List of Scottish monarchs

The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots (Middle Scots: King of Scottis, Modern Scots: King o Scots, Scottish Gaelic: Rìghrean Albannaich) was Kenneth I MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín), who founded the state in 843. The distinction between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of the Picts is rather the product of later medieval myth and confusion from a change in nomenclature i.e. Rex Pictorum (King of the Picts) becomes Rí Alban (King of Alba) under Donald II when annals switched from Latin to vernacular around the end of the 9th century, by which time the word Alba in Gaelic had come to refer to the Kingdom of the Picts rather than Great Britain (its older meaning).[1]

The Kingdom of the Picts just became known as Kingdom of Alba in Gaelic, which later became known in Scots and English as Scotland; the terms are retained in both languages to this day. By the late 11th century at the very latest, Scottish kings were using the term rex Scottorum, or King of Scots, to refer to themselves in Latin. The Kingdom of Scotland was merged with the Kingdom of England to form a single Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Thus Queen Anne became the last monarch of the ancient kingdoms of Scotland and England and the first of Great Britain, although the kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603 (see Union of the Crowns). Her uncle Charles II was the last monarch to be crowned in Scotland, at Scone in 1651. He had a second coronation in England ten years later.

Monarchy of Scotland
Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland
MK18545 Bannockburn Robert the Bruce
Idealised statue of Robert the Bruce
Details
First monarchKenneth I MacAlpin
Last monarchAnne
Formation843
Abolition1 May 1707
Family tree of Scottish monarchs 843–1807
Family tree of Scottish monarchs and pretenders.
Pretenders are italicized.

Heraldry

Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland

William I – James VI

Coat of Arms of Scotland (1603-1649)

James VI – James VII

Coat of Arms of Scotland (1689-1694)

William II and Mary II

Coat of Arms of Great Britain in Scotland (1707-1714)

Anne

List of monarchs of Scotland

House of Alpin (848–1034)

The reign of Kenneth MacAlpin begins what is often called the House of Alpin, an entirely modern concept. The descendants of Kenneth MacAlpin were divided into two branches; the crown would alternate between the two, the death of a king from one branch often hastened by war or assassination by a pretender from the other. Malcolm II was the last king of the House of Alpin; in his reign, he successfully crushed all opposition to him and, having no sons, was able to pass the crown to his daughter's son, Duncan I, who inaugurated the House of Dunkeld.

Portrait Traditional modern English regnal name
(with modern Gaelic equivalent)
Medieval Gaelic name Dynastic Status Reign Title Epithet
Kenneth MacAlpin Kenneth I MacAlpin[2]
(Coinneach mac Ailpein)[3]
Cináed mac Ailpín
Ciniod m. Ailpin
son of Alpin king of Dál Riata 843/848 – 13 February 858 Rex Pictorum
("King of the Picts")
An Ferbasach,
"The Conqueror"[4]
Donald MacAlpin Donald I[5]
(Dòmhnall mac Ailpein)
Domnall mac Ailpín son of Alpin king of Dál Riata, and brother of Kenneth I 858 – 13 April 862
Constantine I of Scotland (Holyrood) Constantine I[6]
(Còiseam mac Choinnich)
Causantín mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth I 862–877 An Finn-Shoichleach,
"The Wine-Bountiful"[7]
Áed, king of Scots Áed[8]
(Aodh mac Choinnich)
Áed mac Cináeda 877–878
Gregorius the Great or Giric of Scotland Giric[9]
(Griogair mac Dhunghail)
Giric mac Dúngail Son of Donald I? 878–889 Mac Rath,
"Son of Fortune"[10]
Eochaid Eochaid mac Run grandson of Kenneth I* 878–889?*
Donald II of Scotland (Holyrood) Donald II[11]
(Dòmhnall mac Chòiseim)
Domnall mac Causantín Son of Constantine I 889–900 Rí Alban
("King of Scotland")

Rì nan Albannaich
("King of Scots")
Dásachtach,
"the Madman"[12]
Constantine II of Scotland (Holyrood) Constantine II[13]
(Còiseam mac Aoidh)
Causantín mac Áeda Son of Áed 900–943 An Midhaise,
"the Middle Aged"[14]
Malcolm I of Scotland (Holyrood) Malcolm I[15]
(Maol Chaluim mac Dhòmhnaill)
Máel Coluim mac Domnall Son of Donald II 943–954 An Bodhbhdercc,
"the Dangerous Red"[16]
An Ionsaighthigh Indulf[17][18] Ildulb mac Causantín Son of Constantine II 954–962 An Ionsaighthigh,
"the Aggressor"[19]
Dub, King of Scotland d. 967, r. 962-967 Dub[20]
(Dubh or Duff)
(Dubh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
Dub mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 962–967 Dén,
"the Vehement"[21]
Culenus, King of Scotland, 966 (crop) Cuilén[22]
(Cailean)
Cuilén mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 967–971 An Fionn,
"the White"[23]
Amlaíb mac Illuilb (Oxford Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 488, folio 15r) Amlaíb
(Amhlaigh)
Amlaíb mac Ilduilb Son of Indulf 973–977‡
Kenneth II of Scotland (Holyrood) Kenneth II[24]
(Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
Cináed mac Maíl Choluim Son of Malcolm I 971–995 An Fionnghalach,
"the Fratricide"[25]
Constantine III (Alba) Constantine III[26]
(Còiseam mac Chailein)
Causantín mac Cuiléin Son of Cuilén 995–997
Kenneth III of Scotland Kenneth III[27]
(Coinneach mac Dhuibh)
Cináed mac Duib Son of Dub 997 – 25 March 1005 An Donn,
"the Chief"/ "the Brown"[28]
Malcolm II of Scotland (Holyrood) Malcolm II[29]
(Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich)
Máel Coluim mac Cináeda Son of Kenneth II 1005–1034 Forranach,
"the Destroyer"[30]

*Eochiad was a son of Run, King of Strathclyde, but his mother was a daughter of Kenneth I. Evidence of his reign is unclear. He may have never actually been king and if he was, he was co-king with Giric.

