List of Soviet Union–United States summits

Soviet Union–United States summits were held from 1943 to 1991. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and either the General Secretary or the Premier of the Soviet Union ranged from fighting the Axis Powers during World War II to arms control between the two superpowers themselves during the Cold War.[1]

Allies of World War II

Yalta Conference (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin) (B&W)
The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Potsdam conference 1945-8
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 28–December 1, 1943 Tehran  Iran [2] Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom.

See Tehran Conference

February 4–11, 1945 Yalta  Soviet Union[2] Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. First visit by a United States President to the Soviet Union.[3] See Yalta Conference
July 17–August 2, 1945 Potsdam Allied-occupied Germany[4] Harry S. Truman Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee of the United Kingdom.

See Potsdam Conference

Cold War (1953–1962)

Khrushchev U2
Nikita Khrushchev views the wreckage of a downed Lockheed U-2. The 1960 U-2 incident was a major topic at the May 16–17, 1960 summit in Paris.
John Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev 1961
Nikita Khrushchev meeting John F. Kennedy at the Vienna Summit, June 1961
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
July 18–23, 1955 Geneva   Switzerland[5] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin Also in attendance Prime Minister Anthony Eden of the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France.

See Geneva Summit

September 15, 26–27, 1959 Washington, D.C. and Camp David  United States[6][7] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev First visit by a Soviet leader to the United States.
May 16–17, 1960 Paris  France[5] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev Also in attendance Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of the United Kingdom and President Charles de Gaulle of France. Khrushchev left the summit due to the dispute over the 1960 U-2 incident.
June 3–4, 1961 Vienna  Austria[8] John F. Kennedy Nikita Khrushchev See Vienna Summit

Cold War (1962–1979)

Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
June 23 and 25, 1967 Glassboro  United States[6] Lyndon B. Johnson Alexei Kosygin See Glassboro Summit Conference
May 22–30, 1972 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin Signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), and the U.S.–Soviet Incidents at Sea Agreement. See Moscow Summit (1972).
June 18–25, 1973 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin Signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War.
June 28–July 3, 1974 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev Signing of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).
November 23–24, 1974 Vladivostok  Soviet Union[10] Gerald Ford Leonid Brezhnev See Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control
July 30 and August 2, 1975 Helsinki  Finland[10] Gerald Ford Leonid Brezhnev See Helsinki Accords and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
June 15–18, 1979 Vienna  Austria[11] Jimmy Carter Leonid Brezhnev Signing of the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II).
Leonid Brezhnev and Richard Nixon talks in 1973
Leonid Brezhnev meets with Richard Nixon during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S. in June 1973
Carter Brezhnev sign SALT II
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing SALT II Treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna

Cold War (1985–1991)

Reagan and Gorbachev signing
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in December 1987
Bush Gorba P15623-25A
George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Helsinki summit in 1990
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 19–21, 1985 Geneva   Switzerland[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Geneva Summit
October 10–12, 1986 Reykjavík  Iceland[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Reykjavík Summit
December 7–10, 1987 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. See Washington Summit.
May 29–June 1, 1988 Moscow  Soviet Union[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Moscow Summit (1988).
December 7, 1988 New York City  United States[6] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev Also in attendance President-elect George H. W. Bush. Gorbachev left the summit early due to the 1988 Spitak earthquake which struck the Armenian S.S.R. that same day.
December 2–3, 1989 Valletta  Malta[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev See Malta Summit
May 30–June 3, 1990 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord
September 9, 1990 Helsinki  Finland[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Discussed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.[14] See Helsinki Summit
November 19, 1990 Paris  France [13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.
July 17, 1991 London  United Kingdom[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Held in conjunction with the 17th G7 Summit.
July 30–31, 1991 Moscow  Soviet Union[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I).
October 29–30, 1991 Madrid  Spain[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Held in conjunction with the Madrid Conference of 1991.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fain III, W. Taylor "Chronology: US-Soviet summits, 1943-1991" Archived 2011-11-09 at the Wayback Machine US Department of State Dispatch, August 12, 1991
  2. ^ a b "Travels of President Franklin D. Roosevelt". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  3. ^ "Presidents Travels to Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03.
  4. ^ "Travels of President Harry S. Truman". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  5. ^ a b "Travels of President Dwight D. Eisenhower". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Visits By Foreign Leaders of Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  7. ^ "1959 Year In Review Khrushchev Visits the United States". United Press International. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  8. ^ "Travels of President John F. Kennedy". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  9. ^ a b "Travels of President Richard M. Nixon". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  10. ^ a b "Travels of President Gerald R. Ford". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  11. ^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  12. ^ a b c "Travels of President Ronald Reagan". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Travels of President George H. W. Bush". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  14. ^ "Joint News Conference of President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in Helsinki, Finland September 9, 1990". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012.

