List of academic databases and search engines

This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • the article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s)
Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1] Subscription EBSCO Publishing[2]
Aerospace & High Technology Database Aerospace, Aeronautics, Astronautics Subscription ProQuest[3]
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) Multidisciplinary Scholarly journals published in Africa[4] Free abstracts; Subscription full-text African Journals OnLine[5]
AgeLine Sociology, Gerontology Includes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy. Subscription EBSCO Publishing[6]
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access Agriculture Free & Subscription Produced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by ProQuest,[8] OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural database Agriculture Covers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

Free Produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti Inc Multidisciplinary Subscription Airiti Inc[10]
Analytical Abstracts Chemistry Subscription Royal Society of Chemistry[11]
Analytical sciences digital library Analytical chemistry Free National Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index Online Anthropology Index only (no abstracts or full-text). Free Royal Anthropological Institute[13]
Anthropological Literature Anthropology Free to Harvard faculty, staff and students. Subscription for non-Harvard access. Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
Arachne Archaeology, Art history German language Free German Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
Arnetminer Computer Science Online service used to index and search academic social networks Free Tsinghua University[16]
Arts & Humanities Citation Index Arts, Humanities Part of Web of Science Subscription Clarivate Analytics[17]
arXiv Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and Statistics Repository of electronic pre-prints of papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance. Free Cornell University[18]
ASCE Library Civil Engineering all civil engineering disciplines including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, construction engineering, environmental engineering, engineering mechanics, sustainability, water resources, irrigation. hydraulics, hydrology, waterways, urban planning, cold regions ... Abstract free. Fulltext subscription. American Society of Civil Engineers
Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Computer Science, Engineering Subscription Association for Computing Machinery[19]
Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics, Geophysics, Physics Free Harvard University[20]
ATLA Religion Database Religious studies Provides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issues Subscription [21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Military Science Free Air University[22]
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine Multidisciplinary Free Bielefeld University[23]
Beilstein database Organic chemistry Subscription Available from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[24]
Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale Medieval studies A bibliography of monographs on the Middle Ages. As of 2018, it contains about 65,000 fully classified bibliographic records. Subscription Produced by the University of Poitiers. Available from Brepols Publishers.[25]
Biological Abstracts Biology A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally. Subscription Available from Thomson Reuters[26]
BioOne Biology, Ecology, and Environmental Science A full-text aggregation of more than 180 scientific journals publishing current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology. Free abstract & references, Open Access titles, and Subscription Available from BioOne[27]
Bioinformatic Harvester Biology, Bioinformatics A meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects. Free Available from Liebel-Lab KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Book Review Index Online Book reviews Subscription Thomson Gale[28]
Books In Print Books Subscription R.R. Bowker[29]
CAB Abstracts Applied life sciences Bibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature. Subscription CABI[30]
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemistry Subscription American Chemical Society[31]
Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database Science, Chemistry web-based retrieval application that provides language independent access to the information contained in Chemisches Zentralblatt Subscription Available from the InfoChem [32]
ChemXSeer Chemistry the projects seems abandoned in 2018 Free Pennsylvania State University[33]
Chinese Social Science Citation Index Social sciences Subscription Nanjing University[34]
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Nursing, Allied Health Subscription EBSCO[35]
CiNii Multidisciplinary Database of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals. Free abstracts; Subscription full-text National Institute of Informatics[36]
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database Medicine Free University of Calgary[37]
Citebase Search Mathematics, Computer science, Physics Semi-autonomous citation index of free online research Free University of Southampton[38]
CiteULike Computer science Free
CiteSeer Computer Science Replaced by CiteSeerX. Free Pennsylvania State University[39]
CiteSeerX Computer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming Multidisciplinary Free Pennsylvania State University[40]
Civil engineering database Civil engineering A bibliographic database covering all of ASCE's publications since 1872 Free American Society of Civil Engineers
Cochrane Library Medicine, Healthcare Includes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare. Subscription Wiley Interscience[41]
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archives Science (General) Free University of Southampton[42]
The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Computer science Free Alf-Christian Achilles[43]
Compendex Engineering Electronic version of Engineering Index. Subscription Elsevier[44]
COnnecting REpositories Multidisciplinary Free Open University[45]
Current Index to Statistics Statistics Limited free search[46] Subscription American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[47]
Current Contents Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Subscription Clarivate Analytics
Directory of Open Access Journals Journals The Directory Of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists more than 10,000 open access journals (September 2014) in multiple research areas.[48] Free Lund University[49]
dblp computer science bibliography Computer science Comprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journals Free Produced by Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier, Germany[50]
EconBiz Economics EconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts. Free Produced by the ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)[51]
EconLit Economics The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature. Subscription Produced by the American Economic Association.[52] Available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA.[53]
EMBASE Biomedicine, Pharmacology Biomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research. Subscription Elsevier[54]
ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center Education Education literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966. Free Produced by the United States Department of Education.[55] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Europe PMC Biomedical A database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations.[56] Includes text-mining tools and links to external molecular and medical data sets. A partner in PMC International.[57] Free EMBL-EBI[58]
