List of Super Bowl officials

The Super Bowl officials are the officials chosen for the Super Bowl, the championship game of the National Football League (NFL), the largest and most prestigious professional American football league.

Selection

The NFL's highest-rated official at each position is selected to work the Super Bowl. This is determined by the league using an evaluation system to grade each official's calls during the year. However, only officials who have worked in the league for at least five seasons and have previously worked during the playoffs are eligible to officiate in a Super Bowl. A referee cannot work the Super Bowl at that position until he has been a referee for at least three seasons, while also meeting the five-year minimum service requirement.[1]

This has not always been the case. From Super Bowl I to Super Bowl IV, when the game was the "AFL (American Football League)-NFL World Championship Game", the officiating crews consisted of members from both leagues. Then for Super Bowl XXXVIII and Super Bowl XXXIX, the NFL selected the highest rated crew during the regular season. This was a reaction to several officiating mistakes during the 2002-03 playoffs, and the league felt that preserving the familiarity and cohesiveness of the officiating crews during the postseason might reduce the errors.[2]

List of officials

Note: A seven-official system was not used until Super Bowl XIII. Beginning with Super Bowl XXXIII, the league swapped position titles with the field judge and back judge.

AFL-NFL World Championships

Game Date Referee Umpire Head Linesman Line Judge Field Judge Back Judge
I 15 January 1967 Norm Schachter (NFL) George Young (AFL) Bernie Ulman (NFL) Al Sabato (AFL) Mike Lisetski (NFL) Jack Reader (AFL)
II 14 January 1968 Jack Vest (AFL) Ralph Morcroft (NFL) Tony Veteri (AFL) Bruce Alford (NFL) Bob Baur (AFL) Stan Javie (NFL)
III 12 January 1969 Tom Bell (NFL) Walt Parker (AFL) George Murphy (NFL) Cal Lepore (AFL) Joe Gonzalez (NFL) Jack Reader (AFL)
IV 11 January 1970 John McDonough (AFL) Lou Palazzi (NFL) Harry Kessel (AFL) Bill Schleibaum (NFL) Charlie Musser (AFL) Tom Kelleher (NFL)

