List of bagpipes

[1]Northern Europe

Ireland

  • Uilleann pipes: Also known as Union pipes and Irish pipes, depending on era. Bellows-blown bagpipe with keyed or un-keyed 2-octave chanter, 3 drones and 3 regulators. The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: Carried by most Irish regiments of the British Army (except the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) until the late 1960s, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone.
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.

Scotland

  • Great Highland Bagpipe: This is perhaps the world's best-known bagpipe. It is native to Scotland. It has acquired widespread recognition through its usage in the British military and in pipe bands throughout the world. The bagpipe is first attested in Scotland around 1400, having previously appeared in European artwork in Spain in the 13th century. The earliest references to bagpipes in Scotland are in a military context, and it is in that context that the Great Highland bagpipe became established in the British military and achieved the widespread prominence it enjoys today. In the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium on June 18, 1815, during the counter-attack on the corps of the French imperial marshal Davout there had been first performed on Scottish bagpipes the patriotic march of the 52nd Infantry Brigade of the Scottish Rifles "Scotland The Brave" (Scottish Gaelic: "Alba an Aigh"), which later became an unofficial anthem of Scotland.[2] [3]
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland Bagpipe/Reel Pipes", commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland it is conically bored, made mostly from African blackwood like Highland pipes. Some makers have developed fully chromatic chanters.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern re-interpretation of an extinct instrument.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it developed into the modern uilleann bagpipe.

England and Wales

Tickell 2004
Kathryn Tickell playing a "16 keyed" Northumbrian smallpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a bellows-blown smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in staccato.
  • Border pipes: also called the "Lowland Bagpipe/Reel Pipes", commonly confused with smallpipes, but louder. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland it is conically bored, made mostly from African blackwood like Highland pipes. Some makers have developed fully chromatic chanters.
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are now attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.[4]
  • Welsh pipes (Welsh: pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton Veuze. Both are mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this keyed, or un-keyed chanter and keyed drones (regulators), pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.
  • English bagpipes: with the exception of the Northumbrian smallpipes, no English bagpipes maintained an unbroken tradition. However, various English bagpipes have been reconstructed by Jonathan Swayne and Julian Goodacre. Swayne calls his "English Border Pipes," and they have in common with the Border or Lowland pipes above 2-4 drones in a single stock, but the design of the chanter (melody pipe) is closer to the French cornemuse du centre and uses the same "half-closed" fingering system.
  • Yorkshire bagpipes, known in Shakespeare's time, but now extinct
  • Lincolnshire bagpipes, a one-drone pipe extinct by 1850, with one reproduction made in the modern era
  • Lancashire bagpipes, widely mentioned in early-Modern literature and travel accounts
  • Zetland pipes: a reconstruction of pipes believed to have been brought to the Shetland Islands by the Vikings, though not clearly historically attested.

Finland

  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.
  • Pilai: a Finnish bagpipe, described in 18th century texts as similar to the Ukrainian volynka.

Estonia

Latvia

  • Dūdas: Latvian bagpipe, with single reed chanter and one drone.

Lithuania

  • Dudmaisis, or murenka, kūlinė, Labanoro dūda. A bagpipe native to Lithuania, with single reed chanter and one drone.

Sweden

Säckpipa av leif eriksson
Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general; the surviving säckpipa of the Dalarna region was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.
  • Walpipe, a type of bagpipe known to have been used alongside the säckpipa in Lapland during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Southern Europe

Spain and Portugal

Gaita is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Castilian (Spanish), Portuguese, Basque, Asturian-Leonese, Galician, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used across the northern regions of Spain and Portugal and in the Balearic Islands. In the south of Spain and Portugal, the term is applied to a number of other woodwind instruments. Just like the term "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes", each region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands have been formed in some traditions.

Gaitasanabresa
A piper with his gaita sanabresa
Bagpiper from Vila Nova de Anços - Coimbra, Portugal
Old handmade Gaita Coimbrã. 1930, Armando Leça.