FSTA – Food Science and Technology Abstracts Food science, Food technology, Nutrition The world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutrition Subscription Produced by IFIS Publishing. FSTA can be accessed through EBSCOhost,[59] IHS Inc.,[60] Ovid,[61] Proquest Dialog,[62] STN[63] and Web of Science.[64]
GENESIS Women's history Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites. Free London Metropolitan University[65]
GeoRef Geosciences Subscription American Geosciences Institute
Global Health Public Health Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice. Subscription CABI[66]
Golm Metabolome Database Mass spectrometry The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) is a reference mass spectra library of biologically active metabolites quantified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Free online search; offline use by subscription Golm Metabolome Database[67]
Google Scholar Multidisciplinary Free Google[68]
HCI Bibliography Human-computer interface An electronic bibliography for most of HCI for researchers, developers, educators, and students Free Gary Perlman[69]
HubMed Medicine An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database Free Alf Eaton[70]
IEEE Xplore Computer Science, Engineering, Electronics Subscription IEEE[71]
Index Copernicus Multidisciplinary science Scientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[72] Free Index Copernicus International[73]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information Multidisciplinary The Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[74]
Informit Multidisciplinary Australasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journals Subscription[75] RMIT Training Pty Ltd (RMIT Training)[76]
IngentaConnect Multidisciplinary Free searching; Subscription full-text Ingenta[77]
Indian Citation Index Multidisciplinary Indian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc. Subscription ICI[78]
IARP Multidisciplinary Open-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences. The site provides tools to build graphic reports. Free Volunteer Collaboration[79]
Inspec Physics, Engineering, Computer Science The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering. Subscription IET[80]
INSPIRE-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP [81]
International Bibliography of Humanism and the Renaissance Renaissance studies A bibliography of academic publications on European culture and history in the 16th and 17th centuries. As of 2018, it contains about 355,000 fully classified bibliographic records. Subscription Brepols Publishers[82]
International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries. Free search; full access by subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[83]
International Medieval Bibliography Medieval studies A multidisciplinary bibliographic database covering Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for the entire period from AD 300 to 1500. As of 2018, it contains about 440,000 entries. Subscription Produced by Leeds University. Available from Brepols Publishers.[84]
International Philosophical Bibliography Philosophy A bibliographic database focusing on the history of philosophy and continental philosophy. Subscription Produced the Université Catholique de Louvain. Available from Peeters Publishers.[85]
J-Gate All Scholarly Journals J-Gate is an electronic gateway to global e-journal literature. J-Gate provides seamless access to millions of journal articles. Free abstract & references, Open Access titles, and Subscription Available from J-Gate[86]
JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Links to journal's home page and publishers JournalSeek[87]
JSTOR: Journal Storage Multidisciplinary JSTOR Collections: Current Journals; Archived Journals (first issue through 3–5 years ago); Books; and Primary Source Collections
FREE Resources: 3 articles every 2 weeks (Register and Read Program, archived journals). Also, early journals (prior to 1923 in US, 1870 elsewhere) free, no registry necessary.
Free and Subscription JSTOR[88]
Jurn Multidisciplinary Jurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works. In 2014 Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Jurn is actively curated and maintained. Free Jurn[89]
L'Année philologique Classical studies Over 860,000 bibliographical entries, including keywords, abstracts, and links to the full text. Subscription Produced by the Société Internationale de Bibliographie Classique. Available from Brepols Publishers.[90]
Lesson Planet Education (K-12) Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles. Free Abstract; Subscription full-text Lesson Planet[91]
LexisNexis Law (general) Electronic database for legal and public-records related information Subscription Reed Elsevier[92]
Lingbuzz Linguistics A free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. Free Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Linguistics, University of Tromsø[93]
Linguamatics Medicine, Healthcare, Patents Interface for searching MEDLINE,, FDA Drug Labels, PubMed Central, and Patent Abstracts.[94] Subscription Linguamatics
MathSciNet Mathematics Available in print as Mathematical Reviews Subscription American Mathematical Society[95]
MEDLINE Medicine, Healthcare Easy-to-use interface to search and retrieve citations and abstracts for biomedical and health journals. Subscription EBSCO[96]
MedlinePlus Medicine Free Produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[97]
Mendeley Multidisciplinary The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and or web crawls. Free Mendeley[98]
Merck Index Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology Also available in print. Subscription Formerly produced by Merck & Co.,[99] now available from the Royal Society of Chemistry[100]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts Meteorology, Astrophysics, Geology Subscription Produced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[101] and CSA.[102]
NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research Economics Free National Bureau of Economic Research[103]
Microsoft Academic Multidisciplinary Provides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[104] Free Microsoft
MyScienceWork Science Database includes more than 70 million scientific publications and 12 million patents. Free MyScienceWork
National Criminal Justice Reference Service[105] Criminology, Sociology Abstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedings Free United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[106]
National Diet Library Collection Multidisciplinary Japanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan. N/A National Diet Library[107]
OAIster Multidisciplinary Free OCLC[108] Humanities, social science OpenEdition offers the academic community four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciences Free Cléo (UMS 3287) CNRS EHESS University of Avignon[109]
OpenSIGLE Grey literature Indexes European grey literature. Free Institut de l'information scientifique et technique[110]
Paperity Multidisciplinary Aggregator of open access journals and papers. Contains more than 1,500,000 full-text articles and 4,200 journals covering all academic disciplines and different languages. Provides full-text article search, RSS feeds and a mobile application to access the literature. Free Paperity
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Applied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studies Journals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online. Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[111]
Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Index of books, journals, disserations, and other documents Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[111]
PhilPapers Philosophy Free PhilPapers[112]
POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy, applied ethics, religious studies Journals and series, online access for institutions with print Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[111]
POPLINE Population, Family Planning, Reproductive Health POPLINE® contains the world’s most comprehensive collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications. Free Knowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health[113]
Project MUSE Humanities, social science Project MUSE is a provider of digital humanities and social science content for the scholarly community. MUSE provides full-text versions of scholarly journals and books. Subscription Project MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press[114]
PsycINFO Psychology The largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 3.7 million records with bibliographic information and extensive indexing, more than 60 million cited references, and has comprehensive coverage dating back to the mid-19th century, with sporadic coverage going back as far as the 16th century. Subscription Produced by the APA.[115] Available from several database vendors.[116]
Psychology's Feminist Voices Psychology An online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of 250 feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence." All profiles on the Feminist Presence section contain original interview transcripts and video clips with the psychologist discussing their feminist development and academic career. Free Based at York University, Toronto, Canada.[117]
PubChem Chemistry Free National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[118]
PubMed Biomedical A database primarily of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics Free National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[119]
PubPsych Psychology PubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists. Free Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Questia: Online Research Library Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription Questia[120]
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Journals and Magazines Coverage: 1983–present. Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[121]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982 Journals and Magazines Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[122]
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics Economics Free Volunteer Collaboration[123]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982 Journals and Magazines Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[124]
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics Economics Free Volunteer Collaboration[123]
Rock's Backpages Music Primary documents from the history of rock and roll Subscription. Limited free access with registration. Backpages Limited[125]
Russian Science Citation Index Scientific journals A bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian. Free Scientific Electronic Library[126]
SafetyLit Multidisciplinary Citations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm. Free SafetyLit Foundation[127] in cooperation with the Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University[128] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[129]
SciELO Journals SciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format. Free FAPESP, CNPq and BIREME Multidisciplinary A gateway to government science information and research results. provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites. Free Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for[130]
Science Accelerator Multidisciplinary A gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[131]
Science Citation Index Science (General) Part of Web of Science Subscription Clarivate Analytics
ScienceOpen Multidisciplinary Search engine for natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Incorporates arXiv, PubMed, and SciELO. Integrated with ORCID for overlay and peer review services. All articles display Altmetric scores. Free ScienceOpen[132]
Scientific Information Database (SID) Engineering & Technology, Medical Science, Basic Science, Human Sciences It is a free bank with multipurpose goals, containing Engineering & Technology, Medical, Basic Science, Human Sciences papers. Free Scientific Information Database[133]
SCIndeks - Serbian Citation Index Multidisciplinary A combination of an online multidisciplinary bibliographic database, a national citation index, an Open Access full-text journal repository and an electronic publishing platform. Free CEON/CEES - Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science, Serbia[134]
Science Direct Science including Medicine Subscription Elsevier[135]
Scopus Multidisciplinary Scopus is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature. It contains over 20,500 titles from more than 5,000 international publishers. While it is a subscription product, authors can review and update their profiles via or by first searching for their profile at the free Scopus author lookup page. Subscription Elsevier[136]
SearchTeam Multidisciplinary Students search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resources Free Zakta[137]
Semantic Scholar Multidisciplinary It is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It currently includes on computer science and biomedical publications. Free Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence[138]
Social Science Citation Index Social science Part of Web of Science Subscription Clarivate Analytics[139]
Socol@r: Socolar Multidisciplinary Scholarly open access resources in different language Free abstracts; Links to full-text Socolar[140]
SPRESI Database Science, Chemistry chemical structure and reaction database, product name: SPRESIweb, SPRESImobile Subscription Available from InfoChem [32]
SSRN: Social Science Research Network Social science Contains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline. Free Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[141]
Sparrho Multidisciplinary Sparrho is a personalised platform that allows users to discover, curate and share over 60 million scientific research articles and patents from 45k+ journals and preprint servers. Free Sparrho[142]
INSPIRE-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP [81]
SpringerLink Multidisciplinary Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Springer[143]
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Periodicals Subscription ProQuest[144]
VET-Bib Social Science, Education European vocational education and training (VET) literature Free European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training[145]
Web of Science Multidisciplinary Includes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological Record Subscription Clarivate Analytics[146]
WestLaw Law (General) Subscription Thomson Reuters
WorldCat Multidisciplinary Unified catalog of member libraries' catalogs Free & Subscription OCLC[147]
WorldWideScience Multidisciplinary WorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature. Free The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[148]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index Journals Japanese. N/A National Diet Library's Online Catalog,[149] MagazinePlus,[150] CiNii[151]
Zentralblatt MATH Mathematics First three records free without subscription. Subscription Springer Science+Business Media[152]
The Zoological Record Zoology Unofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present. Subscription Clarivate Analytics[153]

