This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in China. China has 55, ranking top in the world. China ratified The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage on 12 December 1985. These sites comprise some of the most essential part of China's valuable and rich tourism resources.
Since joining the International Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985, China has 55 World Heritage Sites to date; of these 37 are cultural heritage sites, 14 are natural heritage sites, and 4 are cultural and natural (mixed) sites, ranking first in the world.
In addition, there are also several Chinese documents inscribed in UNESCO's list Memory of the World, which registers the world's documentary heritage. Furthermore, China has a rich non-material cultural heritage, with several of them inscribed on UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Following is a map of the World Heritage Sites in China.
Legend: Cultural Heritage site; Natural Heritage site; Mixed site
|Site||Image||Location||Year listed||UNESCO data||Description|
|Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including the Forbidden City and Mukden Palace*||Beijing (Forbidden City) and Shenyang, Liaoning (Mukden Palace)||1987, 2004||I, II, III, IV||439|
|Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor *||Xi'an, Shaanxi||1987||I, III, IV, VI||441|
|Mogao Caves *||Dunhuang, Gansu||1987||I, II, III, IV, V, VI||440|
|Mount Tai *†||Tai'an, Shandong||1987||I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII||437|
|Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian *||Beijing||1987||III, VI||449|
|The Great Wall*||Northern China||1987||I, II, III, IV, VI||438|
|Mount Huangshan *†||Huangshan City, Anhui||1990||II, VII, X||547|
|Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area †||Songpan County, Sichuan||1992||VII||638|
|Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area †||Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan||1992||VII||637|
|Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area †||Zhangjiajie, Hunan||1992||VII||640|
|Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, including the Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka *||Lhasa, Tibet||1994, 2000, 2001||I, IV, VI||707|
|Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains *||Hubei||1994||I, II, VI||705|
|Chengde Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples in Chengde *||Chengde, Hebei||1994||II, IV||703|
|Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu *||Qufu, Shandong||1994||I, IV, VI||704|
|Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area *†||Emeishan City (Mt. Emei) and Leshan (Giant Buddha), Sichuan||1996||IV, VI, X||779|
|Lushan National Park *||Lushan District, Jiangxi||1996||II, III, IV, VI||778|
|Ancient City of Pingyao *||Pingyao County, Shanxi||1997||II, III, IV||812|
|Classical Gardens of Suzhou *||Suzhou, Jiangsu||1997, 2000||I, II, III, IV, V||813|
|Old Town of Lijiang *||Lijiang, Yunnan||1997||II, IV, V||811|
|Summer Palace *||Beijing||1998||I, II, III||880|
|Temple of Heaven *||Beijing||1998||I, II, III||881|
|Dazu Rock Carvings *||Dazu District, Chongqing||1999||I, II, III||912|
|Mount Wuyi *†||Fujian, Jiangxi||1999||III, VI, VII, X||911|
|Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun *||Yi County, Anhui||2000||III, IV, V||1002|
|Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including the Ming tombs and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum *||Beijing and Nanjing, Jiangsu||2000, 2003, 2004||III, IV, V||1004|
|Longmen Grottoes *||Luoyang, Henan||2000||I, II, III||1003|
|Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System *||Dujiangyan City, Sichuan||2000||II, IV, VI||1001|
|Yungang Grottoes *||Datong, Shanxi||2001||I, II, III, IV||1039|
|Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas †||Yunnan||2003||VII, VIII, IX, X||1083|
|Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom *||Ji'an, Jilin||2004||I, II, III, IV, V||1135|
|Historic Centre of Macau *||Macau||2005||II, III, IV, VI||1110|
|Yinxu *||Anyang, Henan||2006||II, III, IV, VI||1114|
|Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries †||Sichuan||2006||X||1213|
|Kaiping Diaolou and Villages *||Kaiping, Guangdong||2007||II, III, IV||1112|