‡Amlaíb is known only by a reference to his death in 977, which reports him as King of Alba; since Kenneth II is known to have still been King in 972–973, Amlaíb must have taken power between 973 and 977.

House of Dunkeld (1034–1286)

Duncan succeeded to the throne as the maternal grandson of Malcolm II. He was also the heir-general of Malcolm I, as his paternal grandfather, Duncan of Atholl was the third son of Malcolm I. The House of Dunkeld was therefore closely related to the House of Alpin. Duncan was killed in battle by Macbeth, who had a long and relatively successful reign. In a series of battles between 1057 and 1058, Duncan's son Malcolm III defeated and killed Macbeth and Macbeth's stepson and heir Lulach, claiming the throne. The dynastic feuds did not end there: on Malcolm III's death in battle, his brother Donald III, known as "Bán", claimed the throne, expelling Malcolm III's sons from Scotland. A civil war in the family ensued, with Donald III and Malcolm III's son Edmund opposed by Malcolm III's English-backed sons, led first by Duncan II and then by Edgar. Edgar triumphed, sending his uncle and brother to monasteries. After the reign of David I, the Scottish throne was passed according to rules of primogeniture, moving from father to son, or where not possible, brother to brother.

Modern English & Regnal Name
(Modern Gaelic Name)
(Medieval Gaelic Name)

Reign
Portrait Medieval Title Epithet
Nickname
Dynastic Status
(Father's Family)
Maternal Status
(Mother's Family)
Duncan I[31]
(Donnchadh mac Crìonain)
(Donnchad mac Crínáin)

1034–1040
Donnchad I Rí Alban An t-Ilgarach
"the Diseased"
or "the Sick"
[32]
Grandson of Malcolm II Son of Bethóc, Eldest Daughter of Malcolm II
(House of Alpin)
Macbeth[33]
(MacBheatha mac Fhionnlaigh)
(Mac Bethad mac Findláich)

1040–1057
Macbeth of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban Rí Deircc
"the Red King"[34]
1) Son of Mormaer Findláech
2) Grandson of Malcolm II
3) Husband to Gruoch, granddaughter of Kenneth III
?,Unknown Daughter or Granddaughter of Malcolm II
(House of Alpin)
Lulach[35]
(Lughlagh mac Gille Chomghain)
(Lulach mac Gille Comgaín)

1057–1058
Rí Alban Tairbith
"the Unfortunate"[34]
-
Fatuus
"the Foolish"[36]
1) Son of Gille Coemgáin, Mormaer of Moray
2) Grandson of Kenneth III
(House of Alpin)
Son of Gruoch, Granddaughter of Kenneth III
Malcolm III[37]
(Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh)
(Máel Coluim mac Donnchada)

1058–1093
Malcolm III Engraving Rí Alban / Scottorum basileus ? Cenn Mór ("Canmore")
"Great Chief"
[38]
Son of Duncan I Son of Suthen
Donald III[39]
(Dòmhnall mac Dhonnchaidh)
(Domnall mac Donnchada)

1093–1097
Donald III of Scotland - 16th-17th Century
Rí Alban Bán,
"the Fair"
Duncan II[40]
(Donnchadh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Donnchad mac Maíl Choluim)

1094
Duncan II of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Son of Malcolm III
Edgar[41]
(Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Étgar mac Maíl Choluim)

1097–1107
Edgar of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Probus,
"the Valiant"[42]
Alexander I[43]
(Alasdair mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Alaxandair mac Maíl Choluim)

1107–1124
Alexander I of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Fierce"[44]
David I[45]
(Dàibhidh mac Mhaoil Chaluim)
(Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim)

1124–1153
David I of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Saint"[46]
Malcolm IV[47]
(Maol Chaluim mac Eanraig)
(Máel Coluim mac Eanric)

1153–1165
Malcolm IV of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Virgo
"the Maiden"
-
Cenn Mór,
"Great Chief"[38]
Grandson of David I
William I
(Uilleam mac Eanraig)
(Uilliam mac Eanric)

1165–1214
William I of Scotland (Holyrood) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum "the Lion"
-
Garbh,
"the Rough"[48]
Alexander II[49]
(Alasdair mac Uilleim)
(Alaxandair mac Uilliam)

1214–1249
Alexander II (Alba) ii (transparent) Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Son of William I
Alexander III[50]
(Alasdair mac Alasdair)
(Alaxandair mac Alaxandair)

1249–1286
Alexand3 Rí Alban / Rex Scottorum Son of Alexander II

House of Sverre (1286–1290)

