List of Roman emperors

The Roman emperors were the rulers of the Roman Empire dating from the granting of the title of Augustus to Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC. Augustus maintained a façade of Republican rule, rejecting monarchical titles but calling himself princeps senatus (first man of the council)[1] and princeps civitatis (first citizen of the state). The title of Augustus was conferred on his successors to the imperial position. The style of government instituted by Augustus is called the Principate and continued until reforms by Diocletian. The modern word 'emperor' derives from the title imperator, which was granted by an army to a successful general; during the initial phase of the empire, the title was generally used only by the princeps. For example, Augustus' official name was Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus.

The territory under command of the emperor had developed under the period of the Roman Republic as it invaded and occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the Senate and People of Rome. During the republic, the chief magistrates of Rome were two consuls elected each year; consuls continued to be elected in the imperial period, but their authority was subservient to that of the emperor, and the election was controlled by the emperor.

In the late 3rd century, after the Crisis of the Third Century, Diocletian formalised and embellished the recent manner of imperial rule, establishing the so-called Dominate period of the Roman Empire. This was characterised by the explicit increase of authority in the person of the Emperor, and the use of the style Dominus Noster ("Our Lord"). The rise of powerful Barbarian tribes along the borders of the empire and the challenge they posed to defense of far-flung borders and unstable imperial succession led Diocletian to divide the administration geographically of the Empire in 286 with a co-Augustus. In 330, Constantine the Great established a second capital in Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople. For most of the period from 286 to 480, there was more than one recognised senior emperor, with the division usually based in geographic terms. This division was consistently in place after the death of Theodosius I in 395, which historians have dated as the division between the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.[2] However, formally the Empire remained a single polity, with separate co-emperors in the separate courts. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, and so the end of a separate list of emperors below, is dated either from the de facto date of 476 when Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic Herulians led by Odoacer or the de jure date of 480, on the death of Julius Nepos, when Eastern Emperor Zeno ended recognition of a separate Western court. In the period that followed, the Empire is usually treated by historians as the Byzantine Empire governed by the Byzantine Emperors, although this designation is not used universally, and continues to be a subject of specialist debate today.[3]

The line of emperors continued until the death of Constantine XI Palaiologos during the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, when the remaining territories were captured by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II.[4]

Counting all individuals to have possessed the full imperial title, including those who did not technically rule in their own right (e.g. co-emperors or minors during regencies), this list contains 194 emperors and 6 ruling empresses, for a total of 200 monarchs.

Statue-Augustus
Emperor Augustus served as the first Roman emperor. His Principate ended republican rule in Rome and began Pax Romana.

Legitimacy

The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.[5][6][7] The word 'legitimate' is used by most authors, but usually without clear definition, perhaps not surprisingly, since the emperorship was itself rather vaguely defined legally. In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people." A person could be proclaimed as emperor by their troops or by "the mob" in the street, but in theory needed to be confirmed by the Senate. The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation. Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants. By the medieval (or Byzantine) period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication.[8]

Lists of legitimate emperors are therefore partly influenced by the subjective views of those compiling them, and also partly by historical convention. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. Historically, the following criteria have been used to derive emperor lists:

  • Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor'(1).
  • Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor (1), and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor (2).
  • Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor (3), at least during the Principate.

So for instance, Aurelian, though acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between 270 and 275, and thus was a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of (the legitimate emperor) Valerian. Claudius Gothicus, though acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperors, all claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included. There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right (typically the child of an emperor); these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the senior emperor.

Emperors after 395

After 395, the list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor.

The situation in the West is more complex. Throughout the final years of the Western Empire (395–480) the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor. Furthermore, after 455 the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all. For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after 455 are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;[9] some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not. For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized. However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists. However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in 480. Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.

The Principate

27 BC–68 AD: Julio-Claudian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Augustus Bevilacqua Glyptothek Munich 317 Augustus
IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS
September 23, 63 BC, Rome, Italia Great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar; became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate. January 16, 27 BC – August 19, 14 AD 40 years, 7 months and 3 days August 19, 14 AD (aged 75)
Natural causes
Tiberius NyCarlsberg01 Tiberius
TIBERIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI FILIVS AVGVSTVS
November 16, 42 BC, Rome, Italia Natural son of Livia Drusilla, Augustus' third wife, by a previous marriage; stepbrother and third husband of Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus; adopted by Augustus as his son and heir. September 18, 14 AD – March 16, 37 AD 22 years, 5 months and 27 days March 16, 37 AD (aged 77)
Probably natural causes, possibly assassinated by Caligula or praetorian prefect Naevius Sutorius Macro
Caligula - MET - 14.37 Caligula
CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS CERMANICVS
August 31, 12 AD, Antium, Italia Great-nephew and adoptive grandson of Tiberius; natural son of Germanicus; great-grandson of Augustus. March 18, 37 AD – January 24, 41 AD 3 years, 10 months and 6 days January 24, 41 AD (aged 28)
Assassinated in a conspiracy involving senators and Praetorian Guards.
Claudius crop Claudius
TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS CERMANICVS
August 1, 10 BC, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis Uncle of Caligula; brother of Germanicus; nephew of Tiberius; great-nephew and step-grandson of Augustus; proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard. January 25/26, 41 AD – October 13, 54 AD 13 years, 8 months and 18/19 days October 13, 54 AD (aged 63)
Probably poisoned by his wife Agrippina the Younger, in favour of her son Nero, possibly natural causes.
Nero 1 Nero
NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS CERMANICVS
December 15, 37 AD, Antium, Italia Great-nephew, stepson, son-in-law and adopted son of Claudius; nephew of Caligula; great-great-nephew of Tiberius; grandson of Germanicus; great-great-grandson of Augustus October 13, 54 AD – June 9, 68 AD 13 years, 7 months and 27 days June 9, 68 AD (aged 30)
Committed suicide after being declared a public enemy by the Senate.

68–96: Year of the Four Emperors and Flavian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Stockholm - Antikengalerie 4 - Büste Kaiser Galba Galba
IMPERATOR SERVIVS GALBA CAESAR AVGVSTVS
December 24, 3 BC, Near Terrancilium, Italia Seized power after Nero's suicide, with support of the Spanish legions June 8, 68 AD – January 15, 69 AD 7 months and 7 days January 15, 69 AD (aged 72)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard in coup led by Otho
Oth001 Otho
IMPERATOR MARCVS SALVIVS OTHO CAESAR AVGUSTVS
April 28, 32 AD, Ferentinum, Italia Appointed by Praetorian Guard January 15, 69 AD – April 16, 69 AD 3 months and 1 day (91 days) April 16, 69 AD (aged 36)
Committed suicide after losing Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius
Pseudo-Vitellius Louvre MR684 Vitellius
IMPERATOR AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS
September 24, 15 AD, Rome, Italia Seized power with support of German Legions (in opposition to Galba/Otho) April 17, 69 AD – December 20, 69 AD 8 months and 3 days December 20, 69 AD (aged 54)
Murdered by Vespasian's troops
Vespasianus01 pushkin edit Vespasian
IMPERATOR TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS
November 17, 9 AD, Falacrine, Italia Seized power with the support of the eastern Legions (in opposition to Marcillinus) December 21, 69 AD – June 24, 79 AD 9 years, 6 months and 3 days June 24, 79 AD (aged 69)
Natural causes
Titus of Rome Titus
IMPERATOR TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS
December 30, 39 AD, Rome, Italia Son of Vespasian June 24, 79 AD – September 13, 81 AD 2 years, 2 months and 20 days September 13, 81 AD (aged 41)
Natural causes (fever)
Domiziano da collezione albani, fine del I sec. dc. 02 Domitian
IMPERATOR TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS CERMANICVS
October 24, 51 AD, Rome, Italia Son of Vespasian September 14, 81 AD – September 18, 96 AD 15 years and 4 days September 18, 96 AD (aged 44)
Assassinated by court officials

96–192: Nerva–Antonine dynasty

Note: all dates AD hereafter.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Nerva Tivoli Massimo Nerva
IMPERATOR MARCVS COCCEIVS NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS
November 8, 30, Narni, Italia Appointed by the Senate September 18, 96 – January 27, 98 1 year, 4 months and 9 days January 27, 98 (aged 67)
Natural causes
Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336 Trajan
IMPERATOR CAESAR NERVA TRAIANVS DIVI NERVAE FILIVS AVGVSTVS
September 18, 53, Italica, Hispania Baetica Adopted son and heir of Nerva January 28, 98 – August 7, 117 19 years, 6 months and 10 days August 7, 117 (aged 63)
Natural causes
Bust Hadrian Musei Capitolini MC817 Hadrian
IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
January 24, 76, Italica, Hispania Baetica (or Rome) Adopted son and heir of Trajan August 11, 117 – July 10, 138 20 years, 10 months and 30 days July 10, 138 (aged 62)
Natural causes
Antoninus Pius Glyptothek Munich 337 Antoninus Pius
IMPERATOR CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS
September 19, 86, Near Lanuvium, Italia Adopted son and heir of Hadrian July 10, 138 – March 7, 161 22 years, 6 months and 28 days March 7, 161 (aged 74)
Natural causes
Lucius Verus - MET - L.2007.26 Lucius Verus
IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS
December 15, 130, Rome Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until his death March 7, 161 – ? March 169 8 years March 169 (aged 39)
Natural causes (Plague)
Marcus Aurelius Glyptothek Munich Marcus Aurelius
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
April 26, 121, Rome Adopted son, son-in-law and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 March 7, 161 – March 17, 180 19 years and 10 days March 17, 180 (aged 58)
Natural causes
Commodus Musei Capitolini MC1120 Commodus
IMPERATOR CAESAR LUCIVS AELIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS AVGVSTVS
August 31, 161, Lanuvium, Italia Natural son of Marcus Aurelius; joint emperor from 177 March 17, 180 – December 31, 192 3 years as joint emperor,
12 as sole emperor
December 31, 192 (aged 31)

