List of birds of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018.[1] This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered.[2] Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.[3]

Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS).[4][5] Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica
  • (R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica
  • (E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
Clay colored Thrush
Clay-colored thrush, the national bird of Costa Rica

Tinamous

Tinamus major
Great tinamou

Order: Tinamiformes   Family: Tinamidae

Ducks, geese, and waterfowl

Red.billed.whistling.duck.600pix
Black-bellied whistling-duck

Order: Anseriformes   Family: Anatidae

Guans, chachalacas, and curassows

Ghchachalaca190
Gray-headed chachalaca

Order: Galliformes   Family: Cracidae

New World quail

Buffycrownedwoodpartridge
Buffy-crowned wood-partridge

Order: Galliformes   Family: Odontophoridae

Grebes

Order: Podicipediformes   Family: Podicipedidae

Pigeons and doves

Patagioenas fasciata2
Band-tailed pigeon
Patagioenas cayennensis
Pale-vented pigeon

Order: Columbiformes   Family: Columbidae

Cuckoos and anis

Crotophaga sulcirostris
Groove-billed ani

Order: Cuculiformes   Family: Cuculidae

Nightjars and allies

Order: Caprimulgiformes   Family: Caprimulgidae

Oilbird

Order: Steatornithiformes   Family: Steatornithidae

Potoos

Nyctibius griseus 471885191 27f931630d o
Common potoo

Order: Nyctibiiformes   Family: Nyctibiidae

Swifts

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Apodidae

Hummingbirds

142aL44mountaingem
Female gray-tailed mountain-gem
Male Elvira cupreiceps at feeder - closeup
Male coppery-headed emerald, one of Costa Rica's endemics.
Heliodoxa jacula (female) taxobox
Female green-crowned brilliant
Selasphorus flammula
Male volcano hummingbird

Order: Apodiformes   Family: Trochilidae

Rails, gallinules, and coots

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Rallidae

Finfoots

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Heliornithidae

Limpkin

Order: Gruiformes   Family: Aramidae

Thick-knees

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Burhinidae

Stilts and avocets

Black-necked Stilt
Black-necked stilt

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Recurvirostridae

Oystercatchers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Haematopodidae

Plovers and lapwings

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Charadriidae

Jacanas

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Jacanidae

Sandpipers and allies

Limnodromus scolopaceus Mike Baird crop
Long-billed dowitcher
Western Sandpiper
Western sandpiper
Actitis-macularia-005
Spotted sandpiper

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Scolopacidae

Skuas and jaegers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Stercorariidae

Gulls, terns, and skimmers

Order: Charadriiformes   Family: Laridae

Sunbittern

Stavenn Eurypiga helias 00
Sunbittern

Order: Eurypygiformes   Family: Eurypygidae

Tropicbirds

Order: Phaethontiformes   Family: Phaethontidae

Albatrosses

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Diomedeidae

Southern storm-petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Oceanitidae

Northern storm-petrels

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Hydrobatidae

Petrels and shearwaters

Order: Procellariiformes   Family: Procellariidae

Storks

Woodstork17
Wood stork

Order: Ciconiiformes   Family: Ciconiidae

Frigatebirds

Femalefbird
Magnificent frigatebird

Order: Suliformes   Family: Fregatidae

Boobies and gannets

Order: Suliformes   Family: Sulidae

Cormorants

Order: Suliformes   Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Anhingas

Order: Suliformes   Family: Anhingidae

Pelicans

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Pelecanidae

Bitterns, herons, and egrets

Cochlearius cochleariaPCCA20071227-8443B
Boat-billed heron

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Ardeidae

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: Pelecaniformes   Family: Threskiornithidae

New World vultures

Coragyps-atratus-001
Black vulture

Order: Cathartiformes   Family: Cathartidae

Osprey

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Pandionidae

Hawks, eagles, and kites

Swallowtailedkite
Swallow-tailed kite
Buteo nitidus; buse cendrée
Gray-lined hawk

Order: Accipitriformes   Family: Accipitridae

Barn-owls

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Tytonidae

Barn owl, Tyto alba

Typical owls

Black-and-white Owl
Black-and-white owl

Order: Strigiformes   Family: Strigidae

Trogons and quetzals

Black-throated Trogon
Black-throated trogon

Order: Trogoniformes   Family: Trogonidae

Motmots

Blue-crowned Motmot 1.jpeg
Lesson's motmot

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Momotidae

Kingfishers

Order: Coraciiformes   Family: Alcedinidae

Puffbirds

Order: Piciformes   Family: Bucconidae

Jacamars

Order: Piciformes   Family: Galbulidae

New World barbets

Order: Piciformes   Family: Capitonidae

Toucan-barbets

Order: Piciformes   Family: Semnornithidae

Toucans

20170504-IMG 7511-bewerktBPX-3
Northern emerald-toucanet

Order: Piciformes   Family: Ramphastidae

Woodpeckers

Black-cheeked Woodpecker
Black-cheeked woodpecker

Order: Piciformes   Family: Picidae

Falcons and caracaras

Crested Caracara
Crested caracara

Order: Falconiformes   Family: Falconidae

New World and African parrots

Belize54
Scarlet macaw

Order: Psittaciformes   Family: Psittacidae

Typical antbirds

Gymnopithys-leucaspis-001 edit2
Bicolored antbird

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thamnophilidae

Gnateaters

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Conopophagidae

Antpittas

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Grallariidae

Tapaculos

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhinocryptidae

Antthrushes

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Formicariidae

Ovenbirds and woodcreepers

Xenops rutilans
Streaked xenops
Spot-crowned Woodcreeper
Spot-crowned woodcreeper