Italy

  • Zampogna (also called ciaramella, ciaramedda, or surdullina depending on style and or region): A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for doubled chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from zero to three drones (the drones usually sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote, though in some cases a drone plays the tonic).
  • Piva: used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia), Veneto and bordering regions of Switzerland such as Ticino. A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero.
  • Müsa: played in Pavia, Alessandria, Genova and Piacenza.
  • Baghèt: similar to the piva, played in the region of Bergamo, Brescia and, probably, Veneto.
  • Surdelina: a double-chantered, bellows-blown pipe from Naples, with keys on both chanters and drones

Malta

  • Żaqq (with definite article: iż-żaqq): The most common form of Maltese bagpipes. A double-chantered, single-reed, droneless hornpipe.
  • Il-Qrajna: a smaller Maltese bagpipe[5]

Greece

The ancient name of bagpipes in Greece is Askavlos, literary meaning bagpipe (Askos Ασκός is the bag, Avlos Αυλός is the pipe)

  • Askomandoura (Greek: ασκομαντούρα): a double-chantered bagpipe used in Crete
  • Tsampouna (Greek: τσαμπούνα): Greek Islands bagpipe with a double chanter. One chanter with five holes the second with 1,3 or 5 depending on the island. The tsambouna has no drone as the second chanter replaces the drone.
  • Gaida (Greek: γκάιντα): a single-chantered bagpipe with a long separate drone, played in many parts of Mainland Greece. The main center is Thrace, especially around the town of Didymoteicho in the Northern Evros area. In the area of Drama (villages of Kali Vrisi and Volakas) a higher pitched gaida is played. Around Pieria and Olympus mountain (Rizomata and Elatochori) an other type of gaida is played. Each of these regions have their distinct sound, tunes and songs.[6]
  • Dankiyo or Tulum: traditional double-chantered bagpipes played by Pontic Greeks

All bags for these types a bagpipes are made usually from the entire skin of a goat or sheep. The use of donkeyskin has also been reported in the past..

Central and Eastern Europe

Serbian bagpiper
A Serbian bagpiper
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter (usually with wooden billy-goat head) that curves up at the end.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.
  • Cimpoi is the name for the Romanian bagpipes. Two main categories of bagpipes were used in Romania: with a double chanter and with a single chanter. Both have a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősíp, bőrduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.

Poland

DudyWielkopolskie
Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
  • Dudy is the generic term for Polish bagpipes,[7] though since the 19th century they are usually referred to as kobza due to the confusion with koza and the relative obscurity of kobza proper in Poland. They are used in folk music of Podhale (koza), Żywiec Beskids and Cieszyn Silesia (dudy and gajdy), and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are four types of bagpipes:
    • Dudy wielkopolskie, "Greater Polish bagpipes", with two subtypes: Rawicz-Gostyń and Kościan-Buk;
    • Kozioł biały (weselny), "white (wedding) buck (used during wesele, the lay part of the wedding)";
    • Kozioł czarny ((do)ślubny), "black (wedding) buck (used during ślub, the religious part of the wedding)";
    • Sierszeńki, "hornets", a bladder pipe used as a goose (practice pipes).

The Balkans

Belarus

Russia

Finno-Ugric Russia

Turkic Russia

Ukraine

Western Europe

France

Boha
The boha of Gascony
  • Musette de cour: A French open ended smallpipe, believed by some to be an ancestor of the Northumbrian smallpipes, used for classical compositions in 'folk' style in the 18th Century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe.
  • Biniou (or biniou kozh "old style bagpipe"): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany, a Celtic region of northwestern France. It is the most famous bagpipe of France. The great Highland bagpipe is also used in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz ("great bagpipe").
  • Veuze, found in Western France around Nantes and into the Breton marshes.
  • Cabrette: bellows-blown, played in the Auvergne region of central France.
  • Chabrette (or chabretta): found in the Limousin region of central France.
  • Bodega (or craba): found in Languedoc region of southern France, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha: found in the regions of Gascony and Landes in southwestern France, notable for having no separate drone, but a drone and chanter bored into a single piece of wood.
  • Musette bressane: found in the Bresse region of eastern France
  • Cornemuse du Centre (or musette du Centre) (bagpipes of Central France) are of many different types, some mouth blown. They can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • Chabrette poitevine: found in the Poitou region of west-central France, but now extremely rare.
  • Caramusa: a small bagpipe with a single parallel drone, native to Corsica
  • Musette bechonnet, named from its creator, Joseph Bechonnet (1820-1900 AD) of Effiat.
  • Bousine, a small droneless bagpipe played in Normandy. (fr:Bousine)
  • Loure, a Norman bagpipe which gives its name to the French Baroque dance loure.
  • Pipasso, a bagpipe native to Picardy in northern France
  • Sourdeline, an extinct bellows-blown pipe, likely of Italian origin
  • Samponha, a double-chantered pipe played in the Pyrenees
  • Vèze (or vessie, veuze à Poitiers), played in Poitou
Bagpipe -Sackpfeife (17068478751)
A Bagpipe Player is playing a Marktsackpfeife with four drones in Germany.