Assassinated in palace, strangled in his bath

193–235: Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Alba Iulia National Museum of the Union 2011 - Possible Statue of Roman Emperor Pertinax Close Up, Apulum Pertinax
IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS
August 1, 126, Alba, Italia Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard January 1, 193 – March 28, 193 2 months and 27 days (86 days) March 28, 193 (aged 66)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
Didius Julianus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS
133 or 137, Milan, Italia Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor March 28, 193 – June 1, 193 2 months and 4 days (65 days) June 1, 193 (aged 56 or 60)
Executed on orders of the Senate
Septimius Severus busto-Musei Capitolini Septimius Severus
IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS EVSEBES PERTINAX AVGVSTVS
April 11, 145, Leptis Magna, Libya Seized power with support of Pannonian legions[a] April 9, 193 – February 4, 211 17 years, 9 months and 26 days February 4, 211 (aged 65)
Natural causes
Caracalla03 pushkin Caracalla
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
April 4, 188, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus from 198; with Severus and Geta from 209 until February 211; co-emperor with Geta until December 211 February 4, 211 – April 8, 217 13 years as joint emperor
10 months with Geta
6 years as sole emperor
April 8, 217 (aged 29)
Murdered by a soldier as part of a conspiracy involving Macrinus
Publius Septimius Geta Louvre Ma1076 Geta
IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS CETA AVGVSTUS
March 7, 189, Rome Son of Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus and Caracalla from 209 until February 211; co-emperor with Caracalla until December 211 February 4, 211 – December 26, 211 2 years as joint emperor
10 months with Caracalla
December 19, 211 (aged 22)
Murdered on the orders of Caracalla
Bust of Macrinus - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini - Rome 2016 Macrinus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS

with
Diadumenian

IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS OPELLIVS ANTONINVS DIADVMENIANVS AVGVSTVS

c. 165, Caesarea, Mauretania Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, probably conspired to have Caracalla murdered and proclaimed himself emperor after Caracalla's death; made his son Diadumenian (born on 14 September 208) co-emperor in May 218 April 11, 217 – June 8, 218 1 year, 1 month and 28 days June 8, 218 (aged 53)
Both executed in favour of Elagabalus
Bust of Elagabalus - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini - Rome 2016 (2) Elagabalus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
c. 204, Emesa, Syria Grandnephew of Septimius Severus, first cousin once removed and alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla; proclaimed emperor by Syrian legions June 8, 218 – March 11, 222 3 years, 9 months and 3 days March 11, 222 (aged 18)
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
Alexander severus Severus Alexander
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER AVGVSTVS
c. 208, Arca Caesarea, Syria Grandnephew of Septimius Severus, cousin and adoptive heir of Elagabalus March 13, 222 – March 18, 235 13 years and 5 days March 18, 235 (aged 27)
Murdered by the army

235–285: Gordian dynasty and Crisis of the Third Century

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Maximinus Thrax Musei Capitolini MC473 Maximinus Thrax
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS IVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
c. 173, Thrace or Moesia Proclaimed emperor by German legions after the murder of Severus Alexander March 20, 235 – June 238 3 years, 3 months June 238 (aged 65)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
Gordian I Musei Capitolini MC475 Gordian I
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS CORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 159, Phrygia? Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III March 22, 238 – April 12, 238 21 days April 238 (aged 79)
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.
Gordian II
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS CORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 192, ? Proclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition to Maximinus by act of the Senate. March 22, 238 – April 12, 238 21 days April 238 (aged 46)
Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army
Pupienus Musei Capitolini MC477 Pupienus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
c. 178, ? Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus. April 22, 238 – July 29, 238 3 months and 7 days July 29, 238 (aged 68 or 73)
Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
Balbinus Hermitage Balbinus
IMPERATOR CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
? Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Pupienus and Gordian III April 22, 238 – July 29, 238 3 months and 7 days July 29, 238 (aged 60)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
Bust Gordianus III Louvre Ma1063 Gordian III
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS CORDIANVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
January 20, 225, Rome Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I and II, then by the Senate; joint emperor with Pupienus and Balbinus until July 238; grandson and nephew of Gordian I and II, respectively April 22, 238 – February 11, 244 5 years, 9 months and 20 days February 11, 244 (aged 19)
Unknown; possibly murdered on orders of Philip I
Bust of emperor Philippus Arabus - Hermitage Museum Philip the Arab
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILIPPVS AVGVSTVS

with

Philip II

IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS SEVERVS PHILLIPVS AVGVSTVS

c. 204, Shahba, Syria Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death; made his son Philip II (born 237) co-emperor in summer 247 February 244 – September/October 249 5 years September/October 249 (aged 45)
Killed in the Battle of Verona by Decius, Philip II murdered by the Praetorian Guard
Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch) Decius
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAIANVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS

with

Herennius Etruscus

IMPERATOR CAESAR QVINTVS HERENNIVS ETRVSCVS MESSIVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS

c. 201, Budalia, Pannonia Inferior Governor under Philip the Arab; proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions then defeating and killing Philip in the Battle of Verona; made his son Herennius Etruscus (born 227) co-emperor in early 251 September/ October 249 – June 251 2 years June 251 (aged 50)
Both killed in the Battle of Abrittus fighting against the Goths
Hostilian
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS
Sirmium Son of Decius, accepted as heir by the Senate June 251 – late 251 4–5 months September/October 251 (aged 21)
Natural causes (plague)
Trebonianus Gallus
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS AFINIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS

with

Volusianus

IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS VOLVSIANVS AVGVSTVS

206, Italia Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made his son Volusianus co-emperor in late 251. June 251 – August 253 2 years August 253 (aged 47)
Assassinated by their own troops, in favour of Aemilian
Aemilian1 Aemilian
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 207 or 213 Africa Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after defeating the Goths; accepted as emperor after death of Gallus August 253 – October 253 2 months September/October 253 (aged 40 or 46)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian
Aureus Valerian-RIC 0034 (obverse)
Valerian
IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 195 Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilian October 253 – 260 7 years After 260 (aged at least 65)
Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity
Gallienus Gallienus
IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS

with

Saloninus

IMPERATOR CAESAR CORNELIVS LICINIVS SALONINVS VALERIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS

218 Son of Valerian, made co-emperor in 253; his son Saloninus (born c. 242) is very briefly co-emperor in c. July 260 before assassination by Postumus. October 253 – September 268 15 years September 268 (aged 50)
Murdered at Aquileia by his own commanders.
5305 - Brescia - S. Giulia - Ritratto di Claudio II il Gotico - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 25 Giu 2011 (cropped)
Claudius Gothicus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS
May 10, 210, Sirmium Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death September 268 – January 270 1 year, 4 months January 270 (aged 60)
Natural causes (plague)
Aureus Quintillus (obverse)
Quintillus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS
c.210, Sirmium Brother of Claudius II, seized power after his death January 270 – September(?) 270 Unknown 270 (aged around 60)
Unclear; possibly suicide or murder
Aurelian
IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS
September 9, 214/215, Sirmium Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus September(?) 270 – September 275 5 years September 275 (aged 60-61)
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
Severina Ant Ulpia Severina
VLPIA SEVERINA PIA AVGVSTA
Unknown Wife of Aurelian, there is evidence that she ruled in her own right during the interregnum between Aurelian's death and the election of Tacitus.[10][11] September 275 Briefly Unknown
EmpereurTacite Tacitus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS
c. 200, Interamna Nahars, Italia Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short interregnum September 25, 275 – June 276 9 months June 276 (aged 76)
Natural causes (possibly assassinated)
Florianus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS
? Brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to replace him June 276 – September? 276 3 months September? 276 (aged ?)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus
Probus Musei Capitolini MC493 Probus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS
232, Sirmium Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition to Florian September? 276 – September/ October 282 6 years September/ October 282 (aged 50)
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus
Antoninianus of Carus Carus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS
c. 230, Narbo, Gallia Narbonensis Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murdered; made his son Carinus co-emperor in early 283 September/ October 282 – late July/ early August 283 10–11 months Late July/August 283 (aged 61)
Probably natural causes (Possibly killed by lightning)
Carinus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS
? Son of Carus, ruled shortly with him (from early 283) as co-emperor and then in his own right with his brother Numerian Late July/early August 283 – 285 2 years 285 (aged ?)
Probably died in battle against Diocletian
Numerian
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS
? Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus Late July/early August 283 – 284? 1 year 284 (aged ?)
Unclear; possibly assassinated

The Dominate

284–364: Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty

Note: To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried after 285. The "Tetrarchy" proclaimed by Diocletian in 293 split the empire into two halves each to be ruled separately by two emperors, a senior "Augustus", and a junior "Caesar".

