List of Vice Presidents of the United States

There have been 48 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the Vice President was the person who received the second most votes for President in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800 a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the President by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The Vice President is the first person in the presidential line of succession and assumes that presidency if the President dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office.[2] Nine Vice Presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight (John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson) through the president's death and one (Gerald Ford) through the president's resignation. In addition, the Vice President serves as the President of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice Presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1]

Prior to adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the office of the Vice President could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Several such vacancies occurred—seven Vice Presidents died, one resigned and eight succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled through appointment by the President and confirmation by both chambers of the Congress. Since its ratification, the vice presidency has been vacant twice (both in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon administration) and was filled both times through this process, namely in 1973 following Spiro Agnew's resignation, and again in 1974 after Gerald Ford succeeded to the presidency.[1] The amendment also established a procedure whereby a Vice President may, if the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. George H. W. Bush did so once on July 13, 1985. Dick Cheney did so twice on June 29, 2002 and on July 21, 2007.

The persons who have served as Vice President were born in or primarily affiliated with 27 states plus the District of Columbia. New York has produced the most of any state as eight have been born there and three others considered it their home state. Most Vice Presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1] The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two Vice Presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one President.

There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

List

  Pro-Administration (1)    Federalist (1)    Democratic-Republican (6)    Nullifier (1)    Democratic (17)    Whig (2)    Republican (21)    National Union (1)
Vice presidency Vice President[a] Prior office[b] Party Election President
1 April 21, 1789[c]

March 4, 1797
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792) John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived 90 years)
[3][4][5]
Minister to the Court of St. James's
(1785–1788)
  Pro-Administration[d] 1788–89 George Washington[e]
Federalist 1792
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800 Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived 83 years)
[6][7][8]
1st Secretary of State
(1790–1793)
Democratic-Republican 1796 John Adams[f]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1805
Vanderlyn Burr Aaron Burr
1756–1836
(Lived 80 years)
[9]
Member of the New York State Assembly
(1784–1785 and 1798–1799)
Democratic-Republican 1800 Thomas Jefferson
4 March 4, 1805

April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
George Clinton by Ezra Ames George Clinton
1739–1812
(Lived 72 years)
[10]
1st Governor of New York
(1777–1795 and 1801–1804)
Democratic-Republican 1804
1808 James Madison
Office vacant April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813[g]
5 March 4, 1813

November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Elbridge-gerry-painting Elbridge Gerry
1744–1814
(Lived 70 years)
[11]
9th Governor of Massachusetts
(1810–1812)
Democratic-Republican 1812
Office vacant November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817[g]
6 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Daniel D Tompins by John Wesley Jarvis Daniel D. Tompkins
1774–1825
(Lived 50 years)
[12]
4th Governor of New York
(1807–1817)
Democratic-Republican 1816 James Monroe
1820
7 March 4, 1825

December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
George Peter Alexander Healy - John C. Calhoun - Google Art Project John C. Calhoun
1782–1850
(Lived 68 years)
[13]
10th Secretary of War
(1817–1825)
Democratic-Republican 1824 John Q. Adams
Nullifier[h]
Democratic
1828 Andrew Jackson[i]
Office vacant December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833[g]
8 March 4, 1833

March 4, 1837
Francis Alexander - Martin Van Buren - Google Art Project Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived 79 years)
[14][15][16]
Minister to the Court of St. James's
(1831–1832)
Democratic 1832
9 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
RichardMentorJohnson Richard M. Johnson
1780–1850
(Lived 70 years)
[17]
Representative for Kentucky's 13th district
(1833–1837)
Democratic 1836 Martin Van Buren
10 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Became President)
Johntyler John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived 71 years)
[18][19][20]
Senator from Virginia
(1827–1836)
Whig 1840 William H. Harrison
(Died in office)
Office vacant April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845[g] John Tyler
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
George Mifflin Dallas 1848 crop George M. Dallas
1792–1864
(Lived 72 years)
[21]
Minister to Russia
(1837–1839)
Democratic 1844 James K. Polk
12 March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Became President)
Millard Fillmore -13th president of the United States Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived 74 years)
[22][23][24]
14th New York State Comptroller
(1848–1849)
Whig 1848 Zachary Taylor
(Died in office)
Office vacant July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853[g] Millard Fillmore
13 March 4, 1853[j]