NFL Championships

Game Date Referee Umpire Head Linesman Line Judge Field Judge Back Judge Side Judge
V 17 January 1971 Norm Schachter Paul Trepinski Ed Marion Jack Fette Fritz Graf Hugh Gamber Added
in 1978
VI 16 January 1972 Jim Tunney Joe Connell Al Sabato Art Holst Bob Wortman Ralph Vandenberg
VII 14 January 1973 Tom Bell Lou Palazzi Tony Veteri Bruce Alford Tony Skover Tom Kelleher
VIII 13 January 1974 Ben Dreith Ralph Morcroft Leo Miles Jack Fette Fritz Graf Stan Javie
IX 12 January 1975 Bernie Ulman Al Conway Ed Marion Bruce Alford Dick Dolack Ray Douglas
X 18 January 1976 Norm Schachter Joe Connell Leo Miles Jack Fette Bill O'Brien Stan Javie
XI 9 January 1977 Jim Tunney Lou Palazzi Ed Marion Bill Swanson Armen Terzian Tom Kelleher
XII 15 January 1978 Jim Tunney Joe Connell Tony Veteri Art Holst Bob Wortman Ray Douglas
XIII 21 January 1979 Pat Haggerty Art Demmas Jerry Bergman Jack Fette Fred Swearingen Pat Knight Dean Look
XIV 20 January 1980 Fred Silva Al Conway Burl Toler Bob Beeks Charley Musser Stan Javie Ben Tompkins
XV 25 January 1981 Ben Dreith Frank Sinkovitz Tony Veteri Tom Dooley Fritz Graf Tom Kelleher Dean Look
XVI 24 January 1982 Pat Haggerty Al Conway Jerry Bergman Bob Beeks Don Hakes Bill Swanson Bob Rice
XVII 30 January 1983 Jerry Markbreit Art Demmas Dale Hamer Bill Reynolds Don Orr Dick Hantak Dave Parry
XVIII 22 January 1984 Gene Barth Gordon Wells Jerry Bergman Bob Beeks Fritz Graf Ben Tompkins Gil Mace
XIX 20 January 1985 Pat Haggerty Tom Hensley Leo Miles Ray Dodez Bob Lewis Tom Kelleher Bill Quinby
XX 26 January 1986 Red Cashion Ron Botchan Dale Williams Bama Glass Jack Vaughan Al Jury Bob Rice
XXI 25 January 1987 Jerry Markbreit Bob Boylston Terry Gierke Bob Beeks Pat Mallette Jim Poole Gil Mace
XXII 31 January 1988 Bob McElwee Al Conway Dale Hamer Jack Fette Johnny Grier Al Jury Don Wedge
XXIII 22 January 1989 Jerry Seeman Gordon Wells Jerry Bergman Bob Beeks Bobby Skelton Paul Baetz Gary Lane
XXIV 28 January 1990 Dick Jorgensen Hendi Ancich Earnie Frantz Ron Blum Don Orr Al Jury Gerald Austin
XXV 27 January 1991 Jerry Seeman Art Demmas Sid Semon Dick McKenzie Jack Vaughan Banks Williams Larry Nemmers
XXVI 26 January 1992 Jerry Markbreit Bob Boylston Dale Williams Ron Blum Ed Merrifield Paul Baetz Dick Creed
XXVII 31 January 1993 Dick Hantak Ron Botchan Ron Phares Dick McKenzie Donnie Hampton Jim Poole Dean Look
XXVIII 30 January 1994 Bob McElwee Art Demmas Sid Semon Tom Barnes Don Orr Al Jury Nate Jones
XXIX 29 January 1995 Jerry Markbreit Ron Botchan Ron Phares Ron Baynes Jack Vaughan Tim Millis Tom Fincken
XXX 28 January 1996 Red Cashion John Keck Paul Weidner Dale Orem Don Hakes Dick Creed Bill Carollo
XXXI 26 January 1997 Gerald Austin Ron Botchan Earnie Frantz Jeff Bergman Phil Luckett Scott Steenson Tom Fincken
XXXII 25 January 1998 Ed Hochuli Jim Quirk John Schleyer Ben Montgomery Don Dorkowski Paul Baetz Doug Toole
XXXIII 31 January 1999 Bernie Kukar Jim Daopoulos Sanford Rivers Ron Baynes Tim Millis Don Hakes Gary Lane
XXXIV 30 January 2000 Bob McElwee Ron Botchan Earnie Frantz Byron Boston Al Jury Bill Leavy Tom Fincken
XXXV 28 January 2001 Gerald Austin Chad Brown Tony Veteri, Jr. Walt Anderson Bill Lovett Bill Schmitz Doug Toole
XXXVI 3 February 2002 Bernie Kukar Jeff Rice Mark Hittner Ron Phares Pete Morelli Scott Green Laird Hayes
XXXVII 26 January 2003 Bill Carollo Ed Coukart Dale Williams Mark Steinkerchner Tom Sifferman Don Carey Rick Patterson
XXXVIII 1 February 2004 Ed Hochuli Jeff Rice Mark Hittner Ben Montgomery Tom Sifferman Scott Green Laird Hayes
XXXIX 6 February 2005 Terry McAulay Carl Paganelli Gary Slaughter Mark Steinkerchner Tom Sifferman Tony Steratore Rick Patterson
XL 5 February 2006 Bill Leavy Garth DeFelice Mark Hittner Mark Perlman Steve Zimmer Bob Waggoner Tom Hill
XLI 4 February 2007 Tony Corrente Carl Paganelli George Hayward Ron Marinucci Jim Saracino Perry Paganelli John Parry
XLII 3 February 2008 Mike Carey[3] Tony Michalek Gary Slaughter Carl Johnson Boris Cheek Scott Helverson Larry Rose
XLIII 1 February 2009 Terry McAulay Roy Ellison Derrick Bowers Mark Perlman Greg Gautreaux Keith Ferguson Michael Banks
XLIV 7 February 2010 Scott Green[4] Undrey Wash John McGrath Jeff Seeman Rob Vernatchi Greg Steed Greg Meyer
XLV 6 February 2011 Walt Anderson[5] Chad Brown Kent Payne John Hussey Doug Rosenbaum Scott Helverson Mike Weatherford
XLVI 5 February 2012 John Parry Carl Paganelli Tom Stabile Gary Arthur Gary Cavaletto Tony Steratore Laird Hayes
XLVII 3 February 2013 Jerome Boger Darrell Jenkins Steve Stelljes Byron Boston Craig Wrolstad Dino Paganelli Joe Larrew
XLVIII 2 February 2014 Terry McAulay Carl Paganelli Jim Mello Tom Symonette Scott Steenson Steve Freeman Dave Wyant
XLIX 1 February 2015 Bill Vinovich Bill Schuster Dana McKenzie Mark Perlman Bob Waggoner Terrence Miles Tom Hill
50 7 February 2016 Clete Blakeman Jeff Rice Wayne Mackie Rusty Baynes Boris Cheek Keith Ferguson Scott Edwards
LI 5 February 2017 Carl Cheffers Dan Ferrell Kent Payne Jeff Seeman Doug Rosenbaum Todd Prukop Dyrol Prioleau
LII 4 February 2018 Gene Steratore Roy Ellison Jerry Bergman, Jr. Byron Boston Tom Hill Perry Paganelli Scott Edwards
LIII 3 February 2019 John Parry Fred Bryan Ed Camp Jeff Bergman Steve Zimmer Terrence Miles Eugene Hall

Number of appearances

Throughout NFL history, five officials have been selected to work five Super Bowls and eight have been assigned to four Super Bowls. Jerry Markbreit is the only official to work four Super Bowls as the referee.

