List of Prime Ministers of Luxembourg

The Prime Minister of Luxembourg (French: Premier ministre du Luxembourg) is the head of government in Luxembourg. His official residence and office is in the Hôtel de Bourgogne at 4 rue de la Congrégation in the city of Luxembourg.

Since 1989, the title of Prime Minister has been an official one,[1] although the head of the government had been unofficially known by that name for some time. Between 1857 and 1989, the Prime Minister was styled the President of the Government,[2] with the exception of the 25-day premiership of Mathias Mongenast.[3] Before 1857, the Prime Minister was the President of the Council. In addition to these titles, the Prime Minister uses the title Minister of State, although this is usually relegated to a secondary title.

This is a list of Prime Ministers and governments since the post was founded, in 1848. In larger font are the dates of the Prime Ministers entering and leaving office. The smaller dates, during the respective premierships, are those of the Prime Ministers' governments. Luxembourg has a collegial governmental system; often, the government will present its resignation, only for the successor government to include many, if not most, of the previous ministers serving under the same Prime Minister. Each of the smaller dates reflects a change in the government without a change of Prime Minister.

The era of independents (1848–1918)

From the promulgation of the first constitution, in 1848, until the early twentieth century, Luxembourgish politics was dominated by independent politicians and statesmen.[4] The prerogative powers of the Grand Duke remained undiluted, and, as such, the monarch actively chose and personally appointed the Prime Minister. As a result, the Prime Minister was often a moderate, without any strong affiliation to either of the two major ideological factions in the Chamber of Deputies: the secularist liberals and the Catholic conservatives.

In the early twentieth century, the emergence of socialism as a third force in Luxembourgish politics ended the dominance of independents, and further politicised the government of the country.[4] This did not affect the Prime Minister's position until 1915, when the long-serving Paul Eyschen died in office. His death created a struggle for power between the main factions, leading to the establishment of the formalised party system.[5]

Prime ministers of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg from 1815 to 1890

Prime Minister
(Birth-Death)
Picture Term of Office
Start End
Gaspard-Théodore-Ignace de la Fontaine
(1787–1871)
Gaspard De La Fontaine 1 August 1848 6 December 1848
First Prime Minister. Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[6]
Jean-Jacques Madeleine Willmar
(1792–1866)
Jean-Jacques Willmar 6 December 1848 23 September 1853
Dismissed by the Governor[7]
Charles-Mathias Simons
(1802–1874)
Mathias Simon 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
23 September 1853
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859

26 September 1860
Coup of 1856. President of the Council until November 1857;
thereafter President of the Government. Resigned.[8]
Victor, Baron de Tornaco
(1805–1875)
Victor de Tornaco 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
26 September 1860
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867

3 December 1867
Shortest cabinet, December 1866. Luxembourg Crisis; Treaty of London.
Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[9]
Lambert Joseph Emmanuel Servais
(1811–1890)
Emmanuel Servais by Bernhoeft-101-cropped 002 1
2
3
4
5
3 December 1867
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873

26 December 1874
Resigned.[10]
Félix, Baron de Blochausen
(1834–1915)
Blochausenfelix 1
2
3
4
5
6
26 December 1874
26 April 1875
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882
26 April 1875
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882

20 February 1885
Dismissed by the Grand Duke.[11]
Jules Georges Édouard Thilges
(1817–1904)
Edouard Thilges 20 February 1885 22 September 1888
Resigned.[12]

Kingdom of the Netherlands shared the same monarchs with Grand Duchy of Luxembourg from 1815 to 1890.Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has its own monarchs since 1890.

Prime ministers of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg since 1890

Prime Minister
(Birth-Death)
Picture Term of Office Monarchs of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(Reign)
Start End
Paul Eyschen
(1841–1915)
Paul Eyschen photograph by Grieser 1
2
3
4
5
6
22 September 1888
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915

11 October 1915
Adolphe
Adolfluxembourg1817-6

(23 November 1890 – 17 November 1905)
Guillaume IV
Guillaume IV of Luxembourg

(17 November 1905 – 25 February 1912)
Longest premiership. Longest cabinet 1896–1905.
Luxembourg occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914. Died in office.[5]
Mathias Mongenast
(1843–1926)
Mongenast Mathias 12 October 1915 6 November 1915 Marie-Adélaïde
Marie-Adélaïde, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg 2

(25 February 1912 – 14 January 1919)
Shortest premiership. Ruled as President of the Council. Resigned.[3]
Hubert Loutsch
(1878–1946)
Luxembourg politic personality icon 6 November 1915 24 February 1916
Minority government.[13] Resigned following a Vote of no confidence.[13]
Victor Thorn
(1844–1930)
Luxembourg politic personality icon 24 February 1916 19 June 1917
National Union Government. Resigned.[14]
Léon Kauffman
(1869–1952)
Luxembourg politic personality icon 19 June 1917 28 September 1918
Resigned.[15]

The party system (1918–present)

In 1918, towards the end of the First World War, a new Chamber of Deputies was elected with the explicit ambition of reviewing the constitution.[15] To this end, formalised parties were formed by the main political blocs, so as to increase their bargaining power in the negotiations. The revisions to the constitution introduced universal suffrage and compulsory voting, adopted proportional representation, and limited the sovereignty of the monarch.