April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
William R. D. King Vice President William R. King
1786–1853
(Lived 67 years)
[25]
Senator from Alabama
(1819–1844 and 1848–1852)
President pro tempore
(1850–1852)
Democratic 1852 Franklin Pierce
Office vacant April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857[g]
14 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
John C Breckinridge-04775-restored John C. Breckinridge
1821–1875
(Lived 54 years)
[26]
Representative for Kentucky's 8th district
(1851–1855)
Democratic 1856 James Buchanan
15 March 4, 1861

March 4, 1865
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop Hannibal Hamlin
1809–1891
(Lived 81 years)
[27]
Senator from Maine
(1848–1857 and 1857–1861)
Republican 1860 Abraham Lincoln[k]
(Died in office)
16 March 4, 1865

April 15, 1865
(Became President)
President Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived 66 years)
[28][29][30]
15th Governor of Tennessee
(1853–1857)
Military Governor of Tennessee
(1862–1865)
National Union 1864
Office vacant April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869[g] Andrew Johnson
17 March 4, 1869

March 4, 1873
Schuyler Colfax portrait Schuyler Colfax
1823–1885
(Lived 61 years)
[31]
Representative for Indiana's 9th district
(1855–1869)
Speaker of the House
(1863–1869)
Republican 1868 Ulysses S. Grant
18 March 4, 1873

November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
HenryWilson Henry Wilson
1812–1875
(Lived 63 years)
[32]
Senator from Massachusetts
(1855–1873)
Republican 1872
Office vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877[g]
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler William A. Wheeler
1819–1887
(Lived 67 years)
[33]
Representative for New York's 19th district
(1875–1877)
Republican 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes
20
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Became President)
Chester Alan Arthur Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived 57 years)
[34][35][36]
10th Chairman of the New York State Republican Executive Committee
(1879–1881)
(No prior elected office)
Republican 1880 James A. Garfield
(Died in office)
Office vacant September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885[g] Chester A. Arthur
21 March 4, 1885

November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Thomas Andrews Hendricks Thomas A. Hendricks
1819–1885
(Lived 66 years)
[37]
16th Governor of Indiana
(1873–1877)
Democratic 1884 Grover Cleveland
Office vacant November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889[g]
22 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - tight 3x4 crop Levi P. Morton
1824–1920
(Lived 96 years)
[38]
Minister to France
(1881–1885)
Republican 1888 Benjamin Harrison
23 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Adlai Ewing Stevenson I head-on-shoulders Adlai Stevenson
1835–1914
(Lived 78 years)
[39]
First Assistant Postmaster General
(1885–1889)
Democratic 1892 Grover Cleveland
24 March 4, 1897

November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
GHobart Garret Hobart
1844–1899
(Lived 55 years)
[40]
Vice Chairman of the Republican National Committee
(1892–1896)
Republican 1896 William McKinley
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901[g]
25 March 4, 1901

September 14, 1901
(Became President)
Theodore Roosevelt circa 1902 Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived 60 years)
[41][42][43]
33rd Governor of New York
(1899–1900)
Republican 1900
Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905[g] Theodore Roosevelt
26 March 4, 1905

March 4, 1909
CharlesWFairbanks Charles W. Fairbanks
1852–1918
(Lived 66 years)
[44]
Senator from Indiana
(1897–1905)
Republican 1904
27 March 4, 1909

October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
James Sherman, Bain bw photo portrait facing left James S. Sherman
1855–1912
(Lived 57 years)
[45]
Representative for New York's 27th district
(1903–1909)
Republican 1908 William H. Taft
Office vacant October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913[g]
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot Thomas R. Marshall
1854–1925
(Lived 71 years)
[46]
27th Governor of Indiana
(1909–1913)
Democratic 1912 Woodrow Wilson
1916
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Became President)
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped) Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived 60 years)
[47][48][49]
48th Governor of Massachusetts
(1919–1921)
Republican 1920 Warren G. Harding
(Died in office)
Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925[g] Calvin Coolidge
30
March 4, 1925

