List of World Heritage Sites in China

This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in China. China has 55, ranking top in the world. China ratified The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage on 12 December 1985. These sites comprise some of the most essential part of China's valuable and rich tourism resources.

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Overview

Since joining the International Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985, China has 55 World Heritage Sites to date; of these 37 are cultural heritage sites, 14 are natural heritage sites, and 4 are cultural and natural (mixed) sites, ranking first in the world.

In addition, there are also several Chinese documents inscribed in UNESCO's list Memory of the World, which registers the world's documentary heritage. Furthermore, China has a rich non-material cultural heritage, with several of them inscribed on UNESCO's list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Map

Following is a map of the World Heritage Sites in China.

Numbered sites around Beijing: 1. Great Wall; 2. Forbidden City; 3. Zhoukoudian; 4. Summer Palace; 5. Temple of Heaven; 6. Ming tombs; 7. Eastern Qing Tombs; 8. Western Qing Tombs

Legend: Red pog.svg Cultural Heritage site; Green pog.svg Natural Heritage site; Yellow pog.svg Mixed site

List of World Heritage Sites in China is located in China

World Heritage Sites

* = World Cultural Heritage Site
† = World Natural Heritage Site
*† = World Cultural and Natural Heritage Site (Mixed)
Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO data Description
Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including the Forbidden City and Mukden Palace* Hall of Supreme Harmony, Forbidden City, Beijing, with tourists 2 Beijing (Forbidden City) and Shenyang, Liaoning (Mukden Palace) 1987, 2004 I, II, III, IV 439
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor * Terracotta Army Pit 1 - 2 Xi'an, Shaanxi 1987 I, III, IV, VI 441
Mogao Caves * Jiucenglou of Mogao Caves Dunhuang, Gansu 1987 I, II, III, IV, V, VI 440
Mount Tai *† 泰山 南天门 Tai'an, Shandong 1987 I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII 437
Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian * Zhoukoudian Entrance Beijing 1987 III, VI 449
The Great Wall* 20090529 Great Wall 8185 Northern China 1987 I, II, III, IV, VI 438
Mount Huangshan *† Huangshan-瀑布云 20141109 Huangshan City, Anhui 1990 II, VII, X 547
Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area 1 huanglong 2011 Songpan County, Sichuan 1992 VII 638
Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area † 1 jiuzhaigou valley wu hua hai 2011b Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan 1992 VII 637
Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area † 1 tianzishan wulingyuan zhangjiajie 2012 Zhangjiajie, Hunan 1992 VII 640
Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, including the Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka * Potala Palace, August 2009 Lhasa, Tibet 1994, 2000, 2001 I, IV, VI 707
Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains * 紫霄宮 Hubei 1994 I, II, VI 705
Chengde Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples in Chengde * Putuo Zongcheng Temple Chengde, Hebei 1994 II, IV 703
Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu * Kong Miao - Dacheng Dian - P1050686 Qufu, Shandong 1994 I, IV, VI 704
Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area *† Leshan Buddha Statue View Emeishan City (Mt. Emei) and Leshan (Giant Buddha), Sichuan 1996 IV, VI, X 779
Lushan National Park * Mount Lushan - fog Lushan District, Jiangxi 1996 II, III, IV, VI 778
Ancient City of Pingyao * Pingyao-muralla-c01-f Pingyao County, Shanxi 1997 II, III, IV 812
Classical Gardens of Suzhou * Wangshiyuan Suzhou, Jiangsu 1997, 2000 I, II, III, IV, V 813
Old Town of Lijiang * Roofs of old town Lijiang Lijiang, Yunnan 1997 II, IV, V 811
Summer Palace * Residence dete828 Beijing 1998 I, II, III 880
Temple of Heaven * Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest Beijing 1998 I, II, III 881
Dazu Rock Carvings * Dazu Dazu District, Chongqing 1999 I, II, III 912
Mount Wuyi *† Peak Yunu Fujian, Jiangxi 1999 III, VI, VII, X 911
Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun * Hongcun village in China Yi County, Anhui 2000 III, IV, V 1002
Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including the Ming tombs and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum * Noel 2005 Pékin tombeaux Ming voie des âmes Beijing and Nanjing, Jiangsu 2000, 2003, 2004 III, IV, V 1004
Longmen Grottoes * DragonGateCave2 Luoyang, Henan 2000 I, II, III 1003
Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System * Dujiang Weir Dujiangyan City, Sichuan 2000 II, IV, VI 1001
Yungang Grottoes * Datong Yungang Shiku 2013.08.29 15-20-17 Datong, Shanxi 2001 I, II, III, IV 1039
Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas DSCN1728 Yunnan 2003 VII, VIII, IX, X 1083
Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom * Kevsunblush2 Ji'an, Jilin 2004 I, II, III, IV, V 1135
Historic Centre of Macau * Ruinas de Sao Paulo Macau 2005 II, III, IV, VI 1110
Yinxu * Yinxu Anyang, Henan 2006 II, III, IV, VI 1114
Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries Chengdu-pandas-d10 Sichuan 2006 X 1213
Kaiping Diaolou and Villages * Rui Shi Lou Kaiping, Guangdong 2007 II, III, IV 1112
South China Karst Guilin lijiang Yunnan, Guizhou , Chongqing and Guangxi 2007, 2014 VII, VIII 1248
Fujian Tulou * Snail pit tulou Fujian 2008 III, IV, V 1113
Sanqingshan Sanqingshan1522 Yushan County, Jiangxi 2008 VII 1292
Mount Wutai * 五台山-白塔 Wutai County, Shanxi 2009 II, III, IV, VI 1279
Historic Monuments of Dengfeng in “The Centre of Heaven and Earth” * Shaolinsi Dengfeng, Henan 2010 III, VI 1305
China Danxia Danxia 0816 Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Guizhou 2010 VII, VIII, IX, X 1335
West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou * Three Ponds Mirroring the Moon With Leifeng Pagoda Hangzhou, Zhejiang 2011 II, III, VI 1334
Site of Xanadu * John-Speed-The-Kingdome-of-China-1626-2544 Xilingol, Inner Mongolia 2012 II, III, IV, VI 1389
Chengjiang Fossil Site Maotianshania-cylindrica Chengjiang County, Yunnan 2012 VIII 1388
Xinjiang Tianshan Central Tian Shan mountains Xinjiang 2013 VII, IX 1414
Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces * Terrace field yunnan china edit Yuanyang County, Yunnan 2013 III, V 1111
Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor * Dayanta Gisela-Brantl 01 Luoyang, Lingbao of Henan; Xi'an, Bin County and Chenggu of Shaanxi; Tianshui, Yongjing, Dunhuang and Anxi of Gansu; Turpan, Jimsar and Kuqa of Xinjiang 2014 II, III, IV, VI 1442
Grand Canal * Kaiserkanal01 Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui and Henan 2014 I, III, IV, VI 1443
Tusi Sites * Piaoqijiangjun Shiyu Longyantun Yanjinbei Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou 2015 II, III 1474
Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art Cultural Landscape * Rock painting hua mountain 1 Guangxi 2016 III, VI 1508
Hubei Shennongjia VM 5331 Muyu town north Hubei 2016 IX, X 1509
Qinghai Hoh Xil Hoh Xil Qinghai 2017 VII, X 1540
Kulangsu: a Historic International Settlement * Gulangyu Xiamen, Fujian 2017 II, IV 1541
Fanjingshan 梵淨山紅雲金頂(新金頂) Tongren, Guizhou 2018 X 1559
Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City * Liangzhu Ancient City Site, 2016-06-18 02 Hangzhou and Deqing County, Zhejiang 2019 III, IV 1592
Migratory Bird Sanctuaries along the Coast of Yellow Sea-Bohai Gulf of China (Phase I) † Yancheng, Jiangsu 2019 X 1606

Tentative list

There are the sites China has submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list.[1]

Performance of China in UNESCO

UNESCO List Exclusive Entries of China, People's Republic Shared/Multinational Entries Involving China, People's Republic
UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves 33
UNESCO World Heritage List 53 1
UNESCO Memory of the World Register 13
UNESCO Global Geoparks Network 37
UNESCO Creative Cities Network 12
UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists 39 1

See also

References

  1. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Tentative Lists". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 9 April 2019.

External links

Cathedral of the Nativity of Our Lady, Macau

The Cathedral of the Nativity of Our Lady also Sé Catedral da Natividade de Nossa Senhora and Igreja da Sé (Chinese: 澳門主敎座堂) is a cathedral in Sé, Macau, China. It is the current cathedral of the Diocese of Macau. The cathedral is also called the "Church of the Nativity of Our Lady".

The cathedral is included in the list of historical monuments of the Historic Centre of Macau, which in turn is included in the list of World Heritage Sites in China.

