The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
In periods when the post of the President of Czechoslovakia was vacant, some presidential duties were carried out by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions do not define anything like a post of acting president.
|Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia|
|Formation||14 November 1918|
|First holder||Karel Kramář|
|Final holder||Jan Stráský|
|Abolished||31 December 1992|
|Succession|| Václav Klaus|
|No.||Portrait||Name||Lifespan||Ethnicity||Took office||Left office||Political affiliation(s)|
|1||Karel Kramář||1860–1937||Czech||14 November 1918||8 July 1919||ČSND|
|2||Vlastimil Tusar||1880–1924||Czech||8 July 1919||15 September 1920||ČSSD|
|3||Jan Černý||1874–1959||Czech||15 September 1920||26 September 1921||Independent|
|4||Edvard Beneš||1884–1948||Czech||26 September 1921||7 October 1922||Independent|
|5||Antonín Švehla||1873–1933||Czech||7 October 1922||18 March 1926||RSZML / Pětka|
|6||Jan Černý||1874–1959||Czech||18 March 1926||12 October 1926||Independent|
|7||Antonín Švehla||1873–1933||Czech||12 October 1926||1 February 1929||RSZML / Pětka|
|8||František Udržal||1866–1938||Czech||1 February 1929||24 October 1932||RSZML|
|9||Jan Malypetr||1873–1947||Czech||24 October 1932||5 November 1935||RSZML|
|10||Milan Hodža||1878–1944||Slovak||5 November 1935||22 September 1938||RSZML|
|11||Jan Syrový||1888–1970||Czech||22 September 1938||1 December 1938||Independent|
|12||Rudolf Beran||1887–1954||Czech||1 December 1938||15 March 1939||RSZML / SNJ|
Alois Eliáš became Prime Minister of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a de iure autonomous region incorporated into Nazi Germany.
Vojtech Tuka became Prime Minister of the quasi-independent, pro-Nazi and clero-fascist Slovak Republic.
Julian Révaý became Prime Minister of the Carpatho-Ukraine few days before occupation by the Kingdom of Hungary.
|14||Jan Šrámek||1870–1956||Czech||21 July 1940||5 April 1945||ČSL|
|15||Zdeněk Fierlinger||1891–1976||Czech||5 April 1945||2 July 1946||ČSSD|
|16||Klement Gottwald||1896–1953||Czech||2 July 1946||15 June 1948||KSČ|
Official names: Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989)
|17||Antonín Zápotocký||1884–1957||Czech||15 June 1948||14 March 1953||KSČ|
|18||Viliam Široký||1902–1971||Slovak||14 March 1953||20 September 1963||KSČ|
|19||Jozef Lenárt||1923–2004||Slovak||20 September 1963||8 April 1968||KSČ|
|20||Oldřich Černík||1921–1994||Czech||8 April 1968||28 January 1970||KSČ|
|21||Lubomír Štrougal||born 1924||Czech||28 January 1970||12 October 1988||KSČ|
|22||Ladislav Adamec||1926–2007||Czech||12 October 1988||7 December 1989||KSČ|
Official names: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1989–1990), Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990–1992)
|23||Marián Čalfa||born 1946||Slovak||7 December 1989||2 July 1992||KSČ / VPN / ODÚ|
|23||Jan Stráský||born 1940||Czech||2 July 1992||31 December 1992||ODS|
6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Czech Republic" within Czechoslovakia.
Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic
|Term of Office||Political Party||Cabinet||National Council|
|Took Office||Left Office||Days|
|24||Petr Pithart (1941–)||6 February 1990||29 June 1990||877||Civic Forum(OF)||I||KSČ – ČSL – OF||5 (1986)|
|29 June 1990||2 July 1992||II||OF – HSD-SMS – KDU||6 (1990)|
|Term of Office||Political Party||Cabinet||Chamber of Deputies|
|Took Office||Left Office||Days|
|25||Václav Klaus (1941–)||2 July 1992||4 July 1996||2,010||Civic Democratic Party(ODS)||I||ODS – KDU-ČSL – ODA – KDS||1 (1992)|
|4 July 1996||2 January 1998||II||ODS – KDU-ČSL – ODA||2 (1996)|
|26||Josef Tošovský (1950–)||17 December 1997||22 July 1998||201||Independent||•||ODS – KDU-ČSL – ODA||2 ( ···· )|
|27||Miloš Zeman (1944–)||17 July 1998||15 July 2002||1,454||Czech Social Democratic Party(ČSSD)||•||ČSSD||3 (1998)|
|28||Vladimír Špidla (1951–)||12 July 2002||4 August 2004||751||Czech Social Democratic Party(ČSSD)||•||ČSSD – KDU-ČSL – US–DEU||4 (2002)|
|29||Stanislav Gross (1969–2015)||26 July 2004||25 April 2005||264||Czech Social Democratic Party(ČSSD)||•||ČSSD – KDU-ČSL – US–DEU||4 ( ···· )|
|30||Jiří Paroubek (1952–)||25 April 2005||4 September 2006||497||Czech Social Democratic Party(ČSSD)||•||ČSSD – KDU-ČSL – US–DEU||4 ( ···· )|
|31||Mirek Topolánek (1956–)||16 August 2006||9 January 2007||977||Civic Democratic Party(ODS)||I||ODS||5 (2006)|
|8 November 2006||8 May 2009||II||ODS – KDU-ČSL – SZ||5 ( ···· )|
|32||Jan Fischer (1951–)||9 April 2009||13 July 2010||431||Independent||•||No party||5 ( ···· )|
|33||Petr Nečas(1964–)||28 June 2010||10 July 2013||1,093||Civic Democratic Party(ODS)||•||ODS – TOP 09– VV||6 (2010)|
|34||Jiří Rusnok (1960–)||25 June 2013||29 January 2014||203||Independent||•||ČSSD– KDU-ČSL
|6 ( ···· )|
|35||Bohuslav Sobotka (1971–)||17 January 2014||13 December 2017||1,426||Czech Social Democratic Party(ČSSD)||•||ČSSD – ANO 2011 – KDU-ČSL||7 (2013)|
|36||Andrej Babiš (1954–)||6 December 2017||27 June 2018||480||ANO 2011||I||ANO 2011||8 (2017)|
|27 June 2018||Incumbent|
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule. Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union.Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960. Shortly after the Velvet Revolution, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.Czechoslovak government-in-exile
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940. The Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile offices were at various locations in London but mainly at a building called Fursecroft.
It was the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War. A specifically anti-Fascist government, it sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to return the Republic to its 1937 boundaries. As such it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognised it, the legal continuation of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (; Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate.
From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy. Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Czechs
The Czechs (Czech: Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ]; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx], singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka]) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.
Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.
The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.František Udržal
František Udržal (Czech pronunciation: [ˈfraɲcɪʃɛk ˈudr̩ʒal]listen ) (1 January 1866 in Dolní Roveň, Pardubice District, Kingdom of Bohemia – 25 April 1938 in Prague) was a Czechoslovak politician.
A member and leader of the powerful Agrarian Party, his political career started as member of the local Diet of Bohemia, then of parliament of Austria-Hungary, then of parliament of Czechoslovakia. He served seven years as minister of defense and four years as prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1 February 1929 – 24 October 1932) in two periods (1 February 1929 – 7 December 1929 and 7 December 1929 – 29 October 1932).History of the Czech lands
The history of what are now known as the Czech lands (Czech: České země) is very diverse. These lands have changed hands many times, and have been known by a variety of different names. Up until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the First World War, the lands were known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown and formed a constituent state of that empire: the Kingdom of Bohemia (in Czech: "Království české", the word "Bohemia" is a Latin term for Čechy).
Prior to the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Kingdom was an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire. After that battle the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were incorporated into the Austrian Empire, and later into the aforementioned Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
They came to be known as the Czech lands after the fall of the Empire, and the rise of the First Czechoslovak Republic, when the term Bohemia (Czech: Čechy), which also refers to the core region of the former kingdom, was no longer deemed acceptable by those in Moravia and Czech Silesia (historically, other two core lands of the Bohemian Crown). These three integral Czech lands (Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia) now form the boundaries of the Czech Republic.Jan Malypetr
Jan Malypetr (21 December 1873 in Klobuky, Kingdom of Bohemia – 27 September 1947 in Slaný) was a Czechoslovak politician.
A member of the Agrarian Party, he was Minister of Interior, and Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies from 17 December 1925 to 29 October 1932 and from 5 November 1935 to 1939.
Additionally, he served three terms as prime minister of Czechoslovakia:
29 October 1932 – 14 February 1934
14 February 1934 – 4 June 1935
4 June 1935 – 5 November 1935His grandson is author Jiří Stránský.Jan Stráský
Jan Stráský (born 24 December 1940 in Plzeň) is a Czech politician, who served as the last Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia in 1992.
