List of Sultans of Brunei

The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei. He is also head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister.[1] Since independence from the British in 1984, only one Sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century.[2]

The Sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with generations being traced from the first sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th Sultan, Abdul Hakkul Mubin, who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. The Sultan's full title is: His Majesty The Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam.[1]

Sultan of Brunei Darussalam
Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei Darussalam
Personal Emblem of the Sultan of Brunei
Incumbent
Hassanal Bolkiah
since 5 October 1967
installation 1 August 1968
Details
StyleHis Majesty
Heir apparentThe Crown Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah
First monarchSultan Muhammad Shah
Formation1363
ResidenceIstana Nurul Iman, Bandar Seri Begawan

Sultans

Sultans of Brunei since 1368[2]
No. Name Reign start Reign end Notes
1 Muhammad Shah / Awang Alak Betatar 1363[3] 1402 Established the Sultanate.[3]
2 Ahmad / Awang Pateh Berbai 1408 1425
3 Sharif Ali / Sultan Barkat (Blessed Sultan) 1425 1432 No direct genealogical relation to predecessor, but was selected as he was the son-in-law of the previous sultan (Ahmad) and was well versed in Islam.
4 Sulaiman 1432 1485 Son of the previous sultan, Sharif Ali. Abdicated to allow his son Bolkiah to become sultan.
5 Bolkiah / Nakhoda Ragam (The Singing Captain) 1485 1524 Son of the previous sultan, Sulaiman.
6 Abdul Kahar 1524 1530 Son of the previous sultan, Bolkiah
7 Saiful Rijal 1533 1581 Nephew and adopted-son of the previous sultan, Abdul Kahar. Castile War broke out between Brunei and Spain.
8 Shah Berunai 1581 1582 Eldest son of Sultan Saiful Rijal
9 Muhammad Hassan 1582 1598 Younger brother of Shah Berunai.
10 Abdul Jalilul Akbar 1598 1659
11 Abdul Jalilul Jabbar 1659 1660
12 Muhammad Ali 1660 1661 Strangled by his successor Abdul Hakkul Mubin, sparking the Brunei Civil War.
13 Abdul Hakkul Mubin 1660 1673 Started the Brunei Civil War by killing his predecessor Muhammad Ali and was in turn killed by Muhyiddin who succeeded him as Sultan.
14 Muhyiddin 1673 1690 Son of Abdul Jalilul Akbar who avenged the death of his father-in-law Muhammad Ali by killing Abdul Hakkul Mubin, thus ending the Brunei Civil War.
15 Nasruddin 1690 1710
16 Hussin Kamaluddin 1710 1730 He ruled for the second time between 1737 to 1740.
17 Muhammad Alauddin 1730 1737 Instructed Datu Imam Yaakub to write the Silsilah Raja-Raja Berunai or the Genealogy of the Sultans of Brunei.
18 Omar Ali Saifuddin I 1740 1778
19 Muhammad Tajuddin 1778 1807 Ordered Khatib Abdul Latif to inscribe Batu Tarsilah or Stone Tablet.
20 Muhammad Jamalul Alam I 1804 1804
21 Muhammad Kanzul Alam 1807 1826
22 Muhammad Alam 1826 1828
23 Omar Ali Saifuddin II 1828 1852 Brunei ceded some territories of Sarawak to James Brooke. Brunei ceded Labuan to the British.
24 Abdul Momin 1852 29 May 1885 Brunei ceded northwestern part of Borneo to the British. The declaration of Amanat took place in 1884 that vowed not to cede more Brunei territories to foreign powers.
25 Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin 29 May 1885 10 May 1906 United Kingdom established protectorate over Brunei in 1888.
26 Muhammad Jamalul Alam II 10 May 1906 11 September 1924 The Sultan's reign was a short one. An outbreak of malaria claimed his life as well as three members of his family.
27 Ahmad Tajuddin 11 September 1924 4 June 1950 Japanese occupation of Brunei took place.
28 Omar Ali Saifuddien III 4 June 1950 5 October 1967 Signed the Brunei Constitution of 1959. Abdicated voluntarily in favor of his eldest son, Hassanal Bolkiah. Became Brunei's first Minister of Defence after independence in 1984.
29 Hassanal Bolkiah 5 October 1967 Incumbent Brunei regained independence from the United Kingdom in 1984.