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Istanbul - Museo archeol. - Diocleziano (284-305 d.C.) - Foto G. Dall'Orto 28-5-2006 Diocletian
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST and WEST)

then, after 286

(EAST)

c. December 22, 244, Salona Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 November 20, 284 – May 1, 305 20 years, 5 months and 11 days 3 December 311 (aged 67)
Abdicated; died of natural causes in Aspalatos
Toulouse - Musée Saint-Raymond - Maximien Hercule1 Maximian
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS HERCVLIVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

c. 250, near Sirmium, Pannonia Adopted as senior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286 April 1, 286 – May 1, 305 19 years and 1 month 310 (aged 60)
Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius; captured by Constantine I and committed suicide at his behest
Romuliana Galerius head Galerius
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST)

c. 250, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Diocletian in 293. Also son-in-law of Diocletian. May 1, 305 – May 311 6 years 311 (aged 61)
Natural causes
Const.chlorus01 pushkin Constantius Chlorus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS HERCVLIVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

March 31, c. 250, Dardania, Moesia Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Maximian in 293 May 1, 305 – July 25, 306 1 year, 2 months and 24 days 306 (aged 56)
Natural causes
Valerius Severus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

? Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Constantius Chlorus in 305; succeeded as Augustus in 306; opposed by Maxentius and Constantine I Summer 306 – March/ April 307 1 year September 16, 307 (aged ?)
Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)
Rome-Capitole-StatueConstantin Constantine the Great
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS AVRELIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

then, after 324

(EAST and WEST)

February 27, c. 272, Naissus, Moesia Superior Son of Constantius I Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 by Maximian after death of Severus II; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 July 25, 306 – May 22, 337 30 years, 9 months and 27 days May 22, 337 (aged 65)
Natural causes
Maxentius02 pushkin Maxentius
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

c. 276 Son of Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius I Chlorus, in opposition to Severus and Constantine I; made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 after the death of Severus October 28, 306 – October 28, 312 6 years October 28, 312 (aged 36)
Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I
Aureus of Licinius Licinius I
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST)

with

Valerius Valens

AVRELIVS VALERIVS VALENS

and

Martinian

SEXTVS MARCIVS MARTININANVS

c. 263, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308, in opposition to Maxentius; became Augustus in the east in 311 after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus II); defeated Maximinus II in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313; appointed Valerius Valens in 317, and Martinian in 324 as western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, both being executed within weeks. November 11, 308 – September 18, 324 15 years, 10 months and 7 days 325 (aged 61/62)
Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year
Daza01 pushkin Maximinus II
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS CALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST)

November 20, c. 270, Dacia Aureliana Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius I) in 311 May 1, 311 – July/August 313 2 years July/August 313 (aged 42)
Defeated in civil war against Licinius; probably committed suicide thereafter
Campidoglio, Roma - Costantino II cesare dettaglio Constantine II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

316, Arelate, Gallia Narbonensis Son of Constantine I; appointed Caesar in 317, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantius II and Constans I May 22, 337 – 340 3 years 340 (aged 24)
Died in battle against Constans I
Constance II Colosseo Rome Italy Constantius II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST)

then, after 356

(EAST and WEST)

August 7, 317, Sirmium, Pannonia Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans I; sole emperor from 350 May 22, 337 – November 3, 361 24 years, 5 months and 12 days 361 (aged 44)
Natural causes
Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021 Constans I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS


(MIDDLE)

then, after 340

(WEST)

c. 323 Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II May 22, 337 – 350 13 years 350 (aged 27)
Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius
Solidus Vetranio (obverse)
Vetranio
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VETRANIO AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

?, Moesia General of Constans, proclaimed Caesar against Magnentius and temporarily accepted as Augustus of the west by Constantius II. March 1, 350 – December 25, 350 9 months and 24 days c. 356 (aged ?)
As a private citizen, after abdication.
Giuliano l'Apostata, IV secolo, Museo archeologico nazionale, Atene
Julian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

then, after 361

(EAST and WEST)

331/332, Constantinople, Thracia Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355; proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 360; sole emperor after the death of Constantius February 360 – June 26, 363 3 years June 26, 363 (aged 31/32)
Mortally wounded in battle
Jovian1 Jovian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST and WEST)

331, Singidunum, Moesia General of Julian's army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's death June 26, 363 – February 17, 364 7 months and 22 days February 17, 364 (aged 33)
Natural causes (suffocated on fumes)

364–392: Valentinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Valentiniano I (emperador) Valentinian I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS


(EAST and WEST)

then

(WEST)

321, Cibalae, Pannonia Elected to replace Jovian by the army February 26, 364 – November 17, 375 11 years, 8 months and 22 days November 17, 375 (aged 54)
Natural causes
Valens Honorius Musei Capitolini MC494 Valens
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS


(EAST)

328, Cibalae, Pannonia Brother of Valentinian I, appointed co-augustus (for the east) by him March 28, 364 – August 9, 378 14 years, 4 months and 12 days August 9, 378 (aged 50)
Killed in Battle of Adrianople against the Goths
Gratianus Minor Gratian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS GRATIANVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

April 18/May 23, 359, Sirmium, Pannonia Son of Valentinian I, appointed junior Augustus by him in 367, became senior Augustus (for the west) after Valentinian's death. August 4, 367 – August 25, 383 16 years and 21 days August 25, 383 (aged 24)
Murdered by rebellious army faction
Statue of emperor Valentinian II detail Valentinian II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS


(WEST)

371, Milan, Italia Son of Valentinian I, proclaimed emperor by Pannonian army after Valentinian's death; accepted as co-Augustus for the west by Gratian November 17, 375 – May 15, 392 16 years, 5 months and 28 days May 15, 392 (aged 21)
Unclear; possibly murdered or committed suicide
Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Magno Máximo (emperador) Magnus Maximus

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS MAGNVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS

(WEST)


with

Victor

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VICTOR AVGVSTVS

c. 335, Hispania Usurper in the West; legitimized along with his son Victor by Theodosius I as emperors of Britannia and Gaul. 383/384 – August 28, 388 4/5 years August 28, 388 (aged 53)
Executed by Theodosius I in Aquileia after the Battle of the Save; Victor killed by Arbogast
Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Siliqua Eugenius- trier RIC 0106d (cropped)
Eugenius

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS EVGENIVS AVGVSTVS

(WEST)

? Usurper in the West; elevated to emperor by Arbogast. August 22 392 – September 6, 394 2 years, 15 days September 6, 394
Executed as a criminal by Theodosius I near the Frigidus river

Western Emperors

392–455: Theodosian dynasty

Note: Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, dividing the administration between his sons Arcadius and Honorius on his death.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Theodosius I profile
Theodosius I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS
January 11, 347, Cauca, Hispania Son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole senior Augustus after death of Valentinian II (Eastern Emperor since 379) May 15, 392 – January 17, 395 2 years, 8 months and 2 days January 17, 395 (aged 48)
Natural causes
Consular diptych Probus 406 (cropped) Honorius
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS HONORIVS AVGVSTVS
September 9, 384 Son of Theodosius I; appointed as junior Augustus for the west by Theodosius on January 23, 393 (after the death of Valentinian II); became senior Augustus for the west after his father's death January 17, 395 – August 15, 423 28 years, 6 months and 29 days August 15, 423 (aged 38)
Natural causes
Constantine III

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS

with

Constans II

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS

? Usurper who declared himself emperor in the west in 407, recognized as co-emperor by Honorius in 409. Elevated his son Constans II to co-emperor in 409, who was not recognized by Honorius. 407/409 - August or September 411 2 years August or September 411 (aged ?)
Executed by Constantius III
Consular diptych Constantius III (cropped)
Constantius III
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS
?, Naissus, Moesia Superior Married to Theodosius I's daughter Galla Placidia, elevated to co-Augustus for the west by Honorius February 8, 421 – September 2, 421 6 months and 25 days September 2, 421 (aged ?)
Natural causes
John Solidus Ravenna RIC 1901 (obverse)
Joannes

IMPERATOR CAESAR IOHANNES AVGVSTVS

? A senior civil servant under Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; not recognized by the Eastern Empire August 27, 423 – May 425 2 years June or July 425 (aged ?)
Defeated in battle by Theodosius II and Valentinian III, captured and executed
Valentinian III
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS PLACIDIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS
July 2, 419, Ravenna, Italia Son of Constantius III, appointed Caesar for the west by Theodosius II after the death of Honorius, in opposition to the regime of Joannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Joannes October 23, 424 – March 16, 455 30 years, 4 months and 21 days March 16, 455 (aged 35)
Assassinated, possibly at the behest of Petronius Maximus

455–476: Last emperors of the Western Empire

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Petronius Maximus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ANICIVS PETRONIVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
c. 396 Son-in-law of Theodosius II, proclaimed himself emperor with the support of the army, after the death of Valentinian III. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. He appointed his son Palladius as caesar. March 17, 455 – May 31, 455 2 months and 14 days May 31, 455 (aged 58/59)
Murdered, probably stoned to death by the Roman mob
Avitus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS MAECILIVS FLAVIVS EPARCHIVS AVITVS AVGVSTVS
c. 385 Magister militum under Petronius Maximus, proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II after Petronius's death. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. July 9, 455 – October 17, 456 1 year, 3 months and 8 days after 17 October 456 (aged 71)
Deposed by his Magister militum, Ricimer; became bishop of Placentia; murdered at some point afterwards
Majorian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALERIVS MAIORIANVS AVGVSTVS
November 420 Proclaimed emperor by his troops. Recognized by the Eastern Empire at the behest of Ricimer. April 457 – August 2, 461 4 years August 7, 461 (aged 40)
Deposed and beheaded on the orders of Ricimer.
Libius Severus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS LIBIVS SEVERVS SERPENTIVS AVGVSTVS
?, Lucania, Italia Appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. November 461 – August 465 4 years August 465 (aged 45)
Probably poisoned by Ricimer
Anthemius
IMPERATOR CAESAR PROCOPIVS ANTHEMIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 420 Son-in-law of Marcian, appointed emperor by Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer. April 12, 467 – July 11, 472 5 years, 2 months and 29 days July 11, 472 (aged 52)
Executed by Ricimer or Gundobad (Ricimer's nephew).
Olybrius
IMPERATOR CAESAR ANICIVS OLYBRIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 420 Son-in-law of Valentinian III; appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. July 11, 472 – November 2, 472 3 months and 22 days November 2, 472 (aged 41)
Natural causes
Glycerius
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS GLYCERIVS AVGVSTVS
? Appointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor). Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. March 473 – June 474 1 year after 480 (aged ?)
Deposed by Julius Nepos, became Bishop of Salona, time and manner of death unknown
Julius Nepos
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS NEPOS AVGVSTVS
c. 430 Nephew-in-law of the eastern emperor Leo I (and nephew of Marcellinus) appointed emperor in opposition to Glycerius June 474 – August 28, 475 (in Italy); – spring 480 (in Gaul and Dalmatia) 1 year/6 years 480 (aged 50)
Deposed in Italy by Orestes, ruled in balance of Western Empire until assassination in 480. Maintained as figurehead in Italy by Odoacer to his death in 480.
Romulus Augustulus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ROMVLVS AVGVSTVS
c. 460[b] Appointed by his father, Orestes. Listed as an emperor by historical convention. His rule never extended beyond portions of the Italian peninsula. Not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno. October 31, 475 – September 4, 476 (in Italy) 10 months and 4 days Unknown.
Deposed by Odoacer, who then ruled in the name of Julius Nepos until the latter's death in 480, which formally ended the separate Western Empire; most likely lived out his life in obscurity on a private villa.

