List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

Abydus

  • Daphnis, c. 500 BC

Agrigentum (Acragas)

  • Phalaris, 570-554 BC (overthrown and roasted)
  • Telemachus, after 554 BC
  • Alcamenes, 6th/5th century BC
  • Alcandros, 6th/5th century BC
  • Theron, 488-472 BC
  • Thrasydaeus, 472 BC (expelled and executed)
  • Phintias, c. 288-279 BC
  • Sosistratus, 279-277 BC

Alabanda

Ambracia

  • Gorgus, fl. 628-600 BC
  • Periander, until 580 BC
  • Archinus, 6th century BC

Amastris

Argos

Assos & Atarneus

Astacus

  • Evarchus, c. 430-420 BC

Athens

Byzantium

Cardia

  • Hecataeus, fl. 323 BC

Camarina

Cassandreia

Catane

Chalcis

Chersonese

Chios

Cibyra

  • Moagetes, fl. 190 BC

Corcyra

Corinth

Cos

  • Scythes, late 6th century BC
  • Cadmus, resigned 494 BC
  • Nicias of Cos, 1st century BC
  • Nicippus, 1st century (with Nicias)

Croton

  • Cylonius, c. 530 BC
  • Cleinias, c. 504-495 BC
  • Menedemus, until 295 BC (conquered and  )

Cumae

Cyme

  • Aristagoras, fl. 513-493 BC

Cyprus

Cyrene

Cyzicus

  • Aristagoras, c. 513 BC

Elatea

Elea

Elis

Ephesus

  • Athenagoras, 6th century BC
  • Pythagoras, 6th century BC
  • Pindarus, around 560 BC
  • Aristarchus, around 545-540 BC
  • Pasicles, 540-530 BC
  • Aphinagorus, fl. 530 BC
  • Comas, fl. 530 BC
  • Phanes
  • Melancomas, around 500 BC
  • Hegesias, 4th century BC
  • Syrpax, until 334 BC (stoned)
  • Melancomas II, fl. 214 BC

Epidaurus

  • Procles, 640 BC

Eretria

Gela

Halicarnassus

Heraclea Pontica

Hermione

  • Xenon, stepped down 229 BC

Himera

Keryneia

Lampsacus

Larissa

Leontini

Lindos

Locri

Megalopolis

Megara

Messana

  • Scythes, c. 494 BC
  • Cadmus, c. 494-490 BC
  • Anaxilas, c. 490-476 BC
  • Micythus, c. 476-467 BC (retired)
  • Leophron, c. 467-461 BC (popular revolt)
  • Hippon, c. 338 BC
  • Cios the Mamertine, c. 269 BC  (POW)

Messene

  • Phyliades, before 336 BC (?)

Methymnae

Miletus

Mytilene

  • Melandrus, late 7th century BC
  • Myrsilus, late 7th century BC, (Alcaeus was against him)
  • Pittacus, fl. 600 BC (resigned after ten years)
  • Coes, c. 507-499 BC (stoned)

Naxos

Orchomenus

  • Aristomelidas, Archaic period (?)
  • Nearchus, 234 BC (resigned)

Oreus

  • Philistides, c. 341 BC (expelled)
  • Menippus, c. 341 BC (expelled)

Parium

  • Herophantus, c. 513 BC

Pellene

Pharsalus

Pherae

  • Lycophron
  • Jason, before 370 BC (assassinated)
  • Polydorus, before 370 BC (assassinated)
  • Polyphron, 370-369 BC (assassinated)
  • Alexander, 369-358 BC (assassinated)
  • Tisiphonus, 357-355/4 BC
  • Lykophron II, 355-352 BC (resigned)
  • Peitholaus, 355-352 BC (resigned)

Phlius

  • Leo, c. 540 BC
  • Cleonymus, before 229 BC (resigned)

Phocaea

  • Laodamas, c. 513 BC

Phocis

  • Aulis, fl. c. 520 BC
  • Phayllus, fl. 352 BC

Pisa

  • Damophon, before 7th century BC (?)
  • Pantaleon, fl. 660-644 BC
  • Damophon, fl. 588 BC
  • Pyrrhus, 6th century BC