Since the foundation of the party system, only one cabinet (between 1921 and 1925) has not included members of more than one party. Most of the time, governments are grand coalitions of the two largest parties, no matter their ideology; this has made Luxembourg one of the most stable democracies in the world.[16] Two cabinets (between 1945 and 1947) included members of every party represented in the Chamber of Deputies.

During the occupation of Luxembourg by Nazi Germany, Luxembourg was governed by a Nazi Party official, Gustav Simon. Pierre Dupong continued to lead the government in exile in the United Kingdom until the liberation of Luxembourg in December 1944, whereupon the constitutional Luxembourg government returned to the Grand Duchy. Thus, although Luxembourg was formally annexed on 30 August 1942, the Prime Minister of the government in exile, Pierre Dupong, is assumed to have remained Prime Minister throughout.

Prime ministers of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg since 1918

Political Party:   PD   PNI   CSV   DP

Prime Minister
(Birth-Death)
Picture Political Party Term of Office Government Coalition Monarchs of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(Reign)
Election Start End
Émile Reuter
(1874–1973)
Luxemburger-Wort-1946.07.23-p1-Emile-Reuter-2 PD
1919
1922
28 September 1918
5 January 1920
15 April 1921
5 January 1920
15 April 1921

20 March 1925
Reuter PD, LL
PD, LL
PD
Charlotte
Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg

(14 January 1919 – 12 November 1964)
First partisan government. Armistice; Constitution amended.[15] Only one-party cabinet 1921–25. Resigned.[17]
Pierre Prüm
(1886–1950)
Luxembourg politic personality icon PNI 1925 20 March 1925 16 July 1926 Prüm PNI, PRS
Only PNI premiership. Resigned.[18]
Joseph Bech
(1887–1975)
(1st time)
Joseph Bech (detail) PD 1928, 31
1934
1937
16 July 1926
11 April 1932
27 December 1936
11 April 1932
27 December 1936

5 November 1937
Bech PD, LdG
PD, PRL
PD, PRL
Longest party-era cabinet 1926–32. Resigned.[19]
Pierre Dupong
(1885–1953)
Pierre Dupong, Benelux conference The Hague March 1949, Luxembourg Delegation PD

5 November 1937
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
10 May 1940
Dupong-Krier PD, POL, PRL
PD, POL
PD, POL
10 May 1940 23 November 1944 Govt. in Exile PD, POL
CSV

23 November 1944
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
14 November 1945
Liberation CSV, LSAP
1945
14 November 1945
29 August 1946
29 August 1946
1 March 1947
National Union CSV, LSAP, GD, KPL
Michel Rasquin LSAP Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
1948
1 March 1947
14 July 1948
14 July 1948
3 July 1951
Dupong-Schaus CSV, GD
1951 3 July 1951 23 December 1953 Dupong-Bodson CSV, LSAP
World War II; Luxembourg remained neutral.[20] Emergency government; Nazi occupation; government in exile.

Liberation Governments;[21] neutrality ended.[22] National Union Governments.[23] Died in office.[24]

Joseph Bech
(1887–1975)
(2nd time)
Joseph Bech (detail) CSV
1954
29 December 1953
29 June 1954
29 June 1954
29 March 1958
Bech-Bodson CSV, LSAP
Resigned.[25]
Pierre Frieden
(1892–1959)
Luxembourg politic personality icon CSV 1959 29 March 1958 23 February 1959 Frieden CSV, LSAP
Won 1959 election; died in office.[26]
Pierre Werner
(1913–2002)
(1st time)
Pierre Werner 204g CSV 2 March 1959 15 July 1964 Werner-Schaus I CSV, DP
LSAP 1964
15 July 1964
3 January 1967
3 January 1967
6 February 1969
Werner-Cravatte CSV, LSAP Jean
Grand Duke Jean 29.09.2006

(12 November 1964 – 7 October 2000)
1968

6 February 1969
5 July 1971
19 September 1972
5 July 1971
19 September 1972

15 June 1974
Werner-Schaus II CSV, DP
Longest party-era premiership. Went into opposition following 1974 election.[27]
Gaston Egmond Thorn
(1928–2007)
Thorn Van Agt 1980 cropped DP 1974