March 4, 1929
Chas G Dawes-H&E Charles G. Dawes
1865–1951
(Lived 85 years)
[50]
1st Director of the Bureau of the Budget
(1921–1922)
(No prior elected office)
Republican 1924
31 March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Charles Curtis-portrait Charles Curtis
1860–1936
(Lived 76 years)
[51]
Senator from Kansas
(1907–1913 and 1915–1929)
President pro tempore
(1911)
Senate Majority Leader
(1925–1929)
Republican 1928 Herbert Hoover
32 March 4, 1933

January 20, 1941[l]
JohnNanceGarner John N. Garner
1868–1967
(Lived 98 years)
[52]
Representative for Texas's 15th district
(1903–1933)
House Minority Leader
(1929–1931)
Speaker of the House
(1931–1933)
Democratic 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Died in office)
1936
33
January 20, 1941

January 20, 1945
Henry-A.-Wallace-Townsend.jpeg Henry A. Wallace
1888–1965
(Lived 77 years)
[53]
11th Secretary of Agriculture
(1933–1940)
(No prior elected office)
Democratic 1940
34 January 20, 1945

April 12, 1945
(Became President)
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived 88 years)
[54][55][56]
Senator from Missouri
(1935–1945)
Democratic 1944
Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949[g] Harry S. Truman
35 January 20, 1949

January 20, 1953
Alben Barkley Alben W. Barkley
1877–1956
(Lived 78 years)
[57]
Senator from Kentucky
(1927–1949)
Senate Majority Leader
(1937–1947)
Senate Minority Leader
(1947–1949)
Democratic 1948
36 January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Richard Nixon official portrait as Vice President.tiff Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived 81 years)
[58][59][60]
Senator from California
(1950–1953)
Republican 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1956
37 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Became President)
LBJBioguide Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived 64 years)
[61][62]
Senator from Texas
(1949–1961)
Senate Majority Leader
(1955–1961)
Democratic 1960 John F. Kennedy
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965[g] Lyndon B. Johnson
38 January 20, 1965

January 20, 1969
Hubert Humphrey crop Hubert Humphrey
1911–1978
(Lived 66 years)
[63]
Senator from Minnesota
(1949–1964)
Senate Majority Whip
(1961–1964)
Democratic 1964
39 January 20, 1969

October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
Spiro Agnew Spiro Agnew
1918–1996
(Lived 77 years)
[64]
55th Governor of Maryland
(1967–1969)
Republican 1968 Richard Nixon
(Resigned from office)
1972
Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973[m]
40 December 6, 1973

August 9, 1974
(Became President)
Gerald Ford presidential portrait (cropped) Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived 93 years)
[65][66][67]
Representative for Michigan's 5th district
(1949–1973)
House Minority Leader
(1965–1973)
Republican
Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974[m] Gerald Ford
41 December 19, 1974

January 20, 1977
Nelson Rockefeller Nelson Rockefeller
1908–1979
(Lived 70 years)
[68]
49th Governor of New York
(1959–1973)
Republican
42 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup Walter Mondale
Born 1928
(91 years old)
[69]
Senator from Minnesota
(1964–1976)
Democratic 1976 Jimmy Carter
43 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Vice President George H. W. Bush portrait George H. W. Bush
1924–2018
(Lived 94 years)
[70][71][72]
11th Director of Central Intelligence
(1976–1977)
Republican 1980 Ronald Reagan
1984
44 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Dan Quayle crop Dan Quayle
Born 1947
(72 years old)
[73]
Senator from Indiana
(1981–1989)
Republican 1988 George H. W. Bush
45 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994 Al Gore
Born 1948
(71 years old)
[74]
Senator from Tennessee
(1985–1993)
Democratic 1992 Bill Clinton
1996
46 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
46 Dick Cheney 3x4 Dick Cheney
Born 1941
(78 years old)
[75]
17th Secretary of Defense
(1989–1993)
Republican 2000 George W. Bush
2004
47 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Joe Biden official portrait crop Joe Biden
Born 1942
(76 years old)
[76]
Senator from Delaware
(1973–2009)
Democratic 2008 Barack Obama
2012
48 January 20, 2017

Incumbent
Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait (cropped) Mike Pence
Born 1959
(59 years old)
[77][78]
50th Governor of Indiana
(2013–2017)
Republican 2016 Donald Trump

Subsequent public office

Twenty-five Vice Presidents held other high state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fourteen went on to become President, namely John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush (nine of them did so following their predecessor's death or resignation); and six served in the Senate, namely John C. Calhoun, John C. Breckinridge, Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson, Alben W. Barkley and Hubert Humphrey. Several served as a member of the Cabinet or as an ambassador in later administrations, or in state government. Additionally, two former Vice Presidents, Tyler and Breckinridge, served in the government of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.