|South China Karst †||Yunnan, Guizhou , Chongqing and Guangxi||2007, 2014||VII, VIII||1248|
|Fujian Tulou *||Fujian||2008||III, IV, V||1113|
|Sanqingshan †||Yushan County, Jiangxi||2008||VII||1292|
|Mount Wutai *||Wutai County, Shanxi||2009||II, III, IV, VI||1279|
|Historic Monuments of Dengfeng in “The Centre of Heaven and Earth” *||Dengfeng, Henan||2010||III, VI||1305|
|China Danxia †||Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Guizhou||2010||VII, VIII, IX, X||1335|
|West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou *||Hangzhou, Zhejiang||2011||II, III, VI||1334|
|Site of Xanadu *||Xilingol, Inner Mongolia||2012||II, III, IV, VI||1389|
|Chengjiang Fossil Site †||Chengjiang County, Yunnan||2012||VIII||1388|
|Xinjiang Tianshan †||Xinjiang||2013||VII, IX||1414|
|Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces *||Yuanyang County, Yunnan||2013||III, V||1111|
|Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor *||Luoyang, Lingbao of Henan; Xi'an, Bin County and Chenggu of Shaanxi; Tianshui, Yongjing, Dunhuang and Anxi of Gansu; Turpan, Jimsar and Kuqa of Xinjiang||2014||II, III, IV, VI||1442|
|Grand Canal *||Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Henan||2014||I, III, IV, VI||1443|
|Tusi Sites *||Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou||2015||II, III||1474|
|Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art Cultural Landscape *||Guangxi||2016||III, VI||1508|
|Hubei Shennongjia †||Hubei||2016||IX, X||1509|
|Qinghai Hoh Xil †||Qinghai||2017||VII, X||1540|
|Kulangsu: a Historic International Settlement *||Xiamen, Fujian||2017||II, IV||1541|
|Fanjingshan †||Tongren, Guizhou||2018||X||1559|
|Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City *||Hangzhou and Deqing County, Zhejiang||2019||III, IV||1592|
|Migratory Bird Sanctuaries along the Coast of Yellow Sea-Bohai Gulf of China (Phase I) †||Yancheng, Jiangsu||2019||X||1606|
There are the sites China has submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list.
|UNESCO List||Exclusive Entries of China, People's Republic||Shared/Multinational Entries Involving China, People's Republic|
|UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves||33||—|
|UNESCO World Heritage List||53||1|
|UNESCO Memory of the World Register||13||—|
|UNESCO Global Geoparks Network||37||—|
|UNESCO Creative Cities Network||12||—|
|UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists||39||1|
The Cathedral of the Nativity of Our Lady also Sé Catedral da Natividade de Nossa Senhora and Igreja da Sé (Chinese: 澳門主敎座堂) is a cathedral in Sé, Macau, China. It is the current cathedral of the Diocese of Macau. The cathedral is also called the "Church of the Nativity of Our Lady".
The cathedral is included in the list of historical monuments of the Historic Centre of Macau, which in turn is included in the list of World Heritage Sites in China.Gloria Ai
Ai Cheng (Chinese: 艾诚, born February 15, 1987), known professionally as Gloria Ai, is a bilingual business anchorwoman in China. She is the founder of iAsk Media, Venture Partner at SAIF Partners. Started her own business, iAsk Media, since 2014, focus on shows interviewing people made great contributions to the world. She was awarded as Global Shapers from World Economic Forum and Forbes 30 Under 30 Asia from Forbes.Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China (Chinese: 萬里長城; pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng, Mongolian: Цагаан хэрэм, Manchu: šanggiyan jase) is the collective name of a series of fortification systems generally built across the historical northern borders of China to protect and consolidate territories of Chinese states and empires against various nomadic groups of the steppe and their polities. Several walls were being built from as early as the 7th century BC by ancient Chinese states; selective stretches were later joined together by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first Emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains. Later on, many successive dynasties have built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The most currently well-known of the walls were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.