Priene

  • Hieron of Priene, 300-297 BC

Proconnesus

  • Metrodorus, c. 513 BC

Rhegium

Samos

Selinus

  • Theron, 6th/5th century BC
  • Pythagoras, 6th/5th century BC
  • Euryleon of Sparta, 6th/5th century BC (killed)

Sicyon

Sigeum

  • Hegesistratus, fl. 510 BC

Sinope

Sparta

  • Machanidas, 210-207 BC (killed in action)
  • Nabis, 207-192 BC (assassinated by allies)
  • Chaeron, 180 BC

Sybaris

  • Telys, c. 510 BC

Syracuse

Tarentum

  • Aristophylidas, c. 516-492 BC

Tarsus

  • Lysias, before 67 BC

Tauromenium

Thasos

  • Symmachus, c. 520 BC

Thebes

  • Leontiades, 382-379 BC (killed)
  • Archias, 382-379 BC (killed)

Zeleia

List of ancient Greeks

This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. These include ethnic Greeks and Greek language speakers from Greece and the Mediterranean world up to about 200 AD.

Mamercus of Catane

Mamercus was tyrant of the Greek city of Catane at the time when Timoleon landed in Sicily 344 BC until 338 BC. He was regarded by Plutarch as a warlike and wealthy man.

After the defeat of Hicetas at Adranum by Timoleon, Mamercus joined Timoleon and concluded a treaty of alliance with him. When Timoleon had not only made himself master of Syracuse, but defeated the Carthaginians in the great Battle of the Crimissus (339 BC), Mamercus became apprehensive that his ally's object was nothing less than the complete expulsion of all the tyrants from Sicily. In consequence, Mamercus entered into a league with Hicetas and the Carthaginians to oppose Timoleon's progress. At first they achieved a partial success, cutting to pieces a body of mercenaries in the Syracusan service. But Hicetas was defeated by Timoleon and fell into his hands, after which Timoleon marched against Catane. Mamercus met him in the field, but was defeated with heavy loss. So the Carthaginians concluded a peace with Timoleon.

Abandoned by his allies, Mamercus saw little chance of success and fled to Messana, where he took refuge with Hippon, tyrant of that city. Timoleon, however, quickly followed him and laid siege to Messana, both by sea and land, forcing Hippon to flee. Mamercus then surrendered to Timoleon, stipulating only for a regular trial before the Syracusans. But as soon as he was brought into the assembly of the people there, he was condemned by acclamation, and executed like a common criminal.Cornelius Nepos hints that Mamercus was not a Sicilian by birth, but had first come to the island as a leader of Italian mercenaries. Plutarch states that Mamercus prided himself much upon his skill in poetry, apparently with little reason, based on the two verses by Mamercus that have been preserved.

Outline of classical studies

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies:

Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world. The field focuses primarily on, but is not limited to, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during classical antiquity, the era spanning from the late Bronze Age of Ancient Greece during the Minoan and Mycenaean periods (c. 1600-1100 BCE) through the period known as Late Antiquity to the fall of the Western Roman Empire, c. 500 CE. The word classics is also used to refer to the literature of the period.

Tyrant

A tyrant (from Ancient Greek τύραννος, túrannos), in the modern English-language usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their position by oppressive means. The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, Plato, the Greek philosopher, clearly saw tyrannos as a negative word, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period.

The philosophers Plato and Aristotle defined a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both their own people and others.The Encyclopédie defined the term as a usurper of sovereign power who makes "his subjects the victims of his passions and unjust desires, which he substitutes for laws".

In the late fifth and fourth centuries BC, a new kind of tyrant, the military dictator, arose – specifically in Sicily.

One can apply accusations of tyranny to a variety of types of government:

to government by an individual (in an autocracy)

to government by a minority (in an oligarchy, tyranny of the minority)

to government by a majority (in a democracy, tyranny of the majority)The definition of "tyranny" can extend to other oppressive leadership and to oppressive policies.

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