Notes

  1. ^ The U.S. Vice Presidents are counted according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, John Adams served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first vice president (not the first and second). Likewise, George Clinton is counted as the fourth and John Calhoun as the seventh, even though each one's consecutive terms in office were served under more than one president. Following the resignation of 39th vice president Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford became the 40th vice president even though he was chosen to serve out the remainder of Agnew's second term. Then, after Ford succeeded to the presidency later in that same term, Nelson Rockefeller became the 41st vice president and served out the remainder of the term.
  2. ^ Listed here (unless otherwise noted) is the most recent position—either with a U.S. state or the federal government, or with a private corporation—held by the individual prior to becoming Vice President of the United States.
  3. ^ Due to logistical delays, John Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who served a full term.
  4. ^ Pro-Administration is a contemporary term used to describe the supporters of the political and economic policies of the Washington Administration prior to the formation of the Federalist and Democratic–Republican parties.
  5. ^ George Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, he was, and remains, the only U.S. President never to be affiliated with a political party.
  6. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and resulted in a situation where the persons elected President and Vice President belonged to opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected President, and Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected Vice President.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, February 10, 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could not be filled.
  8. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the political coalition emerging around Jackson.
  9. ^ Andrew Jackson's supporters from the former Democratic-Republican Party, which had largely collapsed by the mid-1820s, began calling themselves Democrat' during his first term in office, thus marking the evolution of Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party into the modern Democratic Party.
  10. ^ Ill with tuberculosis, William King traveled to Cuba after the 1852 election in an effort to regain his health, and was not able to be in Washington, D.C. to take his oath of office on March 4, 1853. By a Special Act of Congress, he was allowed to take the oath outside the United States, and was sworn in on March 24, 1853 near Matanzas, Cuba. He is the only Vice President to take his oath of office in a foreign country.
  11. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  12. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified on January 23, 1933, moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, John Nance Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.
  13. ^ a b The Twenty-fifth Amendment established a process whereby an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency is filled by presidential appointment.

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Vice President". US Legal System. USLegal. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
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External links

Charles W. Fairbanks

Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was an American politician who served as the 26th vice president of the United States from 1905 to 1909 and a senator from Indiana from 1897 to 1905. He was also the Republican vice presidential nominee in the 1916 presidential election.

Born in Unionville Center, Ohio, Fairbanks moved to Indianapolis after graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University. He became an attorney and railroad financier, working under railroad magnate Jay Gould. Fairbanks delivered the keynote address at the 1896 Republican National Convention and won election to the Senate the following year. In the Senate, he became an advisor to President William McKinley and served on a commission that helped settle the Alaska boundary dispute.

The 1904 Republican National Convention selected Fairbanks as the running mate for President Theodore Roosevelt. As vice president, Fairbanks worked against Roosevelt's progressive policies. Fairbanks unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination at the 1908 Republican National Convention and backed William Howard Taft in 1912 against Roosevelt. Fairbanks sought the presidential nomination at the 1916 Republican National Convention, but was instead selected as the vice presidential nominee, serving on a ticket with Charles Evans Hughes. In the 1916 election, the Republican ticket lost to the Democratic ticket of President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

List of Presidents of the United States

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the 45th and current president is Donald Trump (since January 20, 2017). There are currently four living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon, facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election.

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

List of Vice Presidents of the United States by other offices held

This is a list of Vice Presidents of the United States by other offices (either elected or appointive) held, either before or after service as Vice President.

List of Vice Presidents of the United States by place of primary affiliation

This is a list of Vice Presidents of the United States by place of primary affiliation. Some vice presidents have been born in one state, but are commonly associated with another. New York has produced eight vice presidents, the most of any state: George Clinton, Daniel D. Tompkins, Martin Van Buren, Millard Fillmore, Schuyler Colfax, William A. Wheeler, Theodore Roosevelt, and James S. Sherman. An additional three vice presidents—Aaron Burr, Chester A. Arthur, and Levi P. Morton—considered New York their home state.

List of Vice Presidents of the United States by time in office

This is a list of Vice President of the United States by time in office. The basis of the list is the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater.