Germany

  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schäferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag. (see: de:Schäferpfeife)
  • Marktsackpfeife: a bagpipe reconstructed from medieval depictions
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player's shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.

The Low Countries

Switzerland

  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the Sackpfiffe was a common instrument in the folk music from the Middle Ages to the early 18th century, documented by iconography and in written sources. It had one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds.

Austria

  • Bock (literally, male goat): a bellows-blown pipe with large bells at the end of the single drone and chanter

Southwest Asia

Turkey

Touloum
Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of: 1. Post - Skin (bag): Animal Skin, 2. Fisaktir - blowpipe: Wood or Bone, 3. Avlos - flute: Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

  • Gudastviri (Georgian: გუდასტვირი): A double-chantered horn-tipped bagpipe played in Georgia. Also called a chiboni or stviri.
  • Zunnifis, a Georgian bagpipe

Iran

Arab states of the Persian Gulf

  • Habbān (هبان): a generic term covering several types of bagpipes, including traditional Bedouin bagpipes in Kuwait, and a modern version of the Great Highland Bagpipes played in Oman.
  • Jirba (جربة): a type of double-chantered droneless bagpipe, primarily played by the ethnic Iranian minority of Bahrain.
  • Demam, a Gulf bagpipe

North Africa

Mezoued
The Tunisian mizwad

Egypt

Libya

  • Zukra (Arabic: زكرة‎): famous in Libya bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.

Tunisia

  • Mizwad (Arabic: مِزْود‎; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipe with a double-chanter terminating in two cow horns.

Algeria

South Asia

India

  • Mashak, a bagpipe of Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The term is also used for the Highland pipes which have displaced the traditional bagpipe over time, such as the mushak baja (Garhwali : मूषक बाजा): in Garhwal region. or masak-been (Kumaoni : मसकबीन): of the Kumaon Division.
  • Titti (bagpipe), a Telugu bagpipe of Andhra Pradesh
  • Sruti upanga, a bagpipe of Tamil Nadu primarily used for drone accompaniment

Non-traditional bagpipes

References

  1. ^ "The Maltese Zaqq" (PDF). www.jstor.org.ledproxy2.uwindsor.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  2. ^ Celtic Music : Scottish Military Bagpipes, International Historical Club, IHC, Official web-site in Russian
  3. ^ Celtic Music : Scottish Military Bagpipes, International Historical Club, IHC, Official web-site in English
  4. ^ Woodhouse, Harry (1994). Cornish Bagpipes: Fact or Fiction?. Trewirgie: Dyllansow Truran. ISBN 1-85022-070-0.
  5. ^ "The Maltese Zaqq" (PDF). www.jstor.org.ledproxy2.uwindsor.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  6. ^ "gaida (bagpipe) in Greece : γκάιντα στην Ελλάδα : gaida (Dudelsack) in Griecheland : gaida Yunanistan'da". www.gaida.gr. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
  7. ^ Dudy grają
Bagpipes

Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; however, bagpipes have been played for a millennium or more throughout large parts of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, including Turkey, the Caucasus, and around the Persian Gulf. The term bagpipe is equally correct in the singular or plural, though pipers usually refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes".

Border pipes

The border pipes are a type of bagpipe related to the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe. It is perhaps confusable with the Scottish smallpipe, although it is a quite different and much older instrument. Although most modern Border pipes are closely modelled on similar historic instruments, the modern Scottish smallpipes are a modern reinvention, inspired by historic instruments but largely based on Northumbrian smallpipes in their construction.