Stráský studied philosophy and political economy at the Charles University in Prague. From 1958 to 1990 he worked at the Central bank of Czechoslovakia. From 1964 to 1969 he was a member of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.
In 1991 Stráský became a member of the Civic Democratic Party. From 1992 he was a member of parliament, minister of transportation (1993–95), and minister of health (1995–96). From 2 July to 31 December 1992 he served as prime minister. When Czechoslovak President Václav Havel resigned on 20 July 1992 due to his disagreement with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, some presidential competencies were handed over to Stráský.From 2001 to 2006 Stráský was the regional head of government in the South Bohemian Region, at which point he left politics. From 2011-2012 he was the director of Sumava National Park.Jan Syrový
Jan Syrový (24 January 1888 – 17 October 1970) was a Czechoslovak Army four star general and the prime minister during the Munich Crisis.Jozef Lenárt
Jozef Lenárt (3 April 1923 – 11 February 2004) was a Slovak politician who was Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1963 to 1968.List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president.
The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.
The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.
As of 2017, there are two living former General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia: Miloš Jakeš and Karel Urbánek.List of Presidents of the Czech Republic
This is a list of Presidents of the Czech Republic, a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary representative democracy, with the President acting as head of state and the Prime Minister acting as head of government.
The first President of the Czech Republic was Václav Havel. The current President is Miloš Zeman, in office since 8 March 2013.
Until 2012, the President was elected by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, for a term lasting five years. Since 2013 the President is elected by popular vote. The only living former President of the Czech Republic is Václav Klaus.List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary representative democracy, with the Prime Minister acting as head of government and the President acting as head of state.
The first Prime Minister of the Czech Republic was Václav Klaus, who served as the second President from 7 March 2003 until 7 March 2013. The current and 12th Prime Minister is Andrej Babiš, leader of the ANO 2011, who was appointed by the President on 6 December 2017.List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic.
1 January 1969 – 5 March 1990: called "Czech Socialist Republic" within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Czech Republic" within the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Stanislav Rázl: 8 January – 29 September 1969
Josef Kempný: 29 September 1969 – 28 January 1970
Josef Korčák: 28 January 1970 – 20 March 1987
Ladislav Adamec: 20 March 1987 – 12 October 1988
František Pitra: 12 October 1988 – 6 February 1990
Petr Pithart: 6 February 1990 – 2 July 1992
Václav Klaus: 2 July 1992 – 31 December 1992List of Prime Ministers of the Slovak Socialist Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Slovak Socialist Republic.
1 January 1969 – 5 March 1990: called "Slovak Socialist Republic" within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Slovak Republic" within the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Štefan Sádovský: 2 January 1969 – 5 May 1969
Peter Colotka: 5 May 1969 – 12 October 1988
Ivan Knotek: 13 October 1988 – 22 June 1989
Pavel Hrivnák: 23 June 1989 – 8 December 1989
Milan Čič: 10 December 1989 – 27 June 1990
Vladimír Mečiar: 27 June 1990 – 6 May 1991
Ján Čarnogurský: 6 May 1991 – 24 June 1992
Vladimír Mečiar: 24 June 1992 – 31 December 1992List of rulers of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
This is a list of rulers of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, which from 15 March 1939 until 5 May 1945 comprised the German-occupied parts of Czechoslovakia. It includes both the representatives of the recognized Czech authorities as well as the German Reichsprotektoren ("Reich protectors") and the Minister of State, who held the real executive power.Lists of office-holders
These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.
A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current office holders.
Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2007 in politics, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.
Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet (government), chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), Secretary of State.Prime Minister of Slovakia
The Chairman of the Government of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Predseda vlády Slovenskej republiky), also known as the Prime Minister (Slovak: Premiér), is the head of the Government of Slovakia. On paper he is the third highest constitutional official in Slovakia after the President of Slovakia and the Speaker of the National Council. In practice, he is the country's leading political figure.
The office itself was created in 1969 and since then there has been 14 prime ministers serving in the office. Since 1993, when independent Slovakia emerged, seven prime ministers (five individuals only) have been serving in the office. On March 22, 2018, Peter Pellegrini became the 8th and current prime minister.Viliam Široký
Viliam Široký (31 May 1902 – 6 October 1971) was a prominent Communist politician of Czechoslovakia, the Prime Minister from 1953 to 1963. He also served as the leader of the Communist Party of Slovakia between 1945 and 1954. According to the French historian Muriel Blaive, he was an ethnic Hungarian.
Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia
|First Czechoslovak Republic|
|Second Czechoslovak Republic|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic|
Heads of state and government of Europe