the Indian Subcontinent — "White-faced" Plover Charadrius dealbatus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 107: (1) 60–61
  17. ^ Holt, P (1999) Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus at Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India: a new species for the Indian subcontinent. Forktail 15:95 PDF Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Jamalabad, A., 2016. Records of a White-eyed Gull Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus and a Black Tern Chlidonias niger from the Karwar coast, Karnataka, India.Indian Birds 12 (1): 12–14.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Praveen, J.; Jayapal, R.; Pittie, A. (2014). "Notes on Indian rarities—2: Waterfowl, diving waterbirds, and gulls and terns". Indian Birds. 9 (5&6): 113–136.
  20. ^ Holt, Paul I.;England, A. Sidney;Beaton, Randy E.;Bloss, Juliet 2013. Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan in Goa: a new species for India. BirdingASIA. 20: 119–120
  21. ^ Sreenivasan P. P., Praveen J.,Prince,M. & Karuthedathu, D. (2013). "Sabine's Gull Xema sabini from Puthankadapuram, Kerala, India: a first record for South Asia". Indian Birds. 8 (4): 99–100.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Jayson E. A.; Babu S. & Govind; S. K. (2013). "Recovery of White Tern Gygis alba at Athirapilly, Kerala, India". Indian Birds. 8 (6): 163.
  23. ^ Karuthedathu, D. (2014). "Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus from the western coast of India: Identification in retrospect". Indian Birds. 9 (3): 69–72.
  24. ^ a b Singh, A. P. (2013). "Lord Derby's Parakeet Psittacula derbiana, and Black-headed Greenfinch Carduelis ambigua in Arunachal Pradesh, India". Indian Birds. 8 (5): 133.
  25. ^ Chatterjee, S. (2013). "Mangrove Pitta Pitta megarhyncha from Sundarbans, West Bengal, India". Indian Birds. 8 (6): 160–161.
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List of Indian and Madagascan dinosaurs

This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been recovered from India or Madagascar. Though widely separated today, India and Madagascar were connected throughout much of the Mesozoic and shared similar dinosaur faunas, distinct from what has been found on other modern African and Asian landmasses.

The Indian fossil record of dinosaurs is good, with fossils coming from the entire Mesozoic era – starting with the Triassic period (a geological period that started 251.9 million years ago and continued till 201.3 million years ago), to the Jurassic period (201 million years ago to 145 million years ago) and Cretaceous period (from 145 million years ago to 66 million years ago), when globally all non-avian dinosaurs and 65 per cent of all life became extinct. Madagascar also preserves various unique dinosaurs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous.

List of birds of Coimbatore

This article lists the birds found in various places in and around the Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Over 285 species of birds have been recorded in and around Coimbatore.

List of birds of South Asia

The birds of South Asia include the species found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

This is not only a huge geographical area, but has a range of habitats extending from deserts to rainforest, and from the world's highest mountains to coastal mangrove swamps.

These factors, coupled with the tropical climate, result in a large numbers of bird species, some 1300. As would be expected in the tropics, most of these, more than 1,000 species, are resident within the South Asia. The rest are mainly winter visitors from further north in Eurasia. Only eighteen species are purely summer visitors to the subcontinent.

141 species are endemic to the region, and 26 of these are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Status abbreviations:

R = widespread resident

r = very local resident

W = widespread winter visitor

w = sparse winter visitor

P = widespread migrant

p = sparse migrant

V = vagrant or irregular visitor

I = introduced resident

Ex = Extinct

C = critically endangered

E = endangered

V = vulnerable

D = conservation dependent

N = near threatenedBecause of the large number of species, the lists are divided into four parts.

part 1 Megapodes, Galliformes, Gruiformes and near passerines

part 2 Remainder of non-passerines

part 3 Passerines from pittas to cisticolas

part 4 Passerines from Old World warblers to buntings

Sarus crane

The sarus crane (Antigone antigone) is a large nonmigratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Australia. The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height up to 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in), they are a conspicuous species of open wetlands in south Asia, seasonally flooded Dipterocarp forests in Southeast Asia, and Eucalyptus-dominated woodlands and grasslands in Australia.The sarus crane is easily distinguished from other cranes in the region by the overall grey colour and the contrasting red head and upper neck. They forage on marshes and shallow wetlands for roots, tubers, insects, crustaceans, and small vertebrate prey. Like other cranes, they form long-lasting pair bonds and maintain territories within which they perform territorial and courtship displays that include loud trumpeting, leaps, and dance-like movements. In India, they are considered symbols of marital fidelity, believed to mate for life and pine the loss of their mates even to the point of starving to death.

The main breeding season is during the rainy season, when the pair builds an enormous nest "island", a circular platform of reeds and grasses nearly 2 m in diameter and high enough to stay above the shallow water surrounding it. Increased multiseason agriculture is often thought to have led to declines in sarus crane numbers. However, more careful assessments show sarus crane numbers to have increased due to expansion of wet crops following the Green Revolution and the associated increases in artificial watering structures such as canals and reservoirs. The stronghold of the species is in India, where it is traditionally revered and lives in agricultural lands in close proximity to humans. Elsewhere, the species has been extirpated in many parts of its former range.

Wildlife of India

India is home to a variety of animals. Apart from a handful of domesticated animals, such as cows, water buffaloes, goats, chickens, and both Bactrian and Dromedary camels, India has a wide variety of animals native to

the country. It is home to Bengal and Indochinese tigers, Asiatic lions, Indian and Indochinese leopards, snow leopards, clouded leopards, various species of Deer, including Chital, Hangul, Barasingha; the Indian Elephant, the Great Indian Rhinoceros, and many others. The region's diverse wildlife is preserved in more than 120 national parks, 18 Bio-reserves and more than 500 wildlife sanctuaries across the country. India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and contains four of the world’s 36 biodiversity hotspots – the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas, Indo-Burma and Sunda Land. Wildlife management is essential to preserve the rare and endangered endemic species. India is one of the seventeen megadiverse countries. According to one study, India along with the other 16 megadiverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity. India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian (bird), 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, of which India originally was a part. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the Asian elephant, the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian rhinoceros, mugger crocodile, and Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 515 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 18 biosphere reserves, 10 of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 26 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

The peepul tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The wildlife has also been made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the "Panchatantra".

Lists of birds of India
Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories


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