Note: The classical Roman Empire is usually said to have ended with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, with its continuation in the East referred to by modern scholars as the Byzantine Empire.

Eastern Emperors

379–457: Theodosian dynasty

Note: Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, dividing the administration between his sons Arcadius and Honorius on his death.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Theodosius I profile
Theodosius I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS
January 11, 347, Cauca, Hispania Son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole senior Augustus after death of Valentinian II January 19, 379 – January 17, 395 16 years and 16 days January 17, 395 (aged 48)
Natural causes
Arcadius Istanbul Museum
Arcadius
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ARCADIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 377, Hispania Son of Theodosius I; appointed as junior Augustus for the east by Theodosius in January 383; became senior Augustus for the east after his father's death January 17, 395 – May 1, 408 13 years May 1, 408 (aged 31)
Natural causes
Theodosius II Louvre Ma1036
Theodosius II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS
April 10, 401, Constantinople Son of Arcadius; appointed as junior Augustus for the east by Arcadius in 402; became senior Augustus for the east after his father's death January 402 – July 28, 450 48 years July 28, 450 (aged 49)
Injuries suffered during a hunting accident
Pulcheria
Pulcheria
IMPERATRIX AELIA PVLCHERIA AVGVSTA
January 19, 398, Constantinople Daughter of Arcadius and sister of Theodosius II; reigned as co-empress with the younger Theodosius II through his reign from 414 onwards, sole ruler of the empire upon his death as Augusta and Imperatrix July 28, 450 – July, 453 3 years July, 453 (aged 55)
Cause unknown
Marcian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS MARCIANVS AVGVSTVS
396, Thrace or Illyria Nominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, ruled alongside her 450-453 and later alone November 25, 450 – January 25, 457 7 years January 457 (aged 65)
Gout

457–518: Leonid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Leo I Louvre Ma1012 Leo I the Thracian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS LEO AVGVSTVS
c. 400, Dacia Chosen by the army 7 February 457 – 18 January 474 17 years 18 January 474 (aged 73)
Dysentery
Leo (474)-coin Leo II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS LEO AVGVSTVS
c. 467, Constantinople Grandson of Leo I 18 January – 17 November 474 9 months 17 November 474 (aged 7)
Cause unknown, possibly poisoned
Zeno Zeno
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ZENO AVGVSTVS
c. 425, Isauria Named co-emperor by his son Leo II on 9 February 474. 17 November 474 – 9 April 491 17 years 9 April 491 (aged 66)
Dysentery or epilepsy
Basiliscus Basiliscus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS BASILISCVS AVGVSTVS


with

Marcus

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS MARCVS AVGVSTVS

? Seized throne from Zeno, Basiliscus appointed his son Marcus co-emperor at some point in 475. 9 January 475 – August 476 1 year, 7 months 476/477

Starved to death in Limnae (in Cappadocia) by Zeno

Anastasius I (emperor) Anastasius I Dicorus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ANASTASIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 430, Dyrrhachium Son-in-law of Leo I 11 April 491 – 9 July 518 27 years 9 July 518 (aged 87)
Natural causes

518–602: Justinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
JustinI
Justin I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS
c. 450 at Bederiana (Justiniana Prima), Dardania Elected by army July 518 – 1 August 527 9 years 1 August 527 (aged 77)
Natural causes
Mosaic of Justinianus I - Basilica San Vitale (Ravenna)
Justinian I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 482 at Tauresium (Taor), Dardania Nephew of Justin I 1 August 527 – 13/14 November 565 38 years 13/14 November 565 (aged 83)
Natural causes
Theodora mosaic - Basilica San Vitale (Ravenna) v2
Theodora
THEODORA AVGVSTA
c. 500, Cyprus Wife of Justinian I, in some sources described as his co-regent. Theodora had her own court and imperial seal,[12] participated in state councils and Justinian described her as "partner in my deliberations".[13] 9 August 527 – 28 June 548 21 years 28 June 548 (aged 48)
Cancer
Justin II
Justin II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVSTINVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS
c. 520 Nephew of Justinian I 14 November 565 – 5 October 578 13 years 5 October 578 (aged 58)
Natural causes, after insanity
Tiberius II
Tiberius II Constantine

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS TIBERIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS

c. 535 Adopted son of Justin II, regent from 574 5 October 578 – 14 August 582 3 years, 10 months 14 August 582 (aged 62)
Natural causes
Emperor Maurice
Maurice
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS MAURICIVS TIBERIVS AVGVSTVS


with

Theodosius

IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS

539 at Arabissus, Cappadocia Son-in-law of Tiberius II, appointed his son Theodosius (born in August 4 583/585) co-emperor in 590 14 August 582 – 22 November 602 20 years 27 November 602 (aged 63)
Executed, Theodosius executed a few days later by supporters of Phocas
Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Phocas (emperor) Phocas
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS PHOCAS AVGVSTVS
? Seized throne 23 November 602 –
4 October 610
8 years 5 October 610
Executed

610–695: Heraclian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Tremissis of Heraclius Heraclius
(Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος)
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS HERACLIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 575, Cappadocia Revolt 5 October 610 – 11 February 641 30 years 11 February, 641 (aged 65 or 66)
Natural causes
Solidus Heraclius Constantine (cropped) Constantine III
(Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος)
HERACLIVS NOVVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS
3 May 612, Constantinople Son of Heraclius 11 February – 24/26 May 641 3 months 24/26 May 641 (aged 28)
Tuberculosis
Solidus Heraclonas (obverse) Heraklonas
(Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος)
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS HERACLIVS AVGVSTVS
3 May 626, Constantinople Son of Heraclius 11 February 641 – September 641 7 months unknown, but probably before 642
Tremissis of Constans II Pogonatus Constans II
(Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος)
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS
7 November 630 Son of Constantine III. succeeded his uncle Heraklonas after he was deposed as emperor. September 641 – 15 September 668 27 years 15 September 668 (aged 37)
Assassinated
Solidus of Constantine IV Constantine IV
(Φλάβιος Κωνσταντῖνος Αὔγουστος)
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS

with

Heraclius
(Φλάβιος Ἡράκλειος Αὔγουστος)
FLAVIVS HERACLIVS AVGVSTVS

and

Tiberius
(Φλάβιος Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος)
FLAVIVS TIBERIVS AVGVSTVS

652, Constantinople Oldest son of Constans II, co-emperor since 654. His brothers Heraclius and Tiberius, co-emperors since 659, served as co-emperors until they were mutilated and deposed by Constantine in 681. 15 September 668 – 14 September 685

659 – 681 (Heraclius & Tiberius)

17 years

22 years (Heraclius & Tiberius)

14 September 685 (aged 33)
Dysentery
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse Justinian II
(Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος)
FLAVIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS
668 or 669, Constantinople Son of Constantine IV, co-emperor since 681 14 September 685–695 10 years (1st reign) 11 December 711 (aged 42)
Killed by the army

695–717: Twenty Years' Anarchy

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus of Leontius Leontios
(Λεόντιος Αὔγουστος)
LEONTIVS AVGVSTVS[14]
Isauria Revolt 695–698 3 years Executed in February 706
Solidus of Tiberius Apsimar Tiberios III Apsimaros
(Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος)
TIBERIVS AVGVSTVS
Pamphylia Revolt 698–705 7 years Executed in February 706
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse Justinian II
(Φλάβιος Ἰουστινιανὸς Αὔγουστος)
FLAVIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS

(second reign)

with

Tiberius
(Τιβέριος Αὔγουστος)
TIBERIVS AVGVSTVS[15]

668 or 669, Constantinople Returned on the throne with Bulgar support. Named son Tiberius as co-emperor in 706. August 705 – December 711 6 years (2nd reign) 11 December 711 (aged 42)
Both killed by the army
Solidus of Philippicus Bardanes Philippikos Bardanes
(Φιλιππικὸς Αὔγουστος)
FILEPICVS AVGVSTVS[16]
Pergamon Revolt December 711 – 3 June 713 1 year, 6 months 713
Solidus of Anastasius II Anastasios II
(Αρτέμιος Ἀναστάσιος Αὔγουστος)
ARTEMIVS ANASTASIVS AVGVSTVS[17]
? Bureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, he was raised to the purple by the soldiers June 713 – November 715 2 years, 5 months 718, during attempt to regain the throne
Theodosios III. front side of a solidus Theodosius III
(Θεοδόσιος Αὔγουστος)
THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS[18]
? Chosen by troops May 715 – 25 March 717 2 years Unknown. Became a monk