The last King of the House of Dunkeld was Alexander III. His wife had borne him two sons and a daughter but by 1286 his sons were dead and his daughter, Margaret, had borne only a single daughter, also named Margaret, to her husband Eric II of Norway before herself dying. Alexander had himself remarried, but in early 1286 he died in an accident while riding home. His wife, Yolande of Dreux, was pregnant but by November 1286 all hope of her bearing a living child had passed. Accordingly, in the Treaty of Salisbury, the Guardians of Scotland recognised Alexander's three-year-old granddaughter, Margaret of Norway, as Queen of Scots. Margaret remained in her father's Kingdom of Norway until Autumn 1290, when she was dispatched to Scotland. However, she died on the journey in Orkney, having never set foot on Scottish soil, and without being crowned at Scone. She is thus sometimes not considered Queen.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Margaret[51]
the Maid of Norway
1286–1290
Margaret, Maid of Norway imaginary c. April 1283
Tønsberg, Norway
daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland
None September/October 1290
St Margaret's Hope, Orkney
aged 7
granddaughter of Alexander III

Monarchy of Scotland restored

House of Balliol (1292–1296)

The death of Margaret of Norway began a two-year interregnum in Scotland caused by a succession crisis. With her death, the descent of William I became extinct and there was no obvious heir by primogeniture. Thirteen candidates presented themselves; the most prominent were John de Balliol, great-grandson of William I's younger brother David of Huntingdon, and Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, David of Huntingdon's grandson. The Scottish Magnates invited Edward I of England to arbitrate the claims. He did so but forced the Scots to swear allegiance to him as overlord. Eventually, it was decided that John de Balliol should become King. He proved weak and incapable and, in 1296, was forced to abdicate by Edward I who then attempted to annex Scotland into the Kingdom of England.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
John Balliol[52]
Toom Tabard ("Empty Cloak")
(Iain Balliol)
1292–1296
SetonArmorialJohnBalliolAndWife c. 1249 Isabella de Warenne
9 February 1281
at least one child

c. 25 November 1314
Picardy, France

great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I)

Monarchy of Scotland restored (second time)

House of Bruce (1306–1371)

For ten years, Scotland had no King of its own. The Scots, however, refused to tolerate English rule. First William Wallace and then, after his execution, Robert the Bruce (the grandson of the 1292 competitor, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale) fought against the English. Bruce and his supporters killed a rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch on 10 February 1306 at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries. Shortly after in 1306, Robert was crowned King of Scots at Scone. His energy, and the corresponding replacement of the vigorous Edward I with his weaker son Edward II, allowed Scotland to free itself from English rule. At the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, the Scots routed the English, and by 1328 the English had agreed by treaty to accept Scottish independence. Robert's son, David, acceded to the throne as a child. The English renewed their war with Scotland, and David was forced to flee the Kingdom by Edward Balliol, son of King John, who managed to get himself crowned King of Scots (1332–1336) and to give away Scotland's southern counties to England before being driven out again. David spent much of his life in exile, first in freedom with his ally, France, and then in prison in England. He was only able to return to Scotland in 1357. Upon his death, childless, in 1371, the House of Bruce came to an end.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Robert I[53]
the Bruce
(Raibeart a Briuis)
1306–1329
Robert I and Isabella of Mar, Seton Armorial 11 July 1274
Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire
son of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Marjorie, Countess of Carrick[54]
Isabella of Mar
1295
one daughter

Elizabeth de Burgh
Writtle, Essex, England
1302
four children
7 June 1329
Manor of Cardross, Dunbartonshire
aged 54
great-great-grandson of David of Huntingdon (brother of William I)
(election)
David II[55]
(Dàibhidh Bruis)
1329–1371
David II, King of Scotland and Edward III, King of England (British Library MS Cotton Nero D VI, folio 66v) 5 March 1324
Dunfermline Palace, Fife
son of Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh
Joan of England
Berwick-upon-Tweed
17 July 1328
no children

Margaret Drummond
Inchmurdach, Fife
20 February 1364
no children
22 February 1371
Edinburgh Castle
aged 46
son of Robert I (primogeniture)

Disputed claimant

House of Balliol (1332–1356)

Edward Balliol was the son of King John Balliol, who had himself ruled for four years following his election in the Great Cause. Following his abdication, John Balliol lived out his life in obscurity in Picardy, France. During the minority of David II, Edward Balliol seized the opportunity to assert his claim to the throne, and backed by the English, he defeated the forces of David's regency and was himself crowned king at Scone in 1332. He was quickly defeated by loyalist forces, and sent back to England. With English support, he would mount two more attempts to seize the throne again, in 1333 and 1335, each time his actual control of the throne was brief before being sent back to England, for the last time in 1336. When David returned from exile in 1341 to rule in his own right, Edward lost most of his support. When David II was captured in battle in 1346, Edward made one last attempt to seize the throne for himself, but had little support and the campaign fizzled before it gained much traction. In 1356 he renounced all claims to the throne.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Claim
Edward Balliol[56]
1332–1336
In opposition to David II
Edward Balliol 1283
Son of John Balliol and Isabella de Warenne
None 1367
Doncaster, Yorkshire, England
Son of a former king, candidate of the English to replace the exiled David II

House of Stewart/Stuart (1371–1651)