External links

17th G7 summit

The 17th G7 Summit was held in London, England, United Kingdom between July 15 to 17, 1991. The venue for the summit meetings was Lancaster House in London.The Group of Seven (G7) was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada (since 1976) and the President of the European Commission (starting officially in 1981). The summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions; and in fact, a mild rebellion against the stiff formality of other international meetings was a part of the genesis of cooperation between France's President Giscard d'Estaing and West Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as they conceived the first Group of Six (G6) summit in 1975.

1990 Chemical Weapons Accord

On June 1, 1990, Presidents George H.W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev signed the bilateral U.S.–Soviet Chemical Weapons Accord; officially known as the "Agreement on Destruction and Non-production of Chemical Weapons and on Measures to Facilitate the Multilateral Convention on Banning Chemical Weapons". This pact was signed during a summit meeting in Washington D.C.

Geneva Summit (1955)

The Geneva Summit of 1955 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Held on July 18, 1955, it was a meeting of "The Big Four": President Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States, Prime Minister Anthony Eden of Britain, Premier Nikolai A. Bulganin of the Soviet Union, and Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France. They were accompanied by the foreign ministers of the four powers (who were also members of the Council of Foreign Ministers): John Foster Dulles, Harold Macmillan, Vyacheslav Molotov, and Antoine Pinay. Also in attendance was Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.

The purpose was to bring together world leaders to begin discussions on peace. Although those discussions led down many different roads (arms negotiations, trade barriers, diplomacy, nuclear warfare, etc.), the talks were influenced by the common goal for increased global security.

Geneva Summit (1985)

The Geneva Summit of 1985 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. It was held on November 19 and 20, 1985, between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. The two leaders met for the first time to hold talks on international diplomatic relations and the arms race.

Glassboro Summit Conference

The Glassboro Summit Conference, usually just called the Glassboro Summit, was the 23–25 June 1967 meeting of the heads of government of the United States and the Soviet Union—President Lyndon B. Johnson and Premier Alexei Kosygin, respectively—for the purpose of discussing Soviet Union–United States relations in Glassboro, New Jersey. During the Arab–Israeli Six-Day War diplomatic contact and cooperation increased, leading some to hope for an improvement in the two countries' relations. Some even hoped for joint cooperation on the Vietnam War. Although Johnson and Kosygin failed to reach agreement on anything important, the generally amicable atmosphere of the summit was referred to as the "Spirit of Glassboro" and is seen to have improved Soviet–US relations.

List of Russia–United States summits

Russia–United States summits are held from 1991 to present. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and the President of Russia.

Madrid Conference of 1991

The Madrid Conference of 1991 was a peace conference, held from 30 October to 1 November 1991 in Madrid, hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union. It was an attempt by the international community to revive the Israeli–Palestinian peace process through negotiations, involving Israel and the Palestinians as well as Arab countries, including Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.

On 3 November, the conference was followed by bilateral negotiations between Israel and respectively the joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation, Lebanon and Syria. Subsequent bilateral meetings took place in Washington from 9 December 1991. On 28 January 1992, multilateral negotiations about regional cooperation were started in Moscow, attended by Israel, the Jordanian-Palestinian delegation and the international community, but without Lebanon and Syria.

Malta Summit

The Malta Summit comprised a meeting between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, taking place on December 2–3, 1989, just a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall. It was their second meeting following a meeting that included Ronald Reagan, in New York in December 1988. During the summit, Bush and Gorbachev would declare an end to the Cold War although whether it was truly such is a matter of debate. News reports of the time referred to the Malta Summit as the most important since 1945, when British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and US President Franklin D. Roosevelt agreed on a post-war plan for Europe at the Yalta Conference.