717–802: Isaurian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus of Leo III the Isaurian Leo III the Isaurian
(Λέων)
c. 685, Germanikeia, Commagene Rebellion 25 March 717 – 18 June 741 24 years June 741 (age 56)
Edema
Solidus of Constantine V Copronymus Constantine V
(Κωνσταντῖνος)
July 718, Constantinople Son of Leo III 18 June 741 – 14 September 775 34 years 14 September 775 (aged 57)
Carbuncle
Solidus Artabasdos (obverse) Artabasdos
(Ἀρτάβασδος)

with

Nikephoros
(Νικηφόρος)

? Son-in-law of Leo III. Usurped throne. Proclaimed his son Nikephoros as co-emperor in 741/742 June 741/742 – 2 November 743 1 year, 4 months Unknown
Leo iv constantine vi coin (cropped) Leo IV the Khazar
(Λέων)
750, Constantinople Son of Constantine V 14 September 775 – 8 September 780 5 years 780 (age 30)
Tuberculosis
INC-3040-r Солид. Константин VI и Ирина. 793—979 гг. (реверс) Constantine VI
(Κωνσταντῖνος)
771, Constantinople Son of Leo IV 8 September 780 – August 797 17 years 797 (age 18)
After blinding by Irene
INC-3040-a Солид. Константин VI и Ирина. 793—979 гг. (аверс) Irene of Athens
(Εἰρήνη)
c. 752, Athens Regent during minority of Constantine VI. Seized throne from son in 797. First Byzantine empress regnant. August 797 – 31 October 802 5 years 9 August 803 (aged 51)

802–813: Nikephorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Nicephorus I Logothetes Nikephoros I
(Νικηφόρος)
? Rebellion 31 October 802 –
26 July 811
9 years 26 July 811
After the Battle of Pliska
Solidus-Stauracius Staurakios
(Σταυράκιος)
After 778 Son of Nikephoros I 26 July 811 –
2 October 811
4 months January 11 812 (age ~30)

Gangrene

Michael I Rangabe Michael I Rangabe
(Μιχαὴλ Ῥαγγαβέ)


with

Theophylact

(Θεοφύλακτος)

c. 770 Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, appointed his son Theophylact (born c. 793) as co-emperor on 25 December 811 2 October 811 –
22 June 813
1 year, 8 months January 11 844 (age ~74)

In a monastery on Prote Island, Theophylact died in a monastery on Plate Island on January 15 849

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus of Leo V the Armenian Leo V the Armenian
(Λέων)


with

Constantine

(Κωνσταντῖνος)

c. 775 Rebellion, appointed his son Symbatios as co-emperor under the name Constantine on Christmas 813 11 July 813 –
25 December 820
7 years 25 December 820 (age ~45)
Murdered by successor's conspirators, Constantine died in exile in monastery on Prote Island at a later date

820–867: Amorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus of Michael II the Amorian
Michael II
(Μιχαὴλ)
c. 775 Chosen after murder of predecessor 25 December 820 –
2 October 829
9 years 2 October 829 (age ~54)
Emperor Theophilos Chronicle of John Skylitzes
Theophilos
(Θεόφιλος)
805 Only son of Michael II and co-emperor since 821 2 October 829 –
20 January 842
13 years 20 January 842 (age 37)

Unknown disease

Michael iii
Michael III
(Μιχαὴλ)
19 January 840, Constantinople Son of Theophilos 20 January 842 –
23 September 867
25 years 23 September 867

Assassinated by successor

867–1056: Macedonian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Solidus-Basil I Basil I the Macedonian
(Βασίλειος)
811, Macedonia Previous co-emperor, full emperor upon death of predecessor. 867 –
29 August 886
19 years 29 August 886 (age 75)
Detail of the Imperial Gate mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI the Wise (cropped) Leo VI the Wise
(Λέων
19 September 866, Constantinople Son of Basil I (potentially in reality the son of Michael III), co-emperor since 870. 886 –
11 May 912
26 years 11 May 912 (age 45)
Alexander of Constantinople Alexander
(Ἀλέξανδρος)
23 November 870 Son of Basil I, co-emperor since 879. 11 May 912 –
6 June 913
1 year, 1 month 6 June 913 (age 42)

Exhaustion after a game of tzykanion

Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (cropped) Constantine VII
(Κωνσταντῖνος)
17/18 May 905 Son of Leo VI, co-emperor since 908. 6 June 913 –
9 November 959
46 years 9 November 959 (age 54), Constantinople

Possibly poisoned by his son Romanos II

Romanus I with Christopher, solidus (reverse) Romanos I Lekapenos
(Ῥωμανὸς Λεκαπηνός)


with

Christopher Lekapenos

(Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός)

and

Stephen Lekapenos

(Στέφανος Λακαπηνός)

and

Constantine Lekapenos

(Κωνσταντίνος Λακαπηνός)

c. 870, Lakape Regent for the young Constantine VII, crowned himself senior emperor during Constantine VII's minority. Proclaimed his three sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as co-emperors. Was overthrown by Stephen in 944, who briefly ruled as senior emperor (for a few weeks) until he himself was overthrown by Constantine VII. 17 December 920 –
16 December 944

20 May 921 – August 931 (Christopher)
924–945 (Stephen & Constantine)

24 years

10 years (Christopher)
21 years (Stephen & Constantine)

15 June 948 (age 77-78)

In a monastery as a monk after having been overthrown. Christopher died in August of 931. Both Stephen and Constantine died in exile as monks; Stephen on Easter 963 on Lesbos and Constantine in 946-948 on Samothrace trying to escape exile and reclaim imperial power

Romanos et Eudoxie (cropped) Romanos II
(Ῥωμανὸς ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
c. 938 Son of Constantine VII 9 November 959 –
15 March 963
4 years 15 March 963 (age 24-25)

Possibly poisoned

Nikiphoros Phokas Nikephoros II Phokas
(Νικηφόρος Φωκᾶς)
c. 912 Chosen by the army, acted as senior emperor during the regency of young emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII 16 August 963 –
11 December 969
6 years 11 December 969 (age 56-57), Constantinople

Assassinated by successor John I Tzimiskes

Histamenon John Tzimiskes John I Tzimiskes
(Ἰωάννης Τζιμισκής)
c. 925 Nephew of Nikephoros II Phokas, succeeded as senior emperor and regent for the young emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII 11 December 969 –
10 January 976
7 years 10 January 976 (age 50-51), Constantinople

Poisoned by Imperial chamberlain Basil Lekapenos

Basilios II Basil II
(Βασίλειος)
958, Constantinople Eldest son of Romanos II 10 January 976 –
15 December 1025
49 years 15 December 1025 (age 67-68), Constantinople
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776 (reverse) Constantine VIII
(Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
960, Constantinople Second son of Romanos II, co-emperor since 962. 15 December 1025 –
15 November 1028
3 years 15 November 1028 (age 68), Constantinople
Zoe mosaic Hagia Sophia Zoe Porphyrogenita
(Ζωὴ ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος)
c. 978, Constantinople Daughter of Constantine VIII, succeeded on her father's death along with her sister Theodora. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her. 15 November 1028 –
June 1050
22 years June 1050 (age 72), Constantinople
Romanus III Romanos III Argyros
(Ῥωμανὸς Ἀργυρός)
968 Chosen by Constantine VIII to marry his daughter Zoe and succeed him as emperor. 15 November 1028 –
11 April 1034
6 years 11 April 1034 (age 65-66), Constantinople

Allegedly murdered

Michael IV histamenon (reverse) Michael IV the Paphlagonian
(Μιχαὴλ ὁ Παφλαγών)
1010 Succeeded Romanos III as Zoe's husband and emperor. 11 April 1034 –
10 December 1041
7 years 10 December 1041 (age 31), Constantinople

Died after a long illness.

MichaelVcrop Michael V Kalaphates
(Μιχαὴλ ὁ Καλαφάτης)
1015 Nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. 10 December 1041 –
20 April 1042
5 months 24 August, 1042 (age 27), Constantinople

Deposed, blinded, castrated and tonsured after attempting to sideline Zoe and her sister Theodora.

Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838 (reverse) Theodora Porphyrogenita
(Θεοδώρα ἡ Πορφυρογέννητος)
c. 980 Younger sister of Zoe, raised to co-empress in 1042. 19 April 1042 – 31 August 1056 14 years 31 August 1056 (age 75-76), Constantinople

Died after sudden illness.

Emperor Constantine IX Constantine IX Monomachos
(Κωνσταντῖνος Μονομάχος)
c. 1000 Zoe's third husband 11 June 1042 – 11 January 1055 13 years 11 January 1055 (age ~55), Constantinople

Died after illness.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Michael VI tetarteron (reverse) Michael VI Bringas
(Μιχαὴλ Βρίγγας)
? Chosen as successor by Empress Theodora September 1056 –
31 August 1057
1 year 1059, confined to a monastery after having been deposed by successor.
Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776 (reverse) Isaac I Komnenos
(Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός)
c. 1005 Rebellion 5 June 1057 –
22 November 1059
2 years c. 1061 after having voluntarily abdicated.