Uncertainties

The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources.[4] The Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Prime Minister". The Prime Minister's Office of Brunei Darussalam. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Sultan-Sultan Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b Elisseeff, Vadime (January 2000). "Chapter 8: A Brunei Sultan of the Early Fourteenth Century – A Study of an Arabic Gravestone". The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. pp. 145–157. ISBN 978-1-57181-222-3. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Brunei". 4dw.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
Abdul Hakkul Mubin

Sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin (also known as Abdul Mubin) was the thirteenth Sultan of Brunei. He was involved in the Brunei Civil War. He ruled from 1660 to 1673 after killing Sultan Muhammad Ali. He was later killed and succeeded by Sultan Muhyiddin.

Abdul Jalilul Akbar

Abdul Jalilul Akbar was the tenth Sultan of Brunei. He succeeded his father, Muhammad Hassan, in 1598 and ruled until his death in 1659. When he ascended to the throne, his uncle Pengiran Di-Gadong Sahibul Mal Besar Omar acted as his regent.

Abdul Jalilul Jabbar

Abdul Jalilul Jabbar was the eleventh Sultan of Brunei. He ruled only for a year from 1659 to 1660. Later on, he was succeeded by his uncle Muhammad Ali.

== Uncertainties ==

The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources. The Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

Abdul Kahar

Abdul Kahar was the sixth Sultan of Brunei. He ruled from 1524 until stepping down from the throne in 1530 to allow his nephew and adopted-son Saiful Rijal to become Sultan .. When his son ascended to the throne, Abdul Kahar acted as Regent with the title Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan. After his demise in 1578, he was known as Marhum Keramat.

== Uncertainties ==

The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources. The Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

Abdul Majid Hassan

Abdul Majid Hasan (1380–1408 CE), also known as Maharaja Karna, allegedly was the second Sultan of Brunei. He may have ascended the Brunei throne in 1402.

He was never mentioned in Salasilah Raja-Raja Brunei. A ruler from Boni named Ma-na-jih-chia-na is recorded in the Ming historical record. He sent a mission to China in 1406. The Brunei History Centre suggests that this was the Brunei sultan Abdul Majid Hasan, but there is so far no evidence for this assumption.

In 1408, he went to China and died in Nanjing at the age of 28, leaving a 4-year-old prince named Xiawang (遐旺). He was buried in Nanjing. His tomb is now a tourist attraction.

Abdul Momin

Abdul Momin (before 21 May 1788 – 30 May 1885) was the 24th Sultan of Brunei from 1852 until his death on 29 May 1885. He was the son-in-law of the previous Sultan, Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

Bolkiah

Bolkiah was the 5th Sultan of Brunei. He ascended the throne upon the abdication of his father, Sultan Sulaiman, and ruled Brunei from 1485 to 1524. His reign marked the Golden Age of Brunei and saw the Sultanate became the superpower of the Malay archipelago. Bolkiah frequently traveled abroad to gain new ideas for the development of the country, as well as seeking suggestions from his various chiefs. It is said that his name was kept by his father after the Ba'Alawi Sayyed clan Ba-Awalqhiyyah who had gained control over much of the Yemeni kingdom of Hadhramaut.

House of Bolkiah

The House of Bolkiah is the ruling royal family of Brunei Darussalam. It is composed of the descendants of the 1st sultan Sultan Muhammad Shah and his family. The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei. He is also head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister.Since independence from the British in 1984, only one Sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century. The Sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with descendency being traced from the 1st sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th sultan Abdul Hakkul Mubin who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. It is not clear when the house became known as the 'House of Bolkiah', and whether it was named after the current sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, or the 5th sultan Bolkiah .