Robert the Stewart was a grandson of Robert I by the latter's daughter, Marjorie. Having been born in 1316, he was older than his uncle, David II. Consequently, he was at his accession a middle aged man, already 55, and unable to reign vigorously, a problem also faced by his son Robert III, who also ascended in middle age at 53 in 1390, and suffered lasting damage in a horse-riding accident. These two were followed by a series of regencies, caused by the youth of the succeeding five boy kings. Consequently, the Stewart era saw periods of royal inertia, during which the nobles usurped power from the crown, followed by periods of personal rule by the monarch, during which he or she would attempt to address the issues created by their own minority and the long-term effects of previous reigns. Governing Scotland became increasingly difficult, as the powerful nobility became increasingly intractable. James I's attempts to curb the disorder of the realm ended in his assassination. James III was killed in a civil war between himself and the nobility, led by his own son. When James IV, who had governed sternly and suppressed the aristocrats, died in the Battle of Flodden, his wife Margaret Tudor, who had been nominated regent for their young son James V, was unseated by noble feuding, and James V's own wife, Mary of Guise, succeeded in ruling Scotland during the regency for her young daughter Mary I only by dividing and conquering the noble factions, distributing French bribes with a liberal hand. Finally, Mary I, the daughter of James V, found herself unable to govern Scotland faced with the surliness of the aristocracy and the intransigence of the population, who favoured Calvinism and disapproved of her Catholicism. She was forced to abdicate, and fled to England, where she was imprisoned in various castles and manor houses for eighteen years and finally executed for treason against the English queen Elizabeth I. Upon her abdication, her son, fathered by Henry, Lord Darnley, a junior member of the Stewart family, became King as James VI.

James VI became King of England and Ireland as James I in 1603, when his cousin Elizabeth I died. Thereafter, although the two crowns of England and Scotland remained separate, the monarchy was based chiefly in England. Charles I, James's son, found himself faced with Civil War. The resultant conflict lasted eight years, and ended in his execution. The English Parliament then decreed their monarchy to be at an end. The Scots Parliament, after some deliberation, broke their links with England, and declared that Charles II, son and heir of Charles I, would become King. He ruled until 1651 when the armies of Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland and drove him into exile.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Robert II[57]
the Stewart
(Raibeart II Stiùbhairt)
1371–1390
Robert and Euphemia 2 March 1316
Paisley, Renfrewshire
son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce
Elizabeth Mure
1336 (uncertain canonicity)
1349 (with Papal dispensation)
ten children

Euphemia de Ross
2 May 1355
four children
19 April 1390
Dundonald Castle, Ayrshire
aged 74
grandson of Robert I (primogeniture)
Robert III[58] (born John Stewart)
the Lame King
(Raibeart III Stiùbhairt, An Righ Bhacaigh)
1390–1406
Robert III and Annabella Drummond c. 1337
Scone Palace, Perth
son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure
Anabella Drummond
1367
seven children
4 April 1406
Rothesay Castle
aged about 69
son of Robert II (primogeniture)
James I[59]
(Seumas I Stiùbhairt)
1406–1437
King James I of Scotland late July 1394
Dunfermline Palace, Fife
son of Robert III and Anabella Drummond
Joan Beaufort
Southwark Cathedral
2 February 1424
eight children
21 February 1437
Blackfriars, Perth
aged about 42
son of Robert III (primogeniture)
James II[60]
Fiery Face
(Seumas II Stiùbhairt)
1437–1460
James II of Scotland 17th century 16 October 1430
Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh
son of James I and Joan Beaufort
Mary of Guelders
Holyrood Abbey
3 July 1449
seven children
3 August 1460
Roxburgh Castle
aged 29
son of James I (primogeniture)
James III[61]
(Seumas III Stiùbhairt)
1460–1488
James III of Scotland 10 July 1451
Stirling Castle or St Andrews Castle
son of James II and Mary of Guelders
Margaret of Denmark
Holyrood Abbey
13 July 1469
three children
11 June 1488
Sauchie Burn
aged 36
son of James II (primogeniture)
James IV[62]
(Seumas IV Stiùbhairt)
1488–1513
James IV of Scotland 17 March 1473
Stirling Castle
son of James III and Margaret of Denmark
Margaret Tudor
Holyrood Abbey
8 August 1503
six children
9 September 1513
Flodden Field, Northumberland, England
aged 40
son of James III (primogeniture)
James V[63]
(Seumas V Stiùbhairt)
1513–1542
James V of Scotland2 15 April 1512
Linlithgow Palace, West Lothian
son of James IV and Margaret Tudor
Madeleine of Valois
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France
1 January 1537
no children

Mary of Guise
Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, France
18 May 1538
three children
14 December 1542
Falkland Palace, Fife
aged 30
son of James IV (primogeniture)
Mary I[64]
(Màiri Stiùbhairt)
1542–1567
Mary Queen of Scots Blairs Museum 8 December 1542
Linlithgow Palace
daughter of James V and Mary of Guise
François II, King of France
24 April 1558
no children

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh
9 July 1565
one child

James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell
Holyrood Palace
15 May 1567
no children
8 February 1587
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, England
aged 44 (executed)
daughter of James V (cognatic primogeniture)
James VI[65]
(Seumas VI Stiùbhairt)
1567–1625
JamesIEngland 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary I
Anne of Denmark
Old Bishop's Palace, Oslo, Norway
23 November 1589
seven children
27 March 1625
Theobalds House, Hertfordshire, England
aged 58
son of Mary I (primogeniture)
Charles I[66]
(Teàrlach I Stiùbhairt)
1625–1649
King Charles I after original by van Dyck 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline
son of James VI and Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Church, Canterbury, England
13 June 1625
nine children
30 January 1649
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 48 (executed)
son of James VI (primogeniture)
Charles II[67]
(Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt)
1649–1651
Charles II of England.jpeg 29 May 1630
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth, England
14 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 54
son of Charles I (primogeniture)