1059–1081: Doukid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v (reverse)
Constantine X Doukas
(Κωνσταντῖνος Δούκας)
1006 Chosen successor of Isaac I Komnenos 24 November 1059 –
22 May 1067
8 years 22 May 1067 (aged 61)
Michael VII Doukas on the Holy Crown (cropped)
Michael VII Doukas
(Μιχαὴλ Δούκας)


with

Andronikos Doukas

(Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας)

and

Konstantios Doukas

(Κωνστάντιος Δούκας)

and

Constantine Doukas

(Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας)

1050 Son of Constantine X Doukas and co-emperor since 1059, resigned the throne in 1078. Reigned alongside his brothers Andronikos and Konstantios as co-emperors. Andronikos died in the 1070s while Konstantios briefly succeeded Michael as senior emperor before being handed over to the usurper Nikephoros III and exiled. Michael's son Constantine was also raised to co-emperor in 1074. 22 May 1067 –
31 March 1078

1068 – 1070s (Andronikos)
1060–1078 (Konstantios)

1074–1078 (Constantine)

11 years

18 years (Konstantios)
4 years (Constantine)

1090 (aged ~40), Constantinople, Konstantios died in the Battle of Dyrrhachium on 18 October 1081, having been recalled as a general by Alexios I. Constantine was later raised to co-emperor again under Alexios I and died in 1095
INC-1529-r Номисма тетартерон Роман IV Диоген (реверс)
Romanos IV Diogenes
(Ῥωμανὸς Διογένης)
1032 Married to Constantine X's widow and senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine X 1 January 1068 –
24 October 1071
3 years 1072 (age 42), after having been deposed, blinded and exiled
Nikephorus III
Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης)
1001 Rebellion 31 March 1078 –
4 April 1081
3 years 10 December 1081 (age 80), after having been deposed and exiled to a monastery

1081–1185: Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός)


with

Constantine Doukas

(Κωνσταντίνος Δούκας)

(second co-emperorship)

1056 Rebellion, nephew of Isaac I Komnenos, appointed Constantine Doukas (a previous co-emperor under Michael VII) as co-emperor in 1081. Replaced Constantine with his own son John II in 1087. 4 April 1081 –
15 August 1118

1081 – 1087 (Constantine)

37 years

6 years (Constantine, 2nd co-emperorship)

15 August 1118 (age 70)
Jean II Comnene
John II Komnenos
(Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός)


with

Alexios Komnenos

(Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός)

13 September 1087, Constantinople Son of Alexios I, co-emperor since 1087, appointed his son Alexios co-emperor in 1122 15 August 1118 –
8 April 1143

1122 – 1142 (Alexios)

25 years

20 years (Alexios)

8 April 1143 (age 55), Cilicia

Accidentally cut himself on a poisoned arrow. Alexios died in Attaleia on 2 August 1142 of a fever

Manuel I Comnenus
Manuel I Komnenos
(Μανουὴλ Κομνηνός)
28 November, 1118, Constantinople Son of John II 1143 –
24 September 1180
37 years 24 September 1180 (age 61)
Alexios II - komnenos
Alexios II Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός)
14 September 1169, Constantinople Son of Manuel I 24 September 1180 –
October 1183
3 years October 1183 (age 14), Constantinople

Deposed and killed by successor

Andronikos Komnenos
Andronikos I Komnenos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Κομνηνός)


with

John Komnenos

(Ἰωάννης Κομνηνός)

c. 1118 Nephew of John II (son of his brother Isaac), uncle of Alexios II, appointed his son John as co-emperor in November 1183 October 1183 –
12 September 1185
2 years 12 September 1185 (age 66-67), Constantinople

Overthrown and lynched in a popular uprising, John also seized and probably killed

1185–1204: Angelid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Isaac II Angelos Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος)
September 1156 Rebellion 1185–1195 10 years 25 January 1204 (age 47), Constantinople

Possibly shock or poison

Alexios III Alexios III Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος)
c. 1153 Rebellion, elder brother of Isaac II 1195 –
17/18 July 1203
8 years 1211 (age 58), in captivity in the Empire of Nicaea
Isaac II Angelos Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Ἄγγελος)

(second reign)

September 1156 Restored to the throne by the Fourth Crusade alongside his son Alexios IV 18 July 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
6 months 25 January 1204 (age 47), Constantinople

Possibly shock or poison

Alexius4 Alexios IV Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Ἄγγελος)
c. 1182 Raised to the throne by the Fourth Crusade alongside his father Isaac II 1 August 1203 –
27/28 January 1204
6 months 8 February 1204 (age 21-22), Constantinople

Strangled by successor

Alexius V (cropped) Alexios V Doukas
(Ἀλέξιος Δούκας ὁ Μούρτζουφλος)
c. 1140 Coup in the Imperial Palace, son-in-law of Alexios III 5 February 1204 –
13 April 1204
5 months December 1204 (age 64), Constantinople

Captured by crusaders of the newly founded Latin Empire and publicly executed

1204–1261: Laskarid dynasty

Note: Between 1204 and 1261 there was an interregnum when Constantinople was occupied by the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade and the Empire was divided into the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus, which were all contenders for rule of the Empire. The Laskarid dynasty of the Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire because they had the support of the (Orthodox) Patriarch of Constantinople and managed to re-take Constantinople.

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Theodore I Laskaris miniature Theodore I Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις)
c. 1174, Constantinople His brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders; he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins. Proclaimed emperor after Constantine's death in 1205, Theodore was crowned only in 1208. 1205–
November 1221
21 years November 1221 (age 48)
John III Doukas Vatatzes John III Doukas Vatatzes
(Ἰωάννης Δούκας Βατάτζης)
c. 1192, Didymoteicho Son-in-law of Theodore I 15 December 1221 –
3 November 1254
33 years 3 November 1254 (age 62), Nymphaion
Theodore II Laskaris miniature Theodore II Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Λάσκαρις)
c. 1222, Nicaea Son of John III 3 November 1254–
18 August 1258
4 years 18 August 1258 (age 36), Magnesia

Epilepsy

John IV Laskaris miniature John IV Laskaris
(Ἰωάννης Λάσκαρις)
25 December 1250 Son of Theodore II 18 August 1258–
25 December 1261
3 years c. 1305 (age 55), Constantinople

Blinded and imprisoned by successor in 1261, died in captivity

1261–1453: Palaiologan dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Succession Reign Time in office Death
Michael VIII Palaiologos (head)
Michael VIII Palaiologos
(Μιχαὴλ Παλαιολόγος)
1223 Senior emperor and regent of John IV Laskaris, grandnephew of John III by marriage and great-grandson of Alexios III 1 January 1259–
11 December 1282
23 years, 11 months 11 December 1282 (age 58), Pachomion, near Lysimachia
Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος)
25 March 1259, Nicaea Son of Michael VIII 11 December 1282–
24 May 1328
45 years, 5 months 13 February 1332 (age 72), Constantinople
Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
(Μιχαήλ Παλαιολόγος)
17 April 1277, Constantinople Son of Andronikos II, reigned alongside him as co-emperor with full imperial style 1295–
12 October 1320
25 years 12 October 1320 (age 43), Thessaloniki
Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος)
25 March 1297, Constantinople Son of Michael IX, named co-emperor in 1316 and rival emperor since 1321. Deposed his grandfather Andronikos II in 1328 and reigned as sole emperor 24 May 1328–
15 June 1341
13 years 15 June 1341 (age 44), Constantinople

Possibly chronic malaria

John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)
18 June 1332, Didymoteicho Son of Andronikos III 15 June 1341–
12 August 1376
38 years (1st reign) 16 February 1391 (aged 58), Constantinople
Johannes VI. Cantacuzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
(Ἰωάννης Καντακουζηνός)

with

Matthew Kantakouzenos
(Ματθαίος Ασάνης Καντακουζηνός)

1292, Constantinople Maternal relative of the Palaiologi, declared co-emperor by John V in 1341 and recognized as senior emperor in 1347 following a civil war. Appointed his son Matthew as co-emperor in 1353 8 February 1347–
4 December 1354

1353 – 1357 (Matthew)

7 years

4 years (Matthew)

15 June 1383 (aged 90 or 91), deposed and in exile as a monk in the Peloponnese, Matthew was defeated in 1357 and later served as the governor of the Morea until his death on the same day as his father
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος)
11 April 1348, Constantinople Son of John V, co-emperor since 1352, deposed his father John V in 1376 12 August 1376–
1 July 1379
3 years 28 June 1385 (age 37), Selymbria
John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)

(second reign)

18 June 1332, Didymoteicho Restored to the throne after overthrowing his son Andronikos IV 1 July 1379–
14 April 1390
11 years (2nd reign) 16 February 1391 (aged 58), Constantinople
John VII Palaiologos
John VII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)
1370 Rebellion, son and co-emperor of Andronikos IV, deposed his grandfather John V 14 April 1390–
17 September 1390
5 months 22 September 1408 (aged 38), Thessaloniki
John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)

(third reign)

18 June 1332, Didymoteicho Restored to the throne after overthrowing his grandson John VII 17 September 1390–
16 February 1391
5 months (3rd reign) 16 February 1391 (aged 58), Constantinople
Manuel II Paleologus
Manuel II Palaiologos
(Μανουὴλ Παλαιολόγος)

with

John VII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)

and

Andronikos V Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος)

27 June 1350, Constantinople Son of John V, co-emperor since 1373. John VII Palaiologos, who previously usurped the throne in 1390, was proclaimed co-emperor in 1403, keeping the title until his death in 1408. John VII also proclaimed his son, Andronikos V, co-emperor but Andronikos died before his father, in 1407. The imperial status of John and Andronikos was purely honorary. 16 February 1391–
21 July 1425
1403 – 1408 (John VII)
1403 – 1407 (Andronikos V)
34 years
5 years (John VII)
4 years (Andronikos V)
21 July 1425 (age 75), Constantinople

John died 22 September 1408 at Thessaloniki, Andronikos died aged 7 on September 24th, 1407.