See also


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AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access) is an online database created and maintained by the United States National Agricultural Library of the United States Department of Agriculture.

The database serves as the catalog and index for the collections of the United States National Agricultural Library, but it also provides public access to information on agriculture and allied fields.

Beilstein database

The Beilstein database is the largest database in the field of organic chemistry, in which compounds are uniquely identified by their Beilstein Registry Number. The database covers the scientific literature from 1771 to the present and contains experimentally validated information on millions of chemical reactions and substances from original scientific publications. The electronic database was created from Beilstein's Handbook of Organic Chemistry, founded by Friedrich Konrad Beilstein in 1881, but has appeared online under a number of different names, including Crossfire Beilstein. Since 2009, the content has been maintained and distributed by Elsevier Information Systems in Frankfurt under the product name "Reaxys".The database contains information on reactions, substances, structures and properties. Up to 350 fields containing chemical and physical data (such as melting point, refractive index etc.) are available for each substance. References to the literature in which the reaction or substance data appear are also given.

The Beilstein content made available through Reaxys is complemented by information drawn from Gmelin (which gives access to the Gmelin Database), a very large repository of organometallic and inorganic information, as well as by information drawn from the Patent Chemistry Database. The Reaxys registered trademark and the database itself are owned and protected by Elsevier Properties SA and used under license.

Bibliographic index

A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a system of authorized headings collectively known as controlled vocabulary, developed over time by the indexing service. Indexes of this kind are issued in print periodical form (issued in monthly or quarterly paperback supplements, cumulated annually), online, or both. Since the 1970s they are typically generated as output from bibliographic databases (whereas earlier they were manually compiled using index cards).

"From many points of view an index is synonymous with a catalogue, the principles of analysis used being identical, but whereas an index entry merely locates a subject, a catalogue entry includes descriptive specification of a document concerned with the subject".The index may help search the literature of, for example, an academic field or discipline (example: Philosopher's Index), to works of a specific literary form (Biography Index) or published in a specific format (Newspaper Abstracts), or to the analyzed contents of a serial publication (New York Times Index).

Biological Abstracts

Biological Abstracts is a database produced by Clarivate Analytics. It includes abstracts from peer-reviewed academic journal articles in the fields of biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, pre-clinical and experimental medicine, pharmacology, zoology, agriculture, and veterinary medicine published since 1926.It can be accessed through number of services, including EBSCO, Ovid and Web of Science.

Current Contents

Current Contents is a rapid alerting service database from Clarivate Analytics, formerly the Institute for Scientific Information and Thomson Reuters. It is published online and in several different printed subject sections.

Food Science and Technology Abstracts

FSTA, also known as FSTA – Food Science and Technology Abstracts, is produced by IFIS Publishing.