Since 1789, there have been 48 people sworn into office as Vice President of the United States. Of these, nine succeeded to the presidency during their term, seven died while in office, and two resigned. Since the adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution (February 10, 1967), when there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President nominates a successor who takes office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

List of unsuccessful major party candidates for Vice President of the United States

The United States has had a two-party system for much of its history, and the two major parties have nominated vice presidential candidates in most presidential elections. Since the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1789, there have been 58 unsuccessful major party candidates for Vice President of the United States. Eight other individuals have served as the main running mate to a third party or independent presidential candidate who won at least ten percent of the popular or electoral vote.

Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes for president; whichever individual who won the most electoral votes would become president, while the individual with the second-most electoral votes would become vice president. In the elections of 1792, 1796, and 1800, at least one of the major parties ran a candidate whom they intended to elect vice president. The Twelfth Amendment changed the presidential election process, requiring members of the Electoral College to cast separate votes for president and vice president. Since then, the two major parties have almost always nominated a ticket consisting of a single presidential candidate and a single vice presidential candidate. Before the election of 1832, both major parties used a congressional nominating caucus, or nominations by state legislatures, to determine presidential and vice presidential candidates. Since 1840, each major party has consistently nominated a single ticket at their respective presidential nominating conventions.

The two current major parties are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. At various points prior to the American Civil War, the Federalist Party, the Democratic-Republican Party, the National Republican Party, and the Whig Party were major parties. In the 1872 presidential election, the Liberal Republican Party put forward an unsuccessful major party vice presidential nominee, Benjamin Gratz Brown. Brown and his running mate, Horace Greeley, were also nominated by the Democratic Party.

List of vice presidents of the United States by age

This is a list of vice presidents of the United States by age. The first table charts the age of each Vice President of the United States at the time of their inauguration (first inauguration if they were elected to multiple and consecutive terms), at the time they left office, and at the time of their death. Each vice president's age at death, their lifespan, is measured in two ways; this is to allow for the differing number of leap days occurring within each one's life. The first figure is the number of days between date of birth and date of death, allowing for leap days; in parentheses the same period given in years and days, with the years being the number of whole years that the vice president lived, and the days being the number of days after their last birthday. Where the vice president is still living, lifespan is calculated up to April 24, 2019. The second table includes those vice presidents who had the distinction among their peers of being the oldest living vice president, and charts both when they became and ceased to be oldest living.

List of vice presidents of the United States by education

Most vice presidents of the United States have undergone higher education at an American university, college or law school.

Presiding Officer of the United States Senate

The Presiding Officer of the United States Senate is the person who presides over the United States Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices, and precedents. Senate presiding officer is a role, not an actual office. The actual role is usually performed by one of three officials: the Vice President; an elected United States Senator; or, in special cases, the Chief Justice. Outside the constitutionally mandated roles, the actual appointment of a person to do the job of presiding over the Senate as a body is governed by Rule I of the Standing Rules.

The Vice President is assigned the responsibility by the Constitution of presiding over the Senate and designated as its president. The vice president has the authority (ex officio, for they are not an elected member of the Senate) to cast a tie-breaking vote. Early vice presidents took an active role in regularly presiding over proceedings of the body, with the president pro tempore only being called on during the vice president's absence. During the 20th century, the role of the vice president evolved into more of an executive branch position. Now, the vice president is usually seen as an integral part of a president's administration and presides over the Senate only on ceremonial occasions or when a tie-breaking vote may be needed.The Constitution also provides for the appointment of one of the elected senators to serve as President pro tempore. This senator presides when the vice president is absent from the body. The president pro tempore is selected by the body specifically for the role of presiding in the absence of (as the meaning of pro tempore, literally "for the time being") the actual presiding officer. By tradition, the title of President pro tempore has come to be given more-or-less automatically to the most senior senator of the majority party. In actual practice in the modern Senate, the president pro tempore also does not often serve in the role (though it is their constitutional right to do so). Instead, as governed by Rule I, they frequently designate a junior senator to perform the function.

When the Senate hears an impeachment trial of the President of the United States, by the procedure established in the Constitution, the Chief Justice is designated as the presiding officer.

Religious affiliations of Vice Presidents of the United States

The following is a list of religious affiliations of Vice Presidents of the United States.