Palaio
John VIII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος)
18 December 1392 Son of Manuel II, co-emperor since 1416 21 July 1425–
31 October 1448
23 years 31 October 1448 (age 55), Constantinople
Constantine XI Palaiologos miniature
Constantine XI Palaiologos
(Κωνσταντῖνος Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος)
8 February 1405, Constantinople Son of Manuel II 6 January 1449–
29 May 1453
4 years, 4 months, 23 days 29 May 1453 (age 48), Constantinople

Refused to surrender Constantinople to the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II and died fighting during the final Ottoman attack

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The other claimants for the throne in the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, supported by the Syrian and British legions respectively. Although not completely defeated until 197, they were not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore not technically reigning emperors.
  2. ^ Romulus Agustulus biographic details.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Rubicon. Holland, T. Abacus, 978-0349115634
  2. ^ Chester G. Starr, A History of the Ancient World, Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 1974. pp. 670–678.
  3. ^ Herrin, Judith (2011-03-12). "The Glories of Byzantium". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  4. ^ Asimov, [title?], p. 198.
  5. ^ Lee, pp. 163–164.
  6. ^ Goldsworthy, pp. 425–440
  7. ^ Breeze & Dobson, pp. 251–255
  8. ^ Moss, Henry, The Birth of the Middle Ages Clarendon Press (London) 1935; Folio Society reprint (London) 1998; pp. 24-28, 281-284.
  9. ^ "Roman Emperors After Theodosius I". Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  10. ^ Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.
  11. ^ Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270-275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  12. ^ Anderson & Zinsser, Bonnie & Judith (1988). A History of Their Own: Women in Europe, Vol 1. New York, NY: Harper & Row. p. 47.
  13. ^ Diehl, Charles (1963). Byzantine Empresses. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.
  14. ^ "(138) Leontius". www2.lawrence.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  15. ^ "Justinian II - Byzantine Coinage - WildWinds.com". www.wildwinds.com. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  16. ^ "Philippicus - Byzantine Coinage - WildWinds.com". www.wildwinds.com. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  17. ^ "Anastasius II - Byzantine Coinage - WildWinds.com". www.wildwinds.com. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  18. ^ "Theodosius III - Byzantine Coinage - WildWinds.com". www.wildwinds.com. Retrieved 2019-04-17.

Sources

Ancient sources
  • Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics, Michael Grant Publications Ltd, 1971, Reprinted 1985, ISBN 0-14-044060-7
Modern sources
  • David J. Breeze, Brian Dobson Hadrian's Wall 4th Edition, Penguin, 2000, ISBN 0-14-027182-1
  • Clive Carpenter, The Guinness Book of Kings Rulers and Statesmen, Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1978, ISBN 0-900424-46-X
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, Phoenix, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7538-2692-8
  • Min Lee (editor), Larousse Pockect Guide Kings and Queens, Larousse, 1995 ISBN 0-7523-0032-6
  • Martha Ross, Rulers and Governments of the World, Vol.1 Earliest Times to 1491, Bowker, 1978, ISBN 0-85935-021-5
  • Chris Scarre, Brandon Shaw, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Thames & Hudson, 1995, Reprinted 2001, ISBN 0-500-05077-5
  • R. F. Tapsell, Monarchs Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of The World, Thames & Hudson, 1981, Reprinted 1987, ISBN 0-500-27337-5

External links

Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.

The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time)) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship of the empire. Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.

Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.

The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.

Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century.

Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe. The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into.

Damnatio memoriae

Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts. There are and have been many routes to damnatio, including the destruction of depictions, the removal of names from inscriptions and documents, and even large-scale rewritings of history.

It was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate on traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman State. The term can be applied to other instances of official scrubbing; the practice is seen as long ago as the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Hatshepsut in the fourteenth century BC.

Illyrian emperors

The Illyriciani or Illyrian emperors were a group of Roman emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century who hailed from the region of Illyricum (the modern Western Balkans), and were raised chiefly from the ranks of the Roman army (whence they are ranked among the so-called "barracks emperors"). In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the Illyricum and the other Danubian provinces (Raetia, Pannonia, Moesia) held the largest concentration of Roman forces (12 legions, up to a third of the total army), and were a major recruiting ground. The advance of these low-born provincials was facilitated by a major shift in imperial policy from the time of Gallienus (260–268) on, when higher military appointments ceased to be exclusively filled by senators. Instead, professional soldiers of humble origin who had risen through the ranks to the post of primus pilus (which also entailed admission to the equestrian order) were placed as heads of the legions and filled the army's command structure.

The historical period of the Illyrian emperors proper begins with Claudius Gothicus in 268 and continues in 284 with the rise of Diocletian and the institution of the Tetrarchy. This period was very important in the history of the Empire, since it represents the recovery from the Crisis of the Third Century, a long period of usurpations and military difficulties. All of the Illyrian emperors were trained and able soldiers, and they recovered most of the provinces and positions lost by their predecessors, including Gaul and the eastern provinces. Men of Illyrian or Thraco-Dacian origin however continued to be prominent in the Empire throughout the 4th century and beyond.

Latin Emperor

The Latin Emperor was the ruler of the Latin Empire, the historiographical convention for the Crusader realm, established in Constantinople after the Fourth Crusade (1204) and lasting until the city was recovered by the Byzantine Greeks in 1261. Its name derives from its Catholic and Western European ("Latin") nature. The empire, whose official name was Imperium Romaniae (Latin: "Empire of Romania"), claimed the direct heritage of the Eastern Roman Empire, which had most of its lands taken and partitioned by the crusaders. This claim however was disputed by the Byzantine Greek successor states, the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire of Trebizond and the Despotate of Epirus. Out of these three, the Nicaeans succeeded in displacing the Latin emperors in 1261 and restored the Byzantine Empire.

List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title.

Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler. It was under Constantine that the major characteristics of what is considered the Byzantine state emerged: a Roman polity centered at Constantinople and culturally dominated by the Greek East, with Christianity as the state religion.

The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire continued until 476. Byzantine emperors considered themselves to be rightful Roman emperors in direct succession from Augustus; the term "Byzantine" was coined by Western historiography only in the 16th century. The use of the title "Roman Emperor" by those ruling from Constantinople was not contested until after the Papal coronation of the Frankish Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (25 December 800 AD), done partly in response to the Byzantine coronation of Empress Irene, whose claim, as a woman, was not recognized by Pope Leo III.

The title of all Emperors preceding Heraclius was officially "Augustus", although other titles such as Dominus were also used. Their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant sovereign but was then used in place of Augustus. Following the establishment of the rival Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, the title "Autokrator" (Gr. Αὐτοκράτωρ) was increasingly used. In later centuries, the Emperor could be referred to by Western Christians as the "Emperor of the Greeks". Towards the end of the Empire, the standard imperial formula of the Byzantine ruler was "[Emperor's name] in Christ, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans" (cf. Ῥωμαῖοι and Rûm). When on occasion rendering their names and titles in Latin in the centuries following the adoption of Basileus and Greek language, Byzantine rulers used Imperator for senior emperors and Rex for junior emperors, as seen in coins of Michael III and his junior emperor Basil I.In the medieval period, dynasties were common, but the principle of hereditary succession was never formalized in the Empire, and hereditary succession was a custom rather than an inviolable principle.

List of Roman imperial victory titles

This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (originally itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous Emperor). In a sense, the Imperial victory titles give an interesting summary of which wars and which adversaries were considered significant by the senior leadership of the Roman Empire, but in some cases more opportunistic motifs play a role, even to the point of glorifying a victory that was by no means a real triumph (but celebrated as one for internal political prestige). For a more complete list of the Emperors themselves, see List of Roman Emperors.

Caligula, 37–41

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it

Claudius, 41–54

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it

Britannicus ("Victorious in Britain"), 44

Vitellius, 69

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 69

Domitian, 81–96

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), late 83

Nerva, 96 98

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97

Trajan, 98–117

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97

Dacicus ("Victorious in Dacia"), 102

Parthicus ("Victorious in Parthia") and Optimus ("the Best"), 114

Marcus Aurelius, 161–180

Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164

Medicus ("Victorious in Media") and Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 166

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 172

Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), 175

Lucius Verus, 161–169

Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164

Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 165

Medicus ("Victorious in Media"), 166

Commodus, 177–192

Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 15 October 172

Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), spring 175

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), mid-182

Britannicus, late 184

Septimius Severus, 193–211

Arabicus ("Victorious in Arabia") and Adiabenicus ("the victor of Adiabene"), 195

Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 198

Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210

Caracalla, 198–217

Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 213

Maximinus Thrax, 235–238

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 235 (awarded by Emperor Alexander Severus)

Claudius II, 268–270

Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor against the Goths"), 269

Aurelian, 270–275

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 270 and 271

Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 271

Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 273

Tacitus, 275–276

Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 276

Probus, 276–282

Gothicus ("the victor of the Goths"), 277

Gothicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), and Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia"), 279

Diocletian, 284–305

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania") and Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor of the Sarmatians"), 285

Diocletian claimed the title Germanicus Maximus five more times (twice in 287, and in 288, 293, and 301) and the title Sarmaticus Maximus three more times (in 289, 294, and 300)

Persicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Persians"), 295

Diocletian claimed the title Persicus Maximus again in 298

Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain") and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor over Carpians"), 297

Armenicus Maximus ("Victorious in Armenia"), Medicus Maximus ("The great victor in Media"), and Adiabenicus Maximus ("The great victor in Adiabene"), 298

Maximian, 286–305, 306–308

Maximian's victory titles are the same as those of Diocletian, except that he did not share Diocletian's first assumption of the titles

Galerius Maximianus, 305–311

Britannicus Maximus ("The great victory in Britain"), and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Carpians"), 297

Galerius claimed the title Carpicus Maximus five more times until the Carpicus Maximus VI ("The 6th great victor of the Carpians"), 308

Constantine I, 307–337

Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 307

Constantine claimed the title Germanicus Maximus three more times (in 308, 314, and 328)

Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor over the Sarmatians"), 323

Constantine claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus one more time (in 334)

Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Goths"), 328

Constantine claimed the title Gothicus Maximus one more time (in 332)

Dacicus Maximus ("The great Victor over the Dacian"), (336)

Constans, 337–350

Sarmaticus ("Victorious over the Sarmatians"). The title was awarded twice, and later critics wrote that proper form required that Constans be called "Sarmaticus Sarmaticus".