The name, which is modern, refers to Scotland's border country, where the instrument was once common, so much so that many towns there used to maintain a piper. The instrument was found much more widely than this, however; it was noted as far north as Aberdeenshire, south of the Border in Northumbria and elsewhere in the north of England. Indeed, some late 17th-century paintings, such as a tavern scene by Egbert van Heemskerck, probably from south-eastern England, show musicians playing such instruments. Other names have been used for the instrument: Lowland pipes and reel pipes in Scotland, and half-long pipes in Northumbria. However, the term reel pipes historically refers to instruments similar to Highland pipes, but primarily intended for indoor use.

While the instrument had been widespread in the 18th century, by the late 19th century it was no longer played. There was an attempt to revive it in Northumbria in the 1920s, and the term half-long pipes is now used to refer specifically to surviving examples from this period, ; these were in part modelled on an 18th century set which had belonged to Muckle Jock Milburn, and is now in the Morpeth Chantry Bagpipe Museum ; however, they were given a different drone configuration.

Gaita asturiana

The gaita asturiana is a type of bagpipe native to the autonomous communities of Principality of Asturias and Cantabria on the northern coast of Spain.

Galician gaita

The Galician gaita (Gaita galega in galician/Portuguese, and Gaita gallega in Spanish) is the traditional instrument of Galicia and northern Portugal.

The word gaita is used across northern Spain as a generic term for "bagpipe", although in the south of Spain and Portugal it denotes a variety of horn, flute or oboe like instruments according to region.

Suggestions as to the origin of the name gaita are many. It has been compared to the names of eastern European bagpipes, such as gaida, gajda, and gajdy. The linguist Joan Coromines has suggested that the word gaita most likely derived from a Gothic word gait or gata, meaning "goat"; as the bag of a gaita is made from a whole, case-skinned goat hide. Gothic was spoken in Hispania from the fifth century to the eighth century when the country was ruled by the Visigoths. The Visigoths originated in north-eastern Europe.

Great Highland bagpipe

The Great Highland bagpipe (Scottish Gaelic: a' phìob mhòr pronounced [a ˈfiəp ˈvoːɾ] lit. "the great pipe") is a type of bagpipe native to Scotland. It has acquired widespread recognition through its usage in the British military and in pipe bands throughout the world.

The bagpipe is first attested in Scotland around 1400, having previously appeared in European artwork in Spain in the 13th century. The earliest references to bagpipes in Scotland are in a military context, and it is in that context that the Great Highland bagpipe became established in the British military and achieved the widespread prominence it enjoys today, whereas other bagpipe traditions throughout Europe, ranging from Portugal to Russia, almost universally went into decline by the late 19th and early 20th century.

Though widely famous for its role in military and civilian pipe bands, the Great Highland bagpipe is also used for a solo virtuosic style called pìobaireachd, ceòl mòr, or simply pibroch.

Habbān

The habbān (or hibbān) is a type of bagpipe used in the southern coast of Persian Gulf. The term ḥabbān (هبان) is one of several Arabic terms for the bagpipes. The term may be drawn from Hanbān (هنبان), the Persian word for "bag.". In Kuwait, the term habban refers to the traditional Holi (Arabs from the eastern coast of the Persian gulf) bagpipe The habbān is also called the jirbah (جربة).

While the term itself is generic, in Oman the habban is more specifically a variant of the Great Highland bagpipe which has been incorporated into local music.

Lancashire bagpipe

The Lancashire bagpipe or Lancashire greatpipe has been attested in literature, and commentators have noticed that the Lancashire bagpipe was also believed proof against witchcraft.

Volynka

The volynka (Ukrainian: волинка, Russian: волынка, Crimean Tatar: tulup zurna – see also duda, and koza) is a bagpipe. Its etymology comes from the region Volyn, Ukraine, where it was borrowed from Romania.The volynka is constructed around a goat skin air reservoir into which air is blown through a pipe with a valve to stop air escaping. (Modern concert instruments often have a reservoir made from a basketball bladder}. A number of playing pipes [two to four] extend from the reservoir holding the air. The main playing pipe on which the melody is played has five to seven, sometimes eight finger holes. The other pipes produce a drone. This is usually either a single tonic note or a perfect fifth. Each of these playing pipes has a double reed usually made from a goose quill. In the 20th century this instrument has lost the popularity it had previously, and is rarely used today in an authentic context.

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