Monarchy of Scotland restored (third time)

House of Stuart restored (1660–1707)

With the Scottish Restoration, the Stuarts became Kings of Scotland once more but Scotland's rights were not respected. During the reign of Charles II the Scottish Parliament was dissolved and James was appointed Governor of Scotland. James II himself became James VII in 1685. His Catholicism was not tolerated, and he was driven out of England after three years. In his place came his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange, the ruler of the Dutch Republic. The two were accepted as monarchs of Scotland after a period of deliberation by the Scottish Parliament, and ruled together as William II and Mary II.

An attempt to establish a Scottish colonial empire through the Darien Scheme, in rivalry to that of England, failed, leaving the Scottish nobles who financed the venture for their own profit bankrupt. This coincided with the accession of Queen Anne, daughter of James VII. Anne had multiple children but none of these survived her, leaving as her heir her half-brother, James, then living in exile in France. The English favoured the Protestant Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI) as heir. Many Scots preferred Prince James, who as a Stuart was a Scot by ancestry, and threatened to break the Union of Crowns between England and Scotland by choosing him for themselves. To preserve the union, the English elaborated a plan whereby the two Kingdoms of Scotland and England would merge into a single Kingdom, the Kingdom of Great Britain, ruled by a common monarch, and with a single Parliament. Both national parliaments agreed to this (the Scots albeit reluctantly, motivated primarily by the national finances), and some subterfuge as a total majority of signatories was needed to ratify the Scottish parliament's assent, bribes and payments. Thereafter, although monarchs continued to rule over the nation of Scotland, they did so first as monarchs of Great Britain, and from 1801 of the United Kingdom.

Name Portrait Birth Marriage(s) Death Dynastic status
Charles II[67]
(Teàrlach II Stiùbhairt)
1660–1685
Charles II of England.jpeg 29 May 1630
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth, England
14 May 1662
no children
6 February 1685
Palace of Whitehall, Westminster, England
aged 54
son of Charles I (primogeniture)
James VII[68]
(Seumas VII Stiùbhairt)
1685–1688
James II (Gennari Benedetto) 14 October 1633
St James's Palace, Westminster, England
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France
Anne Hyde
The Strand, London, England
3 September 1660
eight children

Mary of Modena
Dover, England
21 November 1673
seven children
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
aged 67
Mary II[69]
(Màiri II Stiùbhairt)
1689–1694
Mary II - Kneller 1690 30 April 1662
St James's Palace, England
daughter of James VII (II of England) and Anne Hyde
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
three children (none survived infancy)
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace, England
aged 32
grandchildren of Charles I (offered the crown by the Parliament)
William II[69]
(Uilleam Orains, "William of Orange")
1689–1702
Portrait of William III, (1650-1702) 4 November 1650
The Hague, Dutch Republic
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary, Princess Royal
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
aged 51
Anne[70]
(Anna Stiùbhairt)
1702–1707
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland
1707–1714
Anne1705 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
daughter of James VII and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49
daughter of James VII (primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689)

For the British monarchs see List of British monarchs.

Jacobite claimants

James VII continued to claim the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland. When he died in 1701, his son James inherited his father's claims, and called himself James VIII of Scotland and III of England and Ireland. He would continue to do so all his life, even after the Kingdoms of England and Scotland were ended by their merging as the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1715, a year after the death of his sister, Queen Anne, and the accession of their cousin George of Hanover, James landed in Scotland and attempted to claim the throne. He failed, and was forced to flee back to the Continent. A second attempt by his son, Charles on behalf of his father, in 1745, also failed. Both James's children died without legitimate issue, bringing the Stuart family to an end.

  • "James VIII", also known as The Old Pretender, son of James VII, was claimant from 1701 until his death in 1766.
  • "Charles III", also known as The Young Pretender and often called Bonnie Prince Charlie, son of James VIII, was claimant from his father's death until his own death in 1788 without legitimate issue.
  • "Henry I", brother of Charles III and youngest son of James VIII. Died unmarried in 1807.

After 1807, the Jacobite claims passed first to the House of Savoy (1807–1840), then to the Modenese branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1840–1919), and finally to the House of Wittelsbach (since 1919). The current heir is Franz, Duke of Bavaria. Neither he nor any of his predecessors since 1807 have pursued their claim.

Acts of Union

The Acts of Union were twin Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, agreed on 22 July 1706, following prolonged negotiation between Queen Anne's Commissioners representing both parliaments. The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland to form a united Kingdom of Great Britain.[71]

Scotland and England had shared a common monarch since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when the Scottish king James VI succeeded to the English throne. Although described as a Union of Crowns, prior to the Acts of Union of 1707, the crowns of the two separate kingdoms had rested on the same head. Three unsuccessful attempts (in 1606, 1667, and 1689) were made to unite the two kingdoms by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments to succeed, thereby bringing the two separate states together under a single parliament as well as a single monarch.