Gloria Ai

Ai Cheng (Chinese: 艾诚, born February 15, 1987), known professionally as Gloria Ai, is a bilingual business anchorwoman in China. She is the founder of iAsk Media, Venture Partner at SAIF Partners. Started her own business, iAsk Media, since 2014, focus on shows interviewing people made great contributions to the world. She was awarded as Global Shapers from World Economic Forum and Forbes 30 Under 30 Asia from Forbes.

Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China (Chinese: 萬里長城; pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng, Mongolian: Цагаан хэрэм, Manchu: šanggiyan jase) is the collective name of a series of fortification systems generally built across the historical northern borders of China to protect and consolidate territories of Chinese states and empires against various nomadic groups of the steppe and their polities. Several walls were being built from as early as the 7th century BC by ancient Chinese states; selective stretches were later joined together by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first Emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains. Later on, many successive dynasties have built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The most currently well-known of the walls were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Taohe River in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of Mongolian steppe. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the walls built by the Ming dynasty measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi). This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the defensive system of Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.

Gulangyu

The Gulangyu, Gulang Island or Kulangsu is a pedestrian-only island off the coast of Xiamen, Fujian Province in southeastern China. A UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site, the island is about 2 km2 (0.77 sq mi) in area, and is reached by a 8-minute ferry ride from downtown Xiamen. Although only about 20,000 people live on the island, Gulangyu is a major domestic tourist destination, attracting more than 10 million visitors per year, and making it one of China's most visited tourist attractions. Gulangyu not only bans cars, but also bicycles. The only vehicles permitted are small electric buggies and electric government service vehicles.

Visitors can reach Gulangyu by ferry from the ferry terminal in Xiamen. Local residents are allowed to use a shorter 5-minute ferry to/from the Lun Du Ferry Terminal. During the day (every 20 minutes, from 7:10 AM to 5:30 PM in Winter and Spring / from 7:10 AM to 6:30 PM in Summer and Autumn), tourists and non-locals take a 20-minute ferry ride from the Dongdu International Cruise Terminal to either San Qiu Tian Terminal or Nei Cuo Ao Terminal in Kulangsu Town. A ticket costs 35 CNY. After 6:00 PM, there is a more convenient ferry from Lundu Terminal 2, which drops off at San Qiu Tian Terminal in Kulangsu Town. That service runs all night, and also costs 35 CNY.Gulangyu Island is renowned for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It ranks at the top of the list of the ten most scenic areas in the province.

Gulangyu covers an area of 1.91 square kilometres (0.74 sq mi), with a household population of 15,373. Administratively, the island constitutes the Gulangyu Subdistrict, part of Xiamen's Siming District.

Huangshan

Huangshan (Chinese: 黄山 , literal meaning: Yellow Mountain) is a mountain range in southern Anhui province in eastern China. Vegetation on the range is thickest below 1,100 meters (3,600 ft), with trees growing up to the treeline at 1,800 meters (5,900 ft).

The area is well known for its scenery, sunsets, peculiarly-shaped granite peaks, Huangshan pine trees, hot springs, winter snow, and views of the clouds from above. Huangshan is a frequent subject of traditional Chinese paintings and literature, as well as modern photography. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and one of China's major tourist destinations.

Jiuzhaigou

Jiuzhaigou ([tɕjòu.ʈʂâi.kóu] (listen); Chinese: 九寨沟; pinyin: Jiǔzhàigōu) is a nature reserve and national park located in the north of Sichuan Province in the southwestern region of China. A long valley running north to south, Jiuzhaigou was inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1992 and a World Biosphere Reserve in 1997. It belongs to the category V (Protected Landscape) in the IUCN system of protected area categorization.

The Jiuzhaigou valley is part of the Min Mountains on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau and stretches over 72,000 hectares (180,000 acres). It is known for its many multi-level waterfalls, colorful lakes, and snow-capped peaks. Its elevation ranges from 2,000 to 4,500 metres (6,600 to 14,800 ft).

List of museums in China

As of 2013, there are 3,589 museums in China, including 3,054 state-owned museums (museums run by national and local government or universities) and 535 private museums. With a collection of over 20 million items, these museums hold more than 8,000 exhibitions every year and 160 million people visits. Some museums of cultural relics, such as the Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses in Xi'an, have become internationally known tourist attractions. The government has exchanges of cultural relics exhibitions between museums and promotes the display and exchanges of legal non-governmental collections.

Lists of World Heritage Sites

This is a list of lists of World Heritage Sites. A World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having special cultural or physical significance.