Super Bowl
Appearances
Official Super Bowl(s)
5
Bob Beeks XIV, XVI, XVIII, XXI, XXIII
Ron Botchan XX, XXVII, XXIX, XXXI, XXXIV
Jack Fette V, VIII, X, XIII, XXII
Al Jury XX, XXII, XXIV, XXVIII, XXXIV
Tom Kelleher IV, VII, XI, XV, XIX
4
Al Conway IX, XIV, XVI, XXII
Art Demmas XIII, XVII, XXV, XXVII
Fritz Graf V, VIII, XV, XVIII
Stan Javie II, VIII, X, XIV
Jerry Markbreit XVII, XXI, XXVI, XXIX
Tony Veteri II, VII, XII, XV
Jerry Bergman XIII, XVI, XVIII, XXIII
Carl Paganelli XXXIX, XLI, XLVI, XLVIII

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Bouchette, Ed (2007-02-01). "Super Bowl notebook: Ex-Steelers QB Miller likes Bears". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  2. ^ "NFL to scrap all-star officiating crews for playoffs". Sports Illustrated. 2003-03-25. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  3. ^ "Carey to be first black referee in Super Bowl". Associated Press. 2008-01-18. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
  4. ^ "Officiating crew chosen to work Super Bowl XLIV; Green is referee". NFL.com/Associated Press. 2010-02-03. Archived from the original on 2010-02-09. Retrieved 2010-02-04.
  5. ^ "Super Bowl officiating crew includes Anderson as referee". National Football League. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  • Super Bowl Notes, Quotes & Anecdotes: Games I-XL. NFL. 2006. p. 123.
Ron Botchan

Ronald Leslie Botchan (born February 15, 1935) is a retired American football official from the National Football League (NFL). Prior to that he was an American football linebacker in the American Football League from 1960 to 1962. As an official, Botchan worked as an umpire for nearly his entire NFL career and wore the number 110. Regarded as the "NFL's best umpire" by the media, Botchan was assigned to a record-number five Super Bowls: XX in 1986, XXVII in 1993, XXIX in 1995, XXXI in 1997, and XXXIV in 2000. He was also an alternate in Super Bowl XXVI in 1992, and Super Bowl XXXVI in 2002. He rapidly ascended to the NFL ranks after nine years of officiating high school and college games and attributes his success to being "coachable".

Super Bowl

The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL) where the champion of the National Football Conference (NFC) competes against the champion of the American Football Conference (AFC). The game is the culmination of a regular season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Normally, Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 15, 1967, following the 1966 regular season. The sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, which was played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, and the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. The upcoming Super Bowl is Super Bowl LIV, scheduled for February 2, 2020, following the 2019 regular season.

The game was created as a part of the merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival, the American Football League (AFL). It was agreed that the two's champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to officially begin in 1970. After the merger, each league was redesignated as a "conference", and the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion. Currently, the National Football Conference leads the league with 27 wins to 26 wins for the American Football Conference. The Pittsburgh Steelers and the New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl championship titles, with six. The New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances, with eleven. Tom Brady has six Super Bowl rings, which is the record for the most rings won by a single player.

The day on which the Super Bowl is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday, is called "Super Bowl Sunday". It is the second-largest day for U.S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has frequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year; the seven most-watched broadcasts in U.S. television history are Super Bowls. In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years the game had set a record, starting with Super Bowl XLIV, which itself had taken over the number-one spot held for 27 years by the final episode of M*A*S*H. The Super Bowl is also among the most-watched sporting events in the world, almost all audiences being North American, and is second to the UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide.The NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark; it is frequently called the Big Game or other generic terms by non-sponsoring corporations. Because of the high viewership, commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year, leading to companies regularly developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. As a result, watching and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, popular singers and musicians including Mariah Carey, Michael Jackson, Madonna, Prince, Justin Timberlake, Beyoncé, Janet Jackson, Paul McCartney, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Whitney Houston, and Lady Gaga have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies.

Games

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