FSTA is a bibliographic abstracting and indexing (A&I) database of scientific and technological research and information relating to food, beverages, and nutrition. It contains over 1,300,000 indexed records, with full-text links where available.The database is used by researchers, industry practitioners, and students.

Indexing and abstracting service

An abstracting service is a service that provides abstracts of publications, often on a subject or group of related subjects, usually on a subscription basis. An indexing service is a service that assigns descriptors and other kinds of access points to documents. The word indexing service is today mostly used for computer programs, but may also cover services providing back-of-the-book indexes, journal indexes, and related kinds of indexes. An indexing and abstracting service is a service that provides shortening or summarizing of documents and assigning of descriptors for referencing documents.The product is often an abstracts journal or a bibliographic index, which may be a subject bibliography or a bibliographic database.

Guidelines for indexing and abstracting, including the evaluation of such services, are given in the literature of library and information science.


JournalSeek is an online database covering academic journals. It includes journals published by over 5400 publishers. The database includes journal descriptions and links to the journals' homepages.

List of educational video websites

This is a list of notable websites which provide access to educational films as one of their primary functions.

Lists of academic journals

The following is a partial list of lists of academic journals.

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft Academic Search was a research project and academic search engine retired in 2012. It relaunched in 2016 as Microsoft Academic.

Online database

An online database is a database accessible from a local network or the Internet, as opposed to one that is stored locally on an individual computer or its attached storage (such as a CD). Online databases are hosted on websites, made available as software as a service products accessible via a web browser. They may be free or require payment, such as by a monthly subscription. Some have enhanced features such as collaborative editing and email notification.

Open Humanities Press

Open Humanities Press is an international open access publishing initiative in the humanities, specializing in critical and cultural theory. OHP's editorial board includes leading scholars such as Alain Badiou, Jonathan Culler, Stephen Greenblatt, Jean-Claude Guédon, J. Hillis Miller, Antonio Negri, Peter Suber and Gayatri Spivak among others.


PhilPapers is an international, interactive academic database of journal articles for professionals and students in philosophy. It is maintained by the Centre for Digital Philosophy at the University of Western Ontario.

As of 2018, the general editors are David Bourget (ANU and University of London) and David Chalmers (ANU).

PhilPapers receives financial support from other organizations, including a substantial grant in early 2009 from the Joint Information Systems Committee in the United Kingdom. The archive is praised for its comprehensiveness and organization, and for its regular updates. In addition to archiving papers, the editors engage in surveying academic philosophers.

Philosophy Research Index

The Philosophy Research Index is an indexing database containing bibliographic information on philosophical publications in several western languages. It contains listings for a range of philosophical publications, including books, anthologies, scholarly journals, dissertations, and other documents. The first version of the database was launched by the Philosophy Documentation Center in 2011 after a multi-year planning and development process, with technical support from Makrolog Content Management. It was established to build systematic coverage of philosophical literature in several languages in a manner that could be sustained for the long term. The database provides faceted searching, automatic translation and social networking functionality, and a visual time line for the display of search results, as well as OpenURL linking to fulltext resources. Philosophical topics covered include aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, history of philosophy, logic, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of religion, philosophy of science, political philosophy, and social philosophy.

In July 2014 PDC partnered with the PhilPapers Foundation. All data in the Philosophy Research Index will be consolidated into the PhilPapers database. The Philosophy Research Index will no longer be available as a separate resource once commitments to its current customers have been fulfilled.


ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research. It hosts over 12 million pieces of content from 3,500 academic journals and 34,000 e-books. The journals are grouped into four main sections: Physical Sciences and Engineering, Life Sciences, Health Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. Article abstracts are freely available, but access to their full texts (in PDF and, for newer publications, also HTML) generally requires a subscription or pay-per-view purchase.

Semantic Scholar

Semantic Scholar is a project developed at the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence. Publicly released in November 2015, it is designed to be an AI-backed search engine for scientific journal articles. The project uses a combination of machine learning, natural language processing, and machine vision to add a layer of semantic analysis to the traditional methods of citation analysis, and to extract relevant figures, entities, and venues from papers. In comparison to Google Scholar and PubMed, Semantic Scholar is designed to highlight the most important and influential papers, and to identify the connections between them.

As of January 2018, following a 2017 project that added biomedical papers and topic summaries, the Semantic Scholar corpus now includes more than 40 million papers from computer science and biomedicine. In March 2018, Doug Raymond, who developed machine learning initiatives for the Amazon Alexa platform, was hired to lead the Semantic Scholar project.

Social Sciences Citation Index

The Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) is a commercial citation index product of Clarivate Analytics. It was originally developed by the Institute for Scientific Information from the Science Citation Index.

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