Mogao Caves

The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 492 temples 25 km (16 mi) southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China. The caves may also be known as the Dunhuang Caves; however, this term is also used as a collective term to include other Buddhist cave sites in and around the Dunhuang area, such as the Western Thousand Buddha Caves, Eastern Thousand Buddha Caves, Yulin Caves, and Five Temple Caves. The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. The first caves were dug out in AD 366 as places of Buddhist meditation and worship. The Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China.

An important cache of documents was discovered in 1900 in the so-called "Library Cave", which had been walled-up in the 11th century. The contents of the library were subsequently dispersed around the world, and the largest collections are now found in Beijing, London, Paris and Berlin, and the International Dunhuang Project exists to coordinate and collect scholarly work on the Dunhuang manuscripts and other material. The caves themselves are now a popular tourist destination, with a number open for visiting.

Mount Danxia

Mount Danxia (Chinese: 丹霞山; pinyin: Dānxiá Shān) is a noted scenic mountainous area near Shaoguan city in the northern part of Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

It is described on the local signage as a "world famous UNESCO geopark of China".

Mount Tai

Mount Tai (Chinese: 泰山; pinyin: Tài Shān) is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong province, China. The tallest peak is the Jade Emperor Peak (simplified Chinese: 玉皇顶; traditional Chinese: 玉皇頂; pinyin: Yùhuáng Dǐng), which is commonly reported as 1,545 metres (5,069 ft) tall, but is described by the PRC government as 1,532.7 metres (5,029 ft).Mount Tai is known as the eastern mountain of the Five Great Mountains of China. It is associated with sunrise, birth, and renewal, and is often regarded the foremost of the five. Mount Tai has been a place of worship for at least 3,000 years and served as one of the most important ceremonial centers of China during large portions of this period.

Outline of China

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to China:

The People's Republic of China is the most extensive country in East Asia and the third or fourth most extensive country in the world. With a population of over 1,300,000,000, it is the most populous country in the world.

The Communist Party of China (CPC) has led the PRC under a one-party system since the state's establishment in 1949. The PRC is involved in a dispute over the political status of Taiwan. The CPC's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.

Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, and large research and development investments, China is considered an "emerging superpower". It has the world's second largest economy (largest in terms of purchasing power parity.) China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have brought the poverty rate down from 53% in 1981 to 8% by 2001. However, China is now faced with a number of other socioeconomic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation.China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the world's largest consumer of steel and concrete, using, respectively, a third and over a half of the world's supply of each. Counting all products, China is the largest exporter and the second largest importer in the world.

Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China

The Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China (Chinese: 中国文物古迹保护准则; pinyin: Zhōngguó wénwù gǔjī bǎohù zhǔnzé) is a conservation charter promulgated in 2000 by China ICOMOS with the approval of State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH Chinese: 国家文物局; pinyin: Guójiā wénwù jú). It provides a methodological approach to the conservation of heritage sites in China.

Terracotta Army

The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE with the purpose of protecting the emperor in his afterlife.

The figures, dating from approximately the late third century BCE, were discovered in 1974 by local farmers in Lintong County, outside Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. The figures vary in height according to their roles, with the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots and horses. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses, and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits near Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians.

Zhoukoudian

Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien (周口店) is a cave system in suburban Fangshan District, Beijing. It has yielded many archaeological discoveries, including one of the first specimens of Homo erectus (Homo erectus pekinensis), dubbed Peking Man, and a fine assemblage of bones of the gigantic hyena Pachycrocuta brevirostris.

Due to differing interpretations of the evidence, proposed dates for when Peking Man inhabited this site vary greatly, with : 700,000-200,000 years ago, 670,000-470,000 years ago and no earlier than 530,000 years ago.The Peking Man Site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921 and was first excavated by Otto Zdansky in 1921 and 1923 unearthing two human teeth. These were later identified by Davidson Black as belonging to a previously unknown species and extensive excavations followed. Fissures in the limestone containing middle Pleistocene deposits have yielded the remains of about 45 individuals as well as animal remains and stone flake and chopping tools.

The oldest animal remains date from as early as 690,000 years ago and tools from 670,000 years ago while another authority dates the tools found from no earlier than 530,000 years ago. During the Upper Palaeolithic, the site was re-occupied and remains of Homo sapiens and its stone and bone tools have also been recovered from the Upper Cave.

The crater Choukoutien on asteroid 243 Ida was named after the location. The caves are located in Fangshan District, southwest of central Beijing.

World Heritage Sites in China
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