Moscow Summit (1972)

The Moscow Summit of 1972 was a summit meeting between President Richard M. Nixon of the United States and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It was held May 22–30, 1972. It featured the signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), and the U.S.–Soviet Incidents at Sea agreement. The summit is considered one of the hallmarks of the détente at the time between the two Cold War antagonists.

Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (German: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. (In some older documents, it is also referred to as the Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA, and UK.) The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented respectively by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.

Stalin, Churchill, and Truman gathered to decide how to administer Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on 8 May (Victory in Europe Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of postwar order, peace treaty issues, and countering the effects of the war.

Reykjavík Summit

The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Reykjavík, Iceland, on 11–12 October 1986. The talks collapsed at the last minute, but the progress that had been achieved eventually resulted in the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Slovakia Summit 2005

The Slovakia Summit 2005 was a summit meeting between United States President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin (hence also known as the Bush-Putin summit). It took place on February 24, 2005, in Bratislava, Slovakia. This marked the first occasion when a sitting President of the United States visited Slovakia since its independence in 1993. The previous "Bush-Putin summit" had taken place in Slovenia on 16 June 2001.

Also attending was Condoleezza Rice (U.S. Secretary of State) and Sergey Lavrov (Russian Foreign Minister) as well as the first ladies of both presidents, Laura Bush and Liudmila Putina.

Slovenia Summit 2001

The Slovenia Summit 2001 was a summit meeting between United States President George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin (hence also known as the Bush-Putin summit). It took place on June 16, 2001, on the Brdo pri Kranju estate in northern Slovenia. It was hosted by the then Prime Minister of Slovenia Janez Drnovšek and by the President of Slovenia Milan Kučan.

Tehran Conference

The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom). It closely followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.

Vienna summit

The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union. The leaders of the two superpowers of the Cold War era discussed numerous issues in the relationship between their countries.

The summit took place only days after the assassination of Rafael Trujillo.

Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control

The Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control was a two-day summit held on November 23 and 24, 1974 in Vladivostok for the purpose of extending arms control provisions between the Soviet Union and the United States. After a series of talks between American President Gerald Ford and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in Washington and American Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's visit to Moscow, Ford traveled to Vladivostok to meet with Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev directly. The two heads of state agreed to terms that would limit both nations an "equal aggregate number" of various weapons, including strategic nuclear delivery vehicles (SNDVs), intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) fitted with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs).

Washington Summit

The Washington Summit of 1987 was a Cold War-era meeting between United States president Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev that took place December 8–10. Reagan and Gorbachev discussed regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Central America, and Southern Africa, arms control issues for chemical weapons as well as conventional weapons, the status of START negotiations, and human rights. A notable accomplishment of the Washington Summit was the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4th to the 11th 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference convened near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia, Yusupov, and Vorontsov Palaces.

The aim of the conference was to shape a post-war peace that represented not just a collective security order but a plan to give self-determination to the liberated peoples of post-Nazi Europe.The meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. However, within a few short years, with the Cold War dividing the continent, Yalta became a subject of intense controversy.

Yalta was the second of three major wartime conferences among the Big Three. It was preceded by the Tehran Conference in November 1943, and was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. It was also preceded by a conference in Moscow in October 1944, not attended by President Roosevelt, in which Churchill and Stalin had carved up Europe into Western and Soviet spheres of influence. The Potsdam Conference was to be attended by Stalin, Churchill (who was replaced halfway through by the newly elected British prime minister Clement Attlee) and Harry S. Truman, Roosevelt's successor after his death.

General Charles de Gaulle was not present at either the Yalta or Potsdam conferences; a diplomatic slight that was the occasion for deep and lasting resentment. De Gaulle attributed his exclusion from Yalta to the longstanding personal antagonism towards him by Roosevelt, although the Soviet Union had also objected to his inclusion as a full participant. But the absence of French representation at Yalta also meant that extending an invitation for De Gaulle to attend the Potsdam Conference would have been highly problematic; as he would then have felt honor-bound to insist that all issues agreed at Yalta in his absence would have had to be re-opened.

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