List of Brunei-related topics

This is a list of topics related to Brunei.

Muhammad Ali (Brunei)

Muhammad Ali was the twelfth Sultan of Brunei. He ruled from 1660 until he was garroted by his successor Abdul Hakkul Mubin in 1661. His death led to the starting of the Brunei Civil War. After his demise, he was locally known as Marhum Tumbang Di Rumput. He was avenged by his son-in-law Muhyiddin who later became the fourteenth Sultan of Brunei.

Muhammad Hassan (Brunei)

Muhammad Hassan was the 9th Sultan of Brunei. He reigned from 1582 to 1598. His predecessor Shah Berunai was his older brother who died without an heir. He was succeeded by his eldest son Abdul Jalilul Akbar.

Muhammad Shah of Brunei

Muhammad Shah (born Awang Alak Betatar) established the Sultanate of Brunei and was its first sultan, possibly from 1363 to 1402. The genealogy of Muhammad Shah is unclear, and based on several historical sources and legends.

Muhyiddin of Brunei

Muhyiddin was the fourteenth sultan of Brunei. He ruled from 1673 to 1690 and was succeeded by Nasruddin. He took the throne during the Brunei Civil War to avenge the death of his father-in-law Muhammad Ali. He was widely remembered for being the Sultan who ordered the creation of Salasilah Raja-Raja Brunei.

Omar Ali Saifuddin I

Omar Ali Saifuddin I (Jawi: I عمر علي سيف الدين; died 10 July 1795) was the 18th Sultan of Brunei from 1740 until his abdication in favor of his eldest son Muhammad Tajuddin in 1778. He succeeded his father in law, Sultan Hussin Kamaluddin as Sultan of Brunei upon the latter's abdication from the throne in 1740.

Omar Ali Saifuddin II

Omar Ali Saifuddien II was the 23rd Sultan of Brunei. During his reign, Western powers such as Great Britain and the United States of America visited Brunei. His reign saw the British intervention in Brunei led by James Brooke who started to destabilize Brunei's sovereignty over Sarawak.

Saiful Rijal

Saiful Rijal (also Saiful Rehal, Saiful Rizal) was the seventh Sultan of Brunei. He ruled from 1533, from the abdication of his uncle, until his death in 1581. During his reign, the Castille War broke out in 1578. He was succeeded by his eldest son Shah Berunai. The Sultan was also known as Lixar and Sultan Nula Alan by the Spaniards.

Shah Berunai

Shah Berunai was the eighth Sultan of Brunei who ruled only a year. He ascended the throne in 1581 on the death of his father Sultan Saiful Rijal. He died in 1582 without any male descendants and was succeeded by his younger brother Pengiran Muda Tengah Muhammad Hassan. During his reign he was concerned with the production of a cannon for the defense of Brunei from the attacks of the Spanish army, that was headquartered in Manila, as a consequence of the Castille War.

== Uncertainties ==

The earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not clearly known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources. The Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

Sulaiman (Brunei)

Sultan Sulaiman ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Ajlan (Arabic: الـسـلـطـان سـلـيـمـان ابـن عـلي ابـن عـجـلان‎) was the fourth Sultan of Brunei according to Silsilah Raja-Raja Berunai. He succeeded his father in 1432 and ruled until his abdication in 1485, to allow his son Bolkiah to become Sultan. During his reign, he continued the legacies of his father in strengthening the spread of Islam and the construction of Kota Batu. He was also known as Raja Tua. According to oral tradition, the sultan was said to live more than 100 years old. In the Boxer Codex, he was known as Soliman by the Spaniards.

Sultan Ahmad of Brunei

Ahmad of Brunei (also known as Awang Pateh Berbai or Pateh Berbai) was the second Sultan of Brunei. He was the brother of the first sultan Muhammad Shah of Brunei. He ascended the throne in 1408 and changed his name to Ahmad. He was succeeded on his death by his son-in-law Sharif Ali.

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