Coronation oath

The coronation oath was sworn by every Scottish monarch from James VI to Charles II and approved by the Estates of Parliament in 1567:

I, N.N., promise faithfully, in the presence of the eternal, my God, that I, enduring the whole Course of my Life, shall serve the same Eternal, my God, to the utmost of my Power, accordingly as he required in his most Holy Word, revealed and contained in the New and Old Testament; and according to the same Word shall maintain the true Religion of Jesus Christ, the preaching of his Holy Word, and due and right administration of his Sacraments, now received and practised within this Realm; and shall abolish and oppose all false Religion contrary to the same; and shall rule the People committed to my Charge, according to the Will and Command of God, revealed in his foresaid Word, and according to the lovable Laws and Constitutions received in this Realm, in no way repugnant to the said Word of the Eternal, my God; and shall procure to my utmost to the Kirk of God and whole Christian people true and perfect Peace in all times coming; the Rights and Rents, with all just privileges of the Crown of Scotland, I shall preserve and keep inviolate, neither shall I transfer nor alienate the same; I shall forbid and repress in all Estates and all Degrees theft, Oppression and all kind of Wrong; in all Judgements, I shall command and procure that Justice and Equity be kept to all creatures without exception, as he be merciful to me and you that is the Lord and Father of all Mercies; and out of all my lands and empire I shall be careful to root out all Heresy and Enemies to the true Worship of God, that shall be convicted by the true Kirk of God of the foresaid Crimes; and these Things above-written I faithfully affirm by my solemn Oath.

The coronation oath sworn by William II, Mary II and Anne was approved by the Parliament of Scotland on 18 April 1689.[72] The oath was as follows:

WE William and Mary, King and Queen of Scotland, faithfully promise and swear, by this our solemn Oath, in presence of the Eternal God, that during the whole Course of our Life we will serve the same Eternal God, to the uttermost of our Power, according as he has required in his most Holy Word, revealed and contained in the New and Old Testament; and according to the same Word shall maintain the true Religion of Christ Jesus, the preaching of his Holy Word, and the due and right Ministration of the Sacraments, now received and preached within the Realm of Scotland; and shall abolish and gainstand all false Religion contrary to the same, and shall rule the People committed to our Charge, according to the Will and Command of God, revealed in his aforesaid Word, and according to the laudable Laws and Constitutions received in this Realm, no ways repugnant to the said Word of the Eternal God; and shall procure, to the utmost of our power, to the Kirk of God, and whole Christian People, true and perfect Peace in all time coming. That we shall preserve and keep inviolated the Rights and Rents, with all just Privileges of the Crown of Scotland, neither shall we transfer nor alienate the same; that we shall forbid and repress in all Estates and Degrees, Reif, Oppression and all kind of Wrong. And we shall command and procure, that Justice and Equity in all Judgments be kept to all Persons without exception, us the Lord and Father of all Mercies shall be merciful to us. And we shall be careful to root out all Heretics and Enemies to the true Worship of God, that shall be convicted by the true Kirk of God, of the aforesaid Crimes, out of our Lands and Empire of Scotland. And we faithfully affirm the Things above-written by our solemn Oath.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Broun, Scottish Independence. pp. 71–97.
  2. ^ "Kenneth I (r. 834–858)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  3. ^ Properly speaking, Coinneach should actually be Cionaodh, since Coinneach is historically a separate name. However, in the modern language, both names have converged.
  4. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 83.
  5. ^ "Donald I (r. 859–863)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Constantine I (r. 863–877)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  7. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 85.
  8. ^ "Aed (r. 877–878)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  9. ^ "Giric (r. 878–889)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  10. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 87.
  11. ^ "Donald II (r. 889–900)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  12. ^ Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 58.
  13. ^ "Constantine II (r. 900–943)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  14. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 91; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 65.
  15. ^ "Malcolm I (r. 943–954)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  16. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 93.
  17. ^ "Indulf (r. 954–962)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  18. ^ His name is a Gaelicisation of the Norse name Hildufr (or perhaps English Eadulf); it occurs in various contemporary Gaelic forms, such as Iondolbh, found in the Duan Albanach; Ildulb is used by some historians because it correctly represents the name Hildulfr in Gaelic orthography; Eadwulf would perhaps be Idulb, hence that form is also used sometimes. The name never came into wider use in the Scottish world, or the Gaelic world more generally, and has no modern form. The name "Indulf" is a spelling produced by later medieval French influence; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p, 89.
  19. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 94.
  20. ^ "Dubh or Duff (r. 962–967)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  21. ^ Duan Albanach, 23 here; as Dub means "Black", "Dub the Black" is tautologous.
  22. ^ "Culen or Colin (r. 967–971)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  23. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 95.
  24. ^ "Kenneth II (r. 971–995)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  25. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 96.
  26. ^ "Constantine III (r. 995–997)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  27. ^ "Kenneth III (r. 997–1005)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  28. ^ Former probable because later English (speaking) sources called him "Grim"; Old Irish donn has similar meaning to Old Irish greimm, which means "power" or "authority"; see Skene, Chronicles, p. 98; Hudson, Celtic Kings, p. 105.
  29. ^ "Malcolm II (r. 1005–1034)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  30. ^ Skene, Chronicles, pp. 99–100.
  31. ^ "Duncan I (r. 1034–1040)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  32. ^ Skene, Chronicles, p. 101.
  33. ^ "Macbeth (r. 1040–1057)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  34. ^ a b Skene, Chronicles, p. 102.
  35. ^ "Lulach (r. 1057–1058)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  36. ^ Anderson, Early Sources, vol. i, p. 603.
  37. ^ "Malcolm III (r. 1058–1093)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  38. ^ a b This name was probably only originally applied to Mael Coluim IV, Mael Coluim III's grandson, and then later confused; see Duncan, Kingship of the Scots, pp. 51–52, 74–75; Oram, David I, p. 17, note 1. Cenn Mór certainly means "great chief" rather than "big head", as sometimes thought.
  39. ^ "Donald III (r. 1093–1094, 1094-1097)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  40. ^ "Duncan II (r. 1094)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Edgar (r. 1097-1107)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  42. ^ Anderson, Early Sources, vol. ii, p. 141.
  43. ^ "Alexander I (r. 1107-1124)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  44. ^ This nickname however is not attested for another three centuries, in the work of Andrew of Wyntoun.
  45. ^ "David I (r. 1124-1153)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  46. ^ Later nickname. Latin Sanctus also means simply "Holy". David was never canonised.
  47. ^ "Malcolm IV (r. 1153-1165)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  48. ^ Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
  49. ^ "Alexander II (r. 1214-1249)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  50. ^ "Alexander III (r. 1249-1286)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  51. ^ "Margaret (r. 1286-1290)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  52. ^ "John Balliol (r. 1292-1296)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  53. ^ "Robert I (r. 1306-1329)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  54. ^ Robert The Bruce. Publisher: Heinemann. ISBN 0-431-05883-0.
  55. ^ "Robert I (r. 1329-1371)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  56. ^ "Edward Balliol (r. for periods 1332-1356)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  57. ^ "Robert II (r. 1371-1390)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  58. ^ "Robert III (r. 1390-1406)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  59. ^ "James I (r. 1406-1437)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  60. ^ "James II (r. 1437-1460)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  61. ^ "James III (r. 1460-1488)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  62. ^ "James IV (r. 1488-1513)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  63. ^ "James V (r. 1513-1542)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  64. ^ "Mary, Queen of Scots (r. 1542-1567)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  65. ^ "James VI and I (r. 1567-1625)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  66. ^ "Charles I (r. 1625-1649)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  67. ^ a b "Charles II (r. 1660-1685)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  68. ^ "James II (r. 1685-1688)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  69. ^ a b "William II and III (r. 1689-1672) and Mary II (r. 1689-1694)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  70. ^ "Anne (r. 1702-1714)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  71. ^ Welcome Archived 15 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine parliament.uk, accessed 7 October 2008
  72. ^ Scottish Parliament Project.