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Furnariidae

Manakins

Orange-collared Manakin
Orange-collared manakin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Pipridae

Cotingas

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cotingidae

Tityras and allies

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus
Cinnamon becard

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tityridae

Sharpbill

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Oxyruncidae

Royal-flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Onychorhynchidae

Tyrant flycatchers

Todirostrum cinereum
Common tody-flycatcher
Myiarchus-tuberculifer-001
Dusky-capped flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Tyrannidae

Vireos

Cyclarhis gujanensis
Rufous-browed peppershrike

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Vireonidae

Crows, jays, and magpies

Calocitta formosa (Montezuma)
White-throated magpie-jay

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Corvidae

Swallows

Mangrove Swallow
Mangrove swallow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Hirundinidae

Wrens

Bay Wren
Bay wren

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Troglodytidae

Gnatcatchers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Polioptilidae

Dippers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cinclidae

Thrushes and allies

Sooty Robin
Sooty robin

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Turdidae

Mockingbirds and thrashers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mimidae

Waxwings

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Bombycillidae

Silky-flycatchers

Ptilogonys caudatus
Long-tailed silky-flycatcher

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Ptiliogonatidae

Waxbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Estrildidae

Old World sparrows

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passeridae

Wagtails and pipits

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Motacillidae

Finches, euphonias, and allies

Thick-billed Euphonia (Euphonia laniirostris)
Thick-billed euphonia

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Fringillidae

Thrush-tanagers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Rhodinocichlidae

New World sparrows

TICO-TICO (Zonotrichia capensis ) (2195772708)
Rufous-collared sparrow

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Passerellidae

Wrenthrush

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Zeledoniidae

Yellow-breasted chat

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteriidae

Troupials and allies

Great-tailed Grackle-27527
Great-tailed grackle
Montezuma Oropendola
Montezuma oropendola

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Icteridae

Wood-warblers

Parula pitiayumi
Tropical parula
Dendroica-castanea-001
Bay-breasted warbler
Wilsonia citrina (Belize)
Hooded warbler

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Parulidae

Microspingid tanagers

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Mitrospingidae

Cardinals and allies

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Cardinalidae

Tanagers and allies

Thraupis-episcopus-001
Blue-gray tanager
Ramphocelus sanguinolentus
Crimson-collared tanager
Dacnis cayana
Blue dacnis
Bananaquits
Bananaquit
Chlorophanes spiza - male on feeder
Green honeycreeper
Sporophila-corvina-002
Variable seedeater
Slaty Flowerpiercer
Slaty flowerpiercer

Order: Passeriformes   Family: Thraupidae

Notes

  1. ^ This species was split from buff-throated foliage-gleaner in the 59th Check-list supplement
  2. ^ The 59th Check-list supplement lumped Cherrie's tanager into this species.

References

  1. ^ Garrigues, Richard., M. Araya-Salas, P. Camacho-Varela, M. Montoya, G. Obando-Calderón, O. Ramírez-Alán.. Enero 2018. Boletín de la Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica. http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=es&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=da&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&u=http%3A%2F%2Flistaoficialavesdecostarica.wordpress.com%2F retrieved 15 March 2018
  2. ^ The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1 <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 6 August 2017
  3. ^ Stater, Adam. "Avian Diversity in Costa Rica".
  4. ^ American Ornithologists' Union. 1998. Check-list of North American Birds. 7th edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
  5. ^ R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker. "Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk 2018, vol. 135:798-813 retrieved 16 July 2018

See also

External links

Index of Central America-related articles

This is an Index of Central America-related articles. This index defines Central America as the seven nations of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.

Index of Costa Rica-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Costa Rica.

List of amphibians of Costa Rica

This is a list of amphibians found in Costa Rica. A total of 194 amphibian species have been recorded in Costa Rica, three of which are extinct. This list is derived from the database listing of AmphibiaWeb. Each species is listed by its scientific name, in taxonomic order, followed by the Red Book conservation status - extinct (EX), extinct in the wild (EW), critically endangered (CR), endangered (EN), vulnerable (VU), near threatened (NT), least concern (LC), data deficient (DD) or not evaluated (NE).

List of non-marine molluscs of Costa Rica

The non-marine molluscs of Costa Rica are a part of the molluscan wildlife of Costa Rica. A number of species of non-marine molluscs are found in the wild in Costa Rica.

There are ?? species of gastropods (?? species of freshwater gastropods, 183 species and subspecies of land gastropods) and ?? species of freshwater bivalves living in the wild.

List of reptiles of Costa Rica

List of reptiles in Costa Rica

Veraguan mango

The Veraguan mango (Anthracothorax veraguensis) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae.

It is found in Panama and recently in Costa Rica. It was considered conspecific with the Green-breasted Mango (Anthracothorax prevostii) but was separated due to morphological and geographical differences in 1995.

Anseriformes
Tinamiformes
Galliformes
Procellariiformes
Suliformes
Pelecaniformes
Accipitriformes
Gruiformes
Charadriiformes
Falconiformes
Columbiformes
Psittaciformes
Cuculiformes
Strigiformes
Caprimulgiformes
Apodiformes
Coraciiformes
Piciformes
Passeriformes
Other orders

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