The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Taohe River in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of Mongolian steppe. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the walls built by the Ming dynasty measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the defensive system of Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.Gulangyu
The Gulangyu, Gulang Island or Kulangsu is a pedestrian-only island off the coast of Xiamen, Fujian Province in southeastern China. A UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site, the island is about 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi) in area, and is reached by a 8-minute ferry ride from downtown Xiamen. Although only about 20,000 people live on the island, Gulangyu is a major domestic tourist destination, attracting more than 10 million visitors per year, and making it one of China's most visited tourist attractions. Gulangyu not only bans cars, but also bicycles. The only vehicles permitted are small electric buggies and electric government service vehicles.
Visitors can reach Gulangyu by ferry from the ferry terminal in Xiamen. Local residents are allowed to use a shorter 5-minute ferry to/from the Lun Du Ferry Terminal. During the day (every 20 minutes, from 7:10 AM to 5:30 PM in Winter and Spring / from 7:10 AM to 6:30 PM in Summer and Autumn), tourists and non-locals take a 20-minute ferry ride from the Dongdu International Cruise Terminal to either San Qiu Tian Terminal or Nei Cuo Ao Terminal in Kulangsu Town. A ticket costs 35 CNY. After 6:00 PM, there is a more convenient ferry from Lundu Terminal 2, which drops off at San Qiu Tian Terminal in Kulangsu Town. That service runs all night, and also costs 35 CNY.Gulangyu Island is renowned for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It ranks at the top of the list of the ten most scenic areas in the province.
Gulangyu covers an area of 1.91 square kilometres (0.74 sq mi), with a household population of 15,373. Administratively, the island constitutes the Gulangyu Subdistrict, part of Xiamen's Siming District.Huangshan
Huangshan (Chinese: 黄山 , literal meaning: Yellow Mountain) is a mountain range in southern Anhui province in eastern China. Vegetation on the range is thickest below 1,100 meters (3,600 ft), with trees growing up to the treeline at 1,800 meters (5,900 ft).
The area is well known for its scenery, sunsets, peculiarly-shaped granite peaks, Huangshan pine trees, hot springs, winter snow, and views of the clouds from above. Huangshan is a frequent subject of traditional Chinese paintings and literature, as well as modern photography. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and one of China's major tourist destinations.Jiuzhaigou
Jiuzhaigou ([tɕjòu.ʈʂâi.kóu] (listen); Chinese: 九寨沟; pinyin: Jiǔzhàigōu) is a nature reserve and national park located in the north of Sichuan Province in the southwestern region of China. A long valley running north to south, Jiuzhaigou was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1992 and a World Biosphere Reserve in 1997. It belongs to the category V (Protected Landscape) in the IUCN system of protected area categorization.
The Jiuzhaigou valley is part of the Min Mountains on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau and stretches over 72,000 hectares (180,000 acres). It is known for its many multi-level waterfalls, colorful lakes, and snow-capped peaks. Its elevation ranges from 2,000 to 4,500 metres (6,600 to 14,800 ft).List of museums in China
As of 2013, there are 3,589 museums in China, including 3,054 state-owned museums (museums run by national and local government or universities) and 535 private museums. With a collection of over 20 million items, these museums hold more than 8,000 exhibitions every year and 160 million people visits. Some museums of cultural relics, such as the Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses in Xi'an, have become internationally known tourist attractions. The government has exchanges of cultural relics exhibitions between museums and promotes the display and exchanges of legal non-governmental collections.Lists of World Heritage Sites
This is a list of lists of World Heritage Sites. A World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having special cultural or physical significance.Mogao Caves
The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 492 temples 25 km (16 mi) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China. The caves may also be known as the Dunhuang Caves; however, this term is also used as a collective term to include other Buddhist cave sites in and around the Dunhuang area, such as the Western Thousand Buddha Caves, Eastern Thousand Buddha Caves, Yulin Caves, and Five Temple Caves. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. The first caves were dug out in AD 366 as places of Buddhist meditation and worship. The Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China.