References

  • Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500–1286, 2 Vols, (Edinburgh, 1922)
  • Broun, Dauvit (2007), Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain. From the Picts to Alexander III., Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2360-0
  • Hudson, Benjamin T., Kings of Celtic Scotland, (Westport, 1994)
  • Skene, W. F. (ed.), Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots and other Early Memorials of Scottish History, (Edinburgh, 1867)

External links

Constantine III of Scotland

Constantine, son of Cuilén (Mediaeval Gaelic: Causantín mac Cuiléin; Modern Gaelic: Còiseam mac Chailein), known in most modern regnal lists as Constantine III, (born c. 970–997) was king of Scots from 995 to 997. He was the son of King Cuilén. John of Fordun calls him, in Latin, Constantinus Calvus, which translates to Constantine the Bald. Benjamin Hudson notes that insular authors from Ireland and Scotland typically identified rulers by sobriquets. Noting for example the similarly named Eugenius Calvus (Owen the Bald), an 11th-century King of Strathclyde.

Erbin of Alt Clut

Erbin was a 5th-century king of Alt Clut, the extent of which has similarities to modern day Strathclyde, who reigned from c.480-485.

House of Stuart

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house of Scotland with Breton origin. They had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since Walter FitzAlan in around 1150. The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II whose descendants were kings and queens of Scotland from 1371 until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.

In 1503, James IV married Margaret Tudor, thus linking the royal houses of Scotland and England. Elizabeth I of England died without issue in 1603, and James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire until the death of Queen Anne in 1714, except for the period of the Commonwealth between 1649 and 1660.In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. The last ruler of Scotland alone was James VI, who became the first dual monarch of England and Scotland in 1603. Two Stuart queens ruled the isles following the Glorious Revolution in 1688: Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife Anne Hyde and the great-grandchildren of James VI and I. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who was brought up a Roman Catholic and preceded his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714 under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704.

Kenneth MacAlpin

Kenneth MacAlpin (Medieval Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpin, Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein; 810 – 13 February 858), known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots. He was thus later known by the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach, "The Conqueror". He became the apex and eponym of a dynasty—sometimes called Clann Chináeda—that ruled Scotland from the ninth- to the early eleventh-century.

Legendary kings of Scotland

The Scottish Renaissance humanist George Buchanan gave a long list of Scottish Kings in his history of Scotland—published in Latin as Rerum Scoticarum Historia in 1582—most of whom are now considered by historians to be figures of legend, or completely misrepresented. The list went back around 1900 years from his time, and began with Fergus I. James VI of Scotland, who was Buchanan's pupil, adopted the story of Fergus I as his ancestor, and the antiquity of the line was emphasised by the House of Stuart.

List of English monarchs

This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex.

