List of Prime Ministers of Canada

The Prime Minister of Canada is an official who serves as the primary minister of the Crown, chair of the Cabinet, and thus head of government of Canada. Officially, the prime minister is appointed by the Governor General of Canada, but by constitutional convention, the prime minister must have the confidence of the elected House of Commons. Normally, this is the leader of the party caucus with the greatest number of seats in the house. But, if that leader lacks the support of the majority, the governor general can appoint another leader who has that support or may dissolve parliament and call a new election. By constitutional convention, a prime minister holds a seat in parliament and, since the early 20th century, this has more specifically meant the House of Commons.[1]

The office is not outlined in any of the documents that constitute the written portion of the Constitution of Canada; executive authority is formally vested in the sovereign and exercised on his or her behalf by the governor general. The prime ministership is part of Canada's constitutional convention tradition. The office was modelled after that which existed in Britain at the time. Sir John A. Macdonald was commissioned by the Viscount Monck on 24 May 1867, to form the first government of the Canadian Confederation. On 1 July 1867, the first ministry assumed office.[2]

The date for which a prime minister begins his or her term has been determined by the date that he or she is sworn into his or her portfolio, as an oath of office as prime minister is not required.[3] However, since 1957, the incoming prime minister has sworn an oath as prime minister.[3] Before 1920, prime ministers' resignations were accepted immediately by the governor general and the last day of the ministries were the date he died or the date of resignation.[3] Since 1920, the outgoing prime minister has only formally resigned when the new government is ready to be formed.[3] The Interpretation Act of 1967 states that "where an appointment is made effective or terminates on a specified day, that appointment is considered to be effective or to terminate after the end of the previous day".[3] Thus, although the outgoing prime minister formally resigns only hours before the incoming ministry swears their oaths, both during the day, the ministries are effectively changed at midnight the night before. Some sources, including the Parliament of Canada, apply this convention as far back as 1917.[4] Two prime ministers have died in office: John A. Macdonald (1867–1873, 1878–1891), and John Thompson (1892–1894). All others have resigned, either after losing an election or upon retirement.

Prime Ministers of Canada to 1963
Canada's Prime Ministers during its first century

Prime ministers

Abbreviation key: No.: Incumbent number, Min.: Ministry, Refs: References
Colour key:
Provinces key: AB: Alberta, BC: British Columbia, MB: Manitoba, NS: Nova Scotia,
ON: Ontario, QC: Quebec, SK: Saskatchewan
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office Electoral mandates (Parliaments) Political party Min. Refs
1
Sir John A Macdonald circa 1878 retouched
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1815–1891)
MP for Kingston, ON
1 July 1867

5 November 1873
Liberal-Conservative Party 1st [2][5]
Minister of Justice; Integration of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory into Canada; Manitoba Act; Red River Rebellion; British Columbia and Prince Edward Island join confederation; Creation of the North-West Mounted Police; Resigned over Pacific Scandal
2
Alexander McKenzie3
Alexander Mackenzie
(1822–1892)
MP for Lambton, ON
7 November 1873

8 October 1878
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1873
2nd [6][7]
Pacific Scandal; Creation of the Supreme Court; Establishment of the Royal Military College; Created the office of the Auditor General
(1)
Sir John A Macdonald circa 1878 retouched
Sir John A. Macdonald
(1815–1891)
MP for Victoria, BC until 1882
MP for Carleton, ON until 1887
MP for Kingston, ON
17 October 1878

6 June 1891
Liberal-Conservative Party 3rd [8][9]
National Policy; Railway to the Pacific; North-West Rebellion; Hanging of Louis Riel. Died in office (stroke).
3
Johnabbott
Sir John Abbott
(1821–1893)
Senator for Quebec
16 June 1891

24 November 1892
Liberal-Conservative Party 4th [10][11]
Minister without Portfolio; Succeeded on Macdonald's death due to objections to the Catholic John Thompson. In ill health; retired. First prime minister born in what would become Canada, and first of only two prime ministers to serve while in the Senate.
4
John Thompson
Sir John Thompson
(1845–1894)
MP for Antigonish, NS
5 December 1892

12 December 1894
Liberal-Conservative Party 5th [12][13]
Minister of Justice; First Catholic Prime Minister. Manitoba Schools Question. Died in office (heart attack).
5
SirMackenzieBowell
Sir Mackenzie Bowell
(1823–1917)
Senator for Ontario
21 December 1894

27 April 1896
Conservative Party (historical) 6th [14][15]
Minister of Customs; Minister of Militia and Defence; Manitoