This an alphabetical list of ancient Greeks. These include ethnic Greeks and Greek language speakers from Greece and the Mediterranean world up to about 200 AD.Mamercus of Catane
Mamercus was tyrant of the Greek city of Catane at the time when Timoleon landed in Sicily 344 BC until 338 BC. He was regarded by Plutarch as a warlike and wealthy man.
After the defeat of Hicetas at Adranum by Timoleon, Mamercus joined Timoleon and concluded a treaty of alliance with him. When Timoleon had not only made himself master of Syracuse, but defeated the Carthaginians in the great Battle of the Crimissus (339 BC), Mamercus became apprehensive that his ally's object was nothing less than the complete expulsion of all the tyrants from Sicily. In consequence, Mamercus entered into a league with Hicetas and the Carthaginians to oppose Timoleon's progress. At first they achieved a partial success, cutting to pieces a body of mercenaries in the Syracusan service. But Hicetas was defeated by Timoleon and fell into his hands, after which Timoleon marched against Catane. Mamercus met him in the field, but was defeated with heavy loss. So the Carthaginians concluded a peace with Timoleon.
Abandoned by his allies, Mamercus saw little chance of success and fled to Messana, where he took refuge with Hippon, tyrant of that city. Timoleon, however, quickly followed him and laid siege to Messana, both by sea and land, forcing Hippon to flee. Mamercus then surrendered to Timoleon, stipulating only for a regular trial before the Syracusans. But as soon as he was brought into the assembly of the people there, he was condemned by acclamation, and executed like a common criminal.Cornelius Nepos hints that Mamercus was not a Sicilian by birth, but had first come to the island as a leader of Italian mercenaries. Plutarch states that Mamercus prided himself much upon his skill in poetry, apparently with little reason, based on the two verses by Mamercus that have been preserved.Outline of classical studies
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies:
Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world. The field focuses primarily on, but is not limited to, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during classical antiquity, the era spanning from the late Bronze Age of Ancient Greece during the Minoan and Mycenaean periods (c. 1600-1100 BCE) through the period known as Late Antiquity to the fall of the Western Roman Empire, c. 500 CE. The word classics is also used to refer to the literature of the period.Tyrant
A tyrant (from Ancient Greek τύραννος, túrannos), in the modern English-language usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their position by oppressive means. The original Greek term, however, merely meant an authoritarian sovereign without reference to character, bearing no pejorative connotation during the Archaic and early Classical periods. However, Plato, the Greek philosopher, clearly saw tyrannos as a negative word, and on account of the decisive influence of philosophy on politics, its negative connotations only increased, continuing into the Hellenistic period.
The philosophers Plato and Aristotle defined a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both their own people and others.The Encyclopédie defined the term as a usurper of sovereign power who makes "his subjects the victims of his passions and unjust desires, which he substitutes for laws".
In the late fifth and fourth centuries BC, a new kind of tyrant, the military dictator, arose – specifically in Sicily.
One can apply accusations of tyranny to a variety of types of government:
to government by an individual (in an autocracy)
to government by a minority (in an oligarchy, tyranny of the minority)
to government by a majority (in a democracy, tyranny of the majority)The definition of "tyranny" can extend to other oppressive leadership and to oppressive policies.