Arguments are made for a few different kings deemed to control enough Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be deemed the first king of England. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy." This refers to a period in the late 8th century when Offa achieved a dominance over many of the kingdoms of southern England, but this did not survive his death in 796.In 829 Egbert of Wessex conquered Mercia, but he soon lost control of it. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia and used the title King of the Angles and Saxons, but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then known as the Danelaw, having earlier been conquered by the Danes from Scandinavia. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. The title "King of the English" or Rex Anglorum in Latin, was first used to describe Æthelstan in one of his charters in 928.

The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title.

After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne.

List of kingdoms and royal dynasties

Monarchism is a movement that supports the monarchy as a form of government.

List of kings of Fib

These mythological monarchs supposedly ruled Fib, the reigns of these monarchs are mostly legendary and begin in the 7th century BCE with king Fib. The reigns of these monarchs are attributed to the Pictish chronicles, written in the 10th century during the reign of King Kenneth II of Scotland.

List of office holders of the United Kingdom and predecessor states

This is a list of rulers and office-holders of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and predecessor states.

Margaret, Maid of Norway

Margaret (Norwegian: Margrete, Margareta; March/April 1283 – 26 September 1290), known as the Maid of Norway, was the queen-designate of Scotland from 1286 until her death. She was the daughter of King Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland. By the end of the reign of her maternal grandfather, King Alexander III of Scotland, she was his only surviving descendant and recognized heir presumptive. Alexander III died in 1286, his posthumous child was stillborn, and Margaret inherited the crown. Due to her young age, she remained in Norway rather than going to Scotland. Her father and the Scottish leaders negotiated her marriage to Edward of Caernarfon, son of King Edward I of England. She was finally sent to the British Isles in September 1290, but died in Orkney, sparking off the succession dispute between thirteen competitors for the crown of Scotland.

Normans

The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, and Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland, and they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries.The Norman dynasty had a major political, cultural and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East. The Normans were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language which is still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands. The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, and under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure.The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after briefly conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which also led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, and Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries.Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, and to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands. The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England, Spain, and Sicily, as well as the various cultural, judicial, and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories.

Royal Banner of Scotland

The Royal Banner of the Royal Arms of Scotland, also known as the Royal Banner of Scotland, or more commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, and historically as the Royal Standard of Scotland, (Scottish Gaelic: Bratach rìoghail na h-Alba, Scots: Ryal banner o Scotland) or Banner of the King of Scots, is the Royal Banner of Scotland, and historically, the Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Scotland. Used historically by the Scottish monarchs, the banner differs from Scotland's national flag, the Saltire, in that its correct use is restricted by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland to only a few Great Officers of State who officially represent the Monarchy in Scotland. It is also used in an official capacity at royal residences in Scotland when the Head of State is not present.The earliest recorded use of the Lion rampant as a royal emblem in Scotland was by Alexander II in 1222; with the additional embellishment of a double border set with lilies occurring during the reign of Alexander III (1249–1286). This emblem occupied the shield of the royal coat of arms of the ancient Kingdom of Scotland which, together with a royal banner displaying the same, was used by the King of Scots until the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when James VI acceded to the thrones of the kingdoms of England and Ireland. Since 1603, the Lion rampant of Scotland has been incorporated into both the royal arms and royal banners of successive Scottish then British monarchs in order to symbolise Scotland; as can be seen today in the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom. Although now officially restricted to use by representatives of the Monarch and at royal residences, the Royal Banner continues to be one of Scotland's most recognisable symbols.

Scone, Scotland

Scone ( (listen)) (Scottish Gaelic: Sgàin; Scots: Scuin) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. The medieval village of Scone, which grew up around the monastery and royal residence, was abandoned in the early 19th century when the residents were removed and a new palace was built on the site by the Earl of Mansfield. Hence the modern village of Scone, and the medieval village of Old Scone, can often be distinguished.

Both sites lie in the historical province of Gowrie, as well as the old county of Perthshire. Old Scone was the historic capital of the Kingdom of Scotland. In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence and as the coronation site of the kingdom's monarchs. Around the royal site grew the town of Perth and the Abbey of Scone.

Scottish Crown

Scottish Crown can refer to:

Crown (coin), see Scottish coinage

Crown of Scotland, part of the Honours of Scotland, kept at Edinburgh Castle

Scottish monarchy, see List of Scottish monarchs

The Crown

Scottish monarchs' family tree

This is a family tree for the kings of Scotland, since the unification under the House of Alpin in 834, to the personal union with England in 1603 under James VI of Scotland. It includes also the Houses of Dunkeld, Balliol, Bruce, and Stewart.

See also: List of Scottish monarchs - Scotland - History of Scotland - British monarchs - British monarchs family tree - English monarchs family tree

Throne of England

The Throne of England is the throne of the Monarch of England. "Throne of England" also refers metonymically to the office of monarch, and monarchy itself. The term "Throne of Great Britain" has been used in reference to Sovereign's Throne in the House of Lords, from which a monarch gives his or her speech at the State opening of Parliament.

Timeline of Scottish history

This is a timeline of Scottish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Scotland and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Scotland. See also the list of Scottish monarchs, list of British monarchs, list of First Ministers of Scotland, and list of years in Scotland.

Pictish and Scottish monarchs
Monarchs of the Picts
(traditional)
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History
Royal Houses
Politics
and law
Military
Geography
Demographics
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Architecture
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