Justinian I, 527–565

Alamannicus ("Victorious over the Alamanni"), on accession

Gothicus ("Victorious over the Goths"), on accession

Francicus ("Victorious over the Franks"), on accession

Anticus ("Victorious over the Antae"), on accession

Alanicus ("Victorious over the Alans"), on accession

Vandalicus ("Victorious over the Vandals"), after the Vandalic War, 534

Africanus ("Victorious in Africa"), after the Vandalic War, 534

List of Trapezuntine emperors

This is a list of the Trapezuntine emperors from the foundation of the Empire of Trebizond in 1204 to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1461. The Trapezuntine Emperors ruled Trebizond (Greek: Trapezus), one of the three Byzantine Greek states that claimed direct succession to the Byzantine Empire, which had been usurped by the Latin Empire in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade. Out of the three states, the Empire of Nicaea succeeded in displacing the Latin Emperors in 1261 and restoring the Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty. The Empire of Trebizond would come to outlast the restored Empire centered in Constantinople, and continued to use the imperial title, albeit slightly changed, until its fall.

The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. As such, the Byzantine Emperors continued to style themselves as "Roman Emperors", the term "Byzantine" being coined by Western historiography in the 16th century, long after the Empire had fallen. By the time of the Fourth Crusade, the standard title used by the Byzantine ruler was "[Name] in Christ the God, faithful Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans" (in Greek: [Name] ἐν Χριστῷ τῷ Θεῷ, πιστός βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ Ῥωμαῖων). This title was adopted by the Emperors of both Nicaea and Trebizond in 1204 following the establishment of the Latin Empire, and by the short-lived Empire of Thessalonica in 1225, becoming rival claimants to the Roman imperial title.After the recapture of Constantinople by Michael VIII Palaiologos of Nicaea in 1261, envoys were sent to John II of Trebizond, requesting that he cease using the imperial emblems and titles, and offering the third daughter of the Emperor, Eudokia, in marriage along with the title of Despot. John married Eudokia in Constantinople in 1282. From then on, the Trapezuntine rulers adopted the formula "in Christ the God, faithful Emperor and Autocrat of all the East, of the Iberians and of Perateia" (ἐν Χριστῷ τῷ Θεῷ, πιστός βασιλεὺς καὶ αὐτοκράτωρ πάσης Ἀνατολῆς, Ἰβήρων καὶ Περατείας), rather than "... of the Romans". This title first appears in legislative texts in the signature on a chrysobull by Alexios III. "Of all the East" and "of the Iberians" are overstatements seeing as the region of Iberia (referring to caucasian Iberia, or "Kartli", not to the Iberian Peninsula) itself had already been lost by the Empire at this point. "Perateia", which was preserved in the title until the very end of the Empire (unlike "Iberia" which was dropped c. 1334), refers to the lands under Imperial rule in the Crimean peninsula.The rulers of Trebizond also styled themselves as Megas Komnenos ("Grand Komnenos") to emphasize their descent from the Komnenos dynasty, which had ruled the Byzantine Empire in 1081–1185.Byzantine authors, such as Pachymeres, and to some extent Trapezuntines such as Lazaropoulos and Bessarion, regarded the Trapezuntine Empire as being no more than a Lazian border state. Thus from the point of view of many of the Byzantine writers, particularly those connected with the ruling Laskaris and later Palaiologos dynasties, the rulers of Trebizond were not emperors.

List of ancient Romans

This an alphabetical List of ancient Romans. These include citizens of ancient Rome remembered in history.

Note that some persons may be listed multiple times, once for each part of the name.

See also: List of Roman Emperors – Consuls and other magistrates of Rome – List of famous generals – Roman Emperors - List of distinguished Roman women – List of ancient European doctors

List of condemned Roman emperors

Damnatio memoriae was the ancient Roman practice of erasing the names of disgraced individuals from public memory. The emperors listed below were erased from monuments by decree of the Senate.

Lists of emperors

This is a list including all rulers who had carried the title of emperor through history.

Nepotianus

Julius Nepotianus (died June 30, 350), sometimes known in English as Nepotian, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty who reigned as a short-lived usurper of the Roman Empire. He ruled the city of Rome for twenty-eight days, before being killed by his rival usurper Magnentius' general Marcellinus.

Outline of classical studies

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical studies:

Classical studies (Classics for short) – earliest branch of the humanities, which covers the languages, literature, history, art, and other cultural aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world. The field focuses primarily on, but is not limited to, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during classical antiquity, the era spanning from the late Bronze Age of Ancient Greece during the Minoan and Mycenaean periods (c. 1600-1100 BCE) through the period known as Late Antiquity to the fall of the Western Roman Empire, c. 500 CE. The word classics is also used to refer to the literature of the period.

Political institutions of ancient Rome

Various lists regarding the political institutions of ancient Rome are presented. Each entry in a list is a link to a separate article. Categories included are: constitutions (5), laws (5), and legislatures (7); state offices (28) and office holders (6 lists); political factions (3) and social ranks (8). A political glossary (35) of similar construction follows.

Regnal list

A regnal list or king list is, at its simplest, a list of successive monarchs. Some regnal lists may give the relationship between successive monarchs (e.g., son, brother), the length of reign of each monarch or annotations on important reigns. The list may be divided into dynasties marked off by headings. As a distinct genre, the regnal list originates in the ancient Near East. Its purpose was not originally chronological. It originally served to demonstrate the antiquity and legitimacy of the monarchy, but it became an important device for structuring historical narratives (as in Herodotus) and thus a chronological aid.In antiquity, regnal lists were kept in Sumer, Egypt, Israel, Assyria and Babylonia. King lists have made it into sacred religious texts, such as the Puranas and the Hebrew Bible, which contains an Edomite king list.Regnal lists were kept in early medieval Ireland, Pictland and Anglo-Saxon England. The historian David Dumville regarded them as more reliable than genealogies because they can be manipulated "in a smaller variety of ways than a genealogy". For example, some genealogies may have been fabricated from pre-existing regnal lists. In early medieval Wales, the regnal list was unknown and one copyist, confronted with a mere list of Roman emperors, converted it into a pedigree.

Roman emperor

The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus, consul and pontifex maximus.

The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both. The first emperors reigned alone; later emperors would sometimes rule with co-emperors and divide administration of the empire between them.

The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king. The first emperor, Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, Tiberius, could not convincingly make the same claim. Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic.

From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms also divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted. Elements of the republican institutional framework (senate, consuls, and magistrates) were preserved even after the end of the Western Empire.

The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century after multiple invasions of imperial territory by Germanic barbarian tribes. Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480. Following Nepos' death, the Eastern Emperor Zeno abolished the division of the position and proclaimed himself as the sole Emperor of a reunited Roman Empire. The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople ("New Rome"); they continued to style themselves as Emperor of the Romans (later βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων in Greek), but are often referred to in modern scholarship as Byzantine emperors. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453.

The "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus (βασιλεύς), which had originally meant king in Greek but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire. Other kings were then referred to as rēgas.In addition to their pontifical office, some emperors were given divine status after death. With the eventual hegemony of Christianity, the emperor came to be seen as God's chosen ruler, as well as a special protector and leader of the Christian Church on Earth, although in practice an emperor's authority on Church matters was subject to challenge.

Due to the cultural rupture of the Turkish conquest, most western historians treat Constantine XI as the last meaningful claimant to the title Roman Emperor. From 1453, one of the titles used by the Ottoman Sultans was "Caesar of Rome" (Turkish: Kayser-i Rum), part of their titles until the Ottoman Empire ended in 1922. A Byzantine group of claimant Roman emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461, though they had used a modified title since 1282.

Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, and by the Papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797. Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would then create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between 800 and 1806. These Emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople.

The Fall of the Roman Empire (film)

The Fall of the Roman Empire is a 1964 American epic film directed by Anthony Mann and produced by Samuel Bronston, with a screenplay by Ben Barzman, Basilio Franchina and Philip Yordan. The film stars Sophia Loren, Stephen Boyd, Alec Guinness, James Mason, Christopher Plummer, Mel Ferrer, and Omar Sharif.

The film was a financial failure at the box-office. Despite this, it is considered unusually intelligent and thoughtful for a film of the contemporary sword and sandal genre and also enjoys a 100% "Fresh" rating at Rotten Tomatoes. It features the largest outdoor film set in the history of film, a 92,000 m2 replica of the Roman Forum.

The film's name refers not to the final fall of the Roman empire, which did in fact survive for centuries after the period depicted in the film, but rather to the onset of corruption and decadence which led to Rome's final demise. It deals extensively with the problem of imperial succession, and examines both the relationship between father and son on the background of imperial politics as well as the nature and limits of loyalty and friendship.

The film's plot is only loosely based on actual historical events. However, in the long-established view of Roman history, Marcus Aurelius is considered as the last of the Five Good Emperors whose time is considered the best of Roman imperial history. Commodus is generally considered to have fallen far below the standard set by his father and the four earlier Emperors, and his reign is considered as the beginning of the decline - though that would still take several centuries.

Roman and Byzantine emperors
Principate
27 BC – 235 AD
Crisis
235–284
Dominate
284–395
Western Empire
395–480
Eastern/
Byzantine Empire

395–1204
Empire of Nicaea
1204–1261
Eastern/
Byzantine Empire

1261–1453

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