15 June 1974
21 July 1976
16 September 1977
21 July 1976
16 September 1977

16 July 1979
Thorn DP, LSAP
First DP premiership. Became Deputy Prime Minister under Werner when CSV returned to government following 1979 election.[28]
Pierre Werner
(1913–2002)
(2nd time)
Pierre Werner 204g CSV 1979
16 July 1979
3 March 1980
3 March 1980
22 November 1980
Werner-Thorn CSV, DP

22 November 1980
21 December 1982
21 December 1982
20 July 1984
Werner-Flesch
Retired at 1984 election.[29]
Jacques Louis Santer
(born 1937)
Jacques Santer cropped CSV 1984 20 July 1984 14 July 1989 Santer-Poos I CSV, LSAP
1989
14 July 1989
9 December 1992
9 December 1992
13 July 1994
Santer-Poos II
1994 13 July 1994 26 January 1995 Santer-Poos III
President of the Government until 1989; Prime Minister from 1989. Appointed EC President.[30]
Jean-Claude Juncker
(born 1954)
Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014 CSV
26 January 1995
4 February 1998
4 February 1998
7 August 1999
Juncker-Poos CSV, LSAP
1999 7 August 1999 31 July 2004 Juncker-Polfer CSV, DP Henri
Henri of Luxembourg (2009)

(7 October 2000 – present)
2004 31 July 2004 23 July 2009 Juncker-Asselborn I CSV, LSAP
2009 23 July 2009 4 December 2013 Juncker-Asselborn II
Longest uninterrupted party-era premiership. Former President of the Euro Group.
Xavier Bettel
(born 1973)
Tallinn Digital Summit. Handshake Xavier Bettel and Jüri Ratas (36718144533) CROP BETTEL DP 2013 4 December 2013 5 December 2018 Bettel-Schneider DP, LSAP, DG
2018 5 December 2018 incumbent Bettel-Schneider II
Second DP premiership.

See also

References

Specific
  1. ^ Thewes (2003), p.209
  2. ^ Thewes (2003), p.21
  3. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.65
  4. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.8
  5. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.64
  6. ^ Thewes (2003), p.16
  7. ^ Thewes (2003), p.20
  8. ^ Thewes (2003), p.28
  9. ^ Thewes (2003), p.34
  10. ^ Thewes (2003), p.42
  11. ^ Thewes (2003), p.48
  12. ^ Thewes (2003), p.52
  13. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.66
  14. ^ Thewes (2003), p.69
  15. ^ a b c Thewes (2003), p.76
  16. ^ Weston, Steve (2 March 2003). "Luxembourg Country Commercial Guide FY 2003: Political Environment". Retrieved 28 June 2006.
  17. ^ Thewes (2003), p.88
  18. ^ Thewes (2003), p.90
  19. ^ Thewes (2003), p.104
  20. ^ Thewes (2003), p.107
  21. ^ Thewes (2003), p.115
  22. ^ Thewes (2003), p.118
  23. ^ Thewes (2003), p.122
  24. ^ Thewes (2003), p.140
  25. ^ Thewes (2003), p.148
  26. ^ Thewes (2003), p.151
  27. ^ Thewes (2003), p.182
  28. ^ Thewes (2003), p.192
  29. ^ Thewes (2003), p.204
  30. ^ Thewes (2003), p.222
Bibliography

External links

Gaston Thorn

Gaston Egmond Thorn (3 September 1928 – 26 August 2007) was a Luxembourg politician who served in a number of high-profile positions, both domestically and internationally. Amongst the posts that he held were the 19th Prime Minister of Luxembourg (1974–79), President of the United Nations General Assembly (1975), and the seventh President of the European Commission (1981–85).

History of Luxembourg

The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area.

Although its recorded history can be traced back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963. Over the following five centuries, the powerful House of Luxembourg emerged, but its extinction put an end to the country's independence. After a brief period of Burgundian rule, the country passed to the Habsburgs in 1477.

After the Eighty Years' War, Luxembourg became a part of the Southern Netherlands, which passed to the Austrian line of the Habsburg dynasty in 1713. After occupation by Revolutionary France, the 1815 Treaty of Paris transformed Luxembourg into a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands. The treaty also resulted in the second partitioning of Luxembourg, the first being in 1658 and a third in 1839. Although these treaties greatly reduced Luxembourg's territory, the latter established its formal independence, which was confirmed after the Luxembourg Crisis of 1867.

In the following decades, Luxembourg fell further into Germany's sphere of influence, particularly after the creation of a separate ruling house in 1890. It was occupied by Germany from 1914 until 1918 and again from 1940 until 1944. Since the end of the Second World War, Luxembourg has become one of the world's richest countries, buoyed by a booming financial services sector, political stability, and European integration.