Schuyler Colfax

Schuyler Colfax Jr. (; March 23, 1823 – January 13, 1885) was an American journalist, businessman, and politician who served as the 17th vice president of the United States from 1869 to 1873, and prior to that as the 25th speaker of the House of Representatives from 1863 to 1869. A member of the Republican Party (after the Whig Party's demise in the early 1850s), he was the U.S. Representative for Indiana's 9th congressional district from 1855 to 1869.

Colfax was known for his opposition to slavery while serving in Congress, and was a founder of the Republican Party. During his first term as speaker he led the effort to pass what would become the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery. When it came before the House for a final vote in January 1865, he made the unusual choice to cast a vote (by convention the speaker rarely casts a vote), voting in the affirmative. Chosen as Ulysses S. Grant's running mate in the 1868 election, the pair won easily over Democratic Party nominees Horatio Seymour and Francis Preston Blair Jr.. As was typical during the 19th century, Colfax had little involvement in the Grant administration. In addition to his duties as President of the U.S. Senate, he continued to lecture and write for the press while in office. In January 1871, Colfax encouraged a unified Italy to adopt a republican government that protected religious freedom and civil rights of its citizens. Believing Grant would only serve one term, in 1870 Colfax attempted unsuccessfully to garner support for the 1872 Republican presidential nomination by telling friends and supporters he would not seek a second vice presidential term. However, when Grant announced that he would run again, Colfax reversed himself and attempted to win the vice presidential nomination, but was defeated by Henry Wilson.

An 1872–73 Congressional investigation into the Crédit Mobilier scandal identified Colfax as one of several federal government officials who in 1868 accepted payments of cash and discounted stock from the Union Pacific Railroad in exchange for favorable action during the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Though he vociferously defended himself against charges (and was never convicted of any wrongdoing), his reputation suffered. Colfax left the vice presidency at the end of his term in March 1873 and never again ran for office. Afterwards he worked as a business executive and became a popular lecturer and speech maker.

Colfax suffered a heart attack and died in a Mankato, Minnesota railroad station on January 13, 1885, en route to a speaking engagement in Iowa. To date, he is one of only two persons to have served as both speaker of the House and vice president; the other is John Nance Garner.

Second Lady of the United States

The Second Lady of the United States (SLOTUS) is the informal title held by the wife of the Vice President of the United States, concurrent with the vice president's term of office. This title is less commonly used than the title First Lady of the United States.

The term "Second Lady", coined in contrast to the First Lady (who is almost always the wife of the President), may have been first used by Jennie Tuttle Hobart (whose husband, Garret Hobart was Vice President from 1897 to 1899) to refer to herself.

The title later fell out of favor, but was revived in the 1980s. During the 1990s the title was again abandoned, in favor of "wife of the Vice President", but was later resurrected during the presidency of Barack Obama. Its use was continued by the administration of Donald Trump, although Trump said, about six months into his presidency, that he had never heard the term.Fourteen Second Ladies have gone on to become First Lady of the United States during their husband's terms as President. The first to do this was Abigail Adams, who was married to John Adams, who was the first Vice President from 1789 to 1797 and then second President from 1797 to 1801. The last to do this was Barbara Bush, who was married to George H. W. Bush, who was the 43rd Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and then 41st President from 1989 to 1993.

The current Second Lady is Karen Pence, who is married to Mike Pence, who has been the 48th Vice President in Donald Trump's administration since January 20, 2017.

There are four living former second ladies: Marilyn Quayle, wife of Dan Quayle; Tipper Gore, now separated wife of Al Gore; Lynne Cheney, wife of Dick Cheney; and Jill Biden, wife of Joe Biden.

Vice President of the United States

The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, VP, or Veep) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U.S. federal government, after the President of the United States, and ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is also an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations (or delegates this task to a member of the Senate), but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote. The Vice President also presides over joint sessions of Congress.The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Previously, whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.The Vice President is also a statutory member of the National Security Council, and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President assists and organises the vice president's official functions. The role of the vice presidency has changed dramatically since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Especially over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, and is now widely seen as an integral part of a president's administration. As the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted; for example, he presides over the Senate only infrequently.The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; 2) the legislative branch; 3) both; or 4) neither. The modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch (isolated almost totally from the legislative branch) is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.Mike Pence of Indiana is the 48th and current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017.

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