An important cache of documents was discovered in 1900 in the so-called "Library Cave", which had been walled-up in the 11th century. The contents of the library were subsequently dispersed around the world, and the largest collections are now found in Beijing, London, Paris and Berlin, and the International Dunhuang Project exists to coordinate and collect scholarly work on the Dunhuang manuscripts and other material. The caves themselves are now a popular tourist destination, with a number open for visiting.Mount Danxia
Mount Danxia (Chinese: 丹霞山; pinyin: Dānxiá Shān) is a noted scenic mountainous area near Shaoguan city in the northern part of Guangdong, People's Republic of China.
It is described on the local signage as a "world famous UNESCO geopark of China".Mount Tai
Mount Tai (Chinese: 泰山; pinyin: Tài Shān) is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong province, China. The tallest peak is the Jade Emperor Peak (simplified Chinese: 玉皇顶; traditional Chinese: 玉皇頂; pinyin: Yùhuáng Dǐng), which is commonly reported as 1,545 metres (5,069 ft) tall, but is described by the PRC government as 1,532.7 metres (5,029 ft).Mount Tai is known as the eastern mountain of the Five Great Mountains of China. It is associated with sunrise, birth, and renewal, and is often regarded the foremost of the five. Mount Tai has been a place of worship for at least 3,000 years and served as one of the most important ceremonial centers of China during large portions of this period.Outline of China
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to China:
The People's Republic of China is the most extensive country in East Asia and the third or fourth most extensive country in the world. With a population of over 1,300,000,000, it is the most populous country in the world.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the PRC under a one-party system since the state's establishment in 1949. The PRC is involved in a dispute over the political status of Taiwan. The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.
Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, and large research and development investments, China is considered an "emerging superpower". It has the world's second largest economy (largest in terms of purchasing power parity.) China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have brought the poverty rate down from 53% in 1981 to 8% by 2001. However, China is now faced with a number of other socioeconomic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation.China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the world's largest consumer of steel and concrete, using, respectively, a third and over a half of the world's supply of each. Counting all products, China is the largest exporter and the second largest importer in the world.Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China
The Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China (Chinese: 中国文物古迹保护准则; pinyin: Zhōngguó wénwù gǔjī bǎohù zhǔnzé) is a conservation charter promulgated in 2000 by China ICOMOS with the approval of State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH Chinese: 国家文物局; pinyin: Guójiā wénwù jú). It provides a methodological approach to the conservation of heritage sites in China.Terracotta Army
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE with the purpose of protecting the emperor in his afterlife.
The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE, were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong County, outside Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses, and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits near Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians.Zhoukoudian
Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system in suburban Fangshan District, Beijing. It has yielded many archaeological discoveries, including one of the first specimens of Homo erectus (Homo erectus pekinensis), dubbed Peking Man, and a fine assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris.
Due to differing interpretations of the evidence, proposed dates for when Peking Man inhabited this site vary greatly, with : 700,000-200,000 years ago, 670,000-470,000 years ago and no earlier than 530,000 years ago.The Peking Man Site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated by Otto Zdansky in 1921 and 1923 unearthing two human teeth. These were later identified by Davidson Black as belonging to a previously unknown species and extensive excavations followed. Fissures in the limestone containing middle Pleistocene deposits have yielded the remains of about 45 individuals as well as animal remains and stone flake and chopping tools.
The oldest animal remains date from as early as 690,000 years ago and tools from 670,000 years ago while another authority dates the tools found from no earlier than 530,000 years ago. During the Upper Palaeolithic, the site was re-occupied and remains of Homo sapiens and its stone and bone tools have also been recovered from the Upper Cave.
The crater Choukoutien on asteroid 243 Ida was named after the location. The caves are located in Fangshan District, southwest of central Beijing.
World Heritage Sites in China
|Northern and Central Asia|
(including Arab States)