Jacques Santer

Jacques Santer (born 18 May 1937) is a Luxembourg politician who served as the 9th President of the European Commission from 1995 to 1999. He served as Finance Minister of Luxembourg from 1979 until 1989, and the 20th Prime Minister of Luxembourg from 1984 to 1995, as a member of the Christian Social People's Party, which has been the leading party in the Luxembourg government since 1979. As Prime Minister of Luxembourg he also led the negotiations on the Single European Act, which effectively set aside the 20-year-old Luxembourg Compromise.

Jean-Claude Juncker

Jean-Claude Juncker (Luxembourgish: [ʒɑ̃ːkloːt ˈjuŋkɐ]; born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014. From 1995 to 2013 he served as the 23rd Prime Minister of Luxembourg; from 1989 to 2009 he was also Minister for Finances.

By the time he left office, he was the longest-serving head of any national government in the EU, and one of the longest-serving democratically elected leaders in the world, his tenure encompassing the height of the European financial and sovereign debt crisis. From 2005 to 2013, Juncker served as the first permanent President of the Eurogroup.

In 2014, the European People's Party (EPP) had Juncker as its lead candidate, or Spitzenkandidat, for the presidency of the Commission in the 2014 elections. This marked the first time that the Spitzenkandidat process was employed. Juncker is the first president that prior to the election has campaigned as a candidate for the position, a process introduced with the Treaty of Lisbon. The EPP won 220 out of 751 seats in the Parliament. On 27 June 2014, the European Council officially nominated Juncker for the position, and on 15 July 2014, the European Parliament elected him with a majority of 422 votes from a total of 729 cast. He succeeded José Manuel Barroso as President on 1 November 2014. Juncker stated that his priorities would be the creation of a digital single market, the development of an EU Energy Union, the negotiation of the Transatlantic Trade Agreement, the continued reform of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union—with the social dimension in mind—and a "targeted fiscal capacity" for the Eurozone, as well as to negotiate a new deal with Britain.

List of Deputy Prime Ministers of Luxembourg

The Deputy Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the second-highest position in the Luxembourgian cabinet. The Deputy serves a vital function in Luxembourg's collegiate cabinet system, deputises for the Prime Minister when he is absent, represents his or her own political party, and holds other government positions.

Since the position was created, in 1959, almost all governments have been coalitions of two of the three major parties: the Christian Social People's Party (CSV), the Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP), and the Democratic Party (DP). The current government, however, consists of the LSAP, the DP and the Greens, a novelty. The Deputy Prime Minister has always been a leading politician from the junior coalition partner.

Since 1989, the title of Deputy Prime Minister has been an official one, although the position had been unofficially known by that name since its creation. From the position's creation until 1989, the Deputy Prime Minister went by the name of the Vice-President of the Government. This mirrored the Prime Minister's title, which was President of the Government until 1989.

List of Governors of Luxembourg

The following is a list of governors of Luxembourg.

From the 15th to the 19th centuries, the Duchy (later Grand-Duchy) of Luxembourg was ruled by the French, the Burgundians, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, and the Dutch.

From 1848 onwards, when Luxembourg received its first constitution, it started to be administered by a government in the modern sense of the word, one which was accountable to an elected Luxembourgish legislature.

List of ambassadors of China to Luxembourg

The Chinese ambassador in Luxembourg City is the official representative of the Government in Beijing to the Government of Luxembourg.

The governments in Luxembourg City and Taipei recognized each other: from 1948 to October 26, 1971, the Taiwanese Ambassador in Brussels was coaccredited in Luxembourg City .

On December 16, 1964, the diplomatic rank of the Legation in Luxembourg City was elevated to that of an embassy.

Since |April 1988 the ambassador has his residence in Luxembourg City

List of ambassadors of Luxembourg to China

The Luxembourger ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Luxembourg City to the Government of the People's Republic of China concurrently accredited in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia), Hanoi (Vietnam) and Singapore.

List of monarchs of Luxembourg

The territory of Luxembourg was ruled successively by counts, dukes and grand dukes. It was part of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, and later the Holy Roman Empire until it became a sovereign state in 1815.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Luxembourg)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (French: Ministère des Affaires étrangères, MAE) is a ministry of the government of Luxembourg, headquartered in the Bâtiment Mansfeld in Luxembourg City.It is headed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs (French: Ministre des Affaires étrangères), a position in the Luxembourgian cabinet. This post is currently held by Jean Asselborn. The Minister for Foreign Affairs is responsible for determining Luxembourg's foreign policy and representing the government abroad.

Pierre Werner

Pierre Werner (29 December 1913 – 24 June 2002) was a Luxembourg politician in the Christian Social People's Party (CSV) who was the 18th Prime Minister from 1959 to 1974 and from 1979 to 1984.

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