The gens (plural gentes) was a Roman, Italic, or Etruscan family, consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor. It was an important social and legal structure in early Roman history.
The distinguishing characteristic of a gens was the nomen gentilicium, or gentile name. Every member of a gens, whether by birth or adoption, bore this name. All nomina were based on other nouns, such as personal names, occupations, physical characteristics or behaviors, or locations. Consequently, most of them ended with the adjectival termination -ius (-ia in the feminine form).
Nomina ending in -aius, -eius, -eus, and -aeus are typical of Latin families. Faliscan gentes frequently had nomina ending in -ios, while Samnite and other Oscan-speaking peoples of southern Italy had nomina ending in -iis. Umbrian nomina typically end in -as, -anas, -enas, or -inas, while nomina ending in -arna, -erna, -ena, -enna, -ina, or -inna are characteristic of Etruscan families.
The word gens is feminine, and the name of a gens was also feminine. Marcus Valerius Corvus was a member of gens Valeria. Valerius was his nomen. His son's nomen would have been Valerius, and his daughter's Valeria. Male members of his gens were collectively called Valerii, and female members Valeriae. If a member of the gens were adopted into another family, he would assume the nomen of that gens, followed by the cognomen Valerianus.
In the following list, "I" and "J" are treated as separate letters, as are "U" and "V". The letter "K" was rare in Latin, and the few nomina occasionally spelled with this letter were usually spelled with "C". No Roman gentes began with "X", and the letters "Y" and "Z" occurred only in names borrowed from Greek. The letter "W" did not exist in Classical Latin.
The gens Abudia is known from a single individual, Abudius Ruso, the one of the delatores (accusers) against Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus. A former aedile who commanded a legion under Gaetulicus, he was condemned himself and expelled from Rome following the failure of the accusation.Anneia (gens)
The gens Anneia was a Roman family known from the last century of the Roman Republic. The gens is known chiefly from a single individual, Marcus Anneius, who was a legate of Cicero during his government in Cilicia in 51 BC, and subsequently commanded part of the Roman troops during Cicero's campaign against the Parthians.Aponia (gens)
The gens Aponia was a Roman family during the later Republic, and the 1st century of the Empire. The gens is known from only a few individuals.Appuleius
Appuleius is the nomen of the Roman gens Appuleia. It may refer to various members of that family, including:
Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, tribune of the plebs in 100 B.C.
Lucius Caecilicus Minutianus Appuleius, ancient Roman writer on grammar
Any of several individuals named Sextus Appuleius.
Lucius Appuleius, author of The Golden Ass.For other persons named Appuleius, see Appuleia (gens).Arpineia (gens)
The gens Arpineia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. It is known chiefly from a single individual, Gaius Arpineius, an eques in the army of Caesar's army during the Gallic Wars.Bucculeia (gens)
The gens Bucculeia was a Roman family during the late Republic. It is known chiefly from a single individual, Marcus Bucculeius, a legal scholar, mentioned in a humorous anecdote of Cicero, and attributed by him to the orator Lucius Licinius Crassus.Caeparia (gens)
The gens Caeparia was a Roman family during the late Republic. It is best known from two individuals: Marcus Caeparius of Tarracina, one of the conspirators of Catiline, who was supposed to induce the people of rural Apulia to revolt, in 63 BC; and another Marcus Caeparius, mentioned by Cicero in 46 BC.Carfulena (gens)
The gens Carfulena was a plebeian family at Rome toward the end of the Republic. The gens is best known from Decimus Carfulenus, who served under Caesar during the Alexandrine War; other members are known from inscriptions.Laetilia (gens)
The gens Laetilia was a minor Roman family during the final century of the Republic and under the early Empire. It is known chiefly from a few individuals.Lafrenia (gens)
The gens Lafrenia was a minor family in Roman history. It is known from only a few individuals, only one of whom was a figure of any consequence.Lavinia (gens)
The gens Lavinia was a minor family at ancient Rome.Lentidia (gens)
The gens Lentidia was a minor family at ancient Rome. None of its members is known to have held public office.List of Roman nomina
This is a list of Roman nomina. Each nomen is for a gens, originally a single family, but later more of a political grouping.Mustia (gens)
The gens Mustia was a minor plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the final decades of the Republic, and at least some were of equestrian rank. However, few of the family are recorded outside of inscriptions.Oclatinia (gens)
The gens Oclatinia was a minor Roman family of imperial times. It is best known from a single individual, Marcus Oclatinius Adventus, consul for the second time in AD 218, together with the emperor Macrinus. From various sources, we know that he was procurator Augustorum under Septimius Severus in AD 202, and governor of Britain between 205 and 207.Praeconia gens
The gens Praeconia, occasionally written Preconia, was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. No members of this gens are mentioned in history, but a few are known from inscriptions.Rabonia gens
The gens Rabonia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Only a few members of this gens are mentioned in history or known from inscriptions.Saltia gens
The gens Saltia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Hardly any members of this gens are mentioned in history, but others are known from inscriptions.Visellia (gens)
The gens Visellia was a family at Rome during the late Republic and early Empire. Two members of this gens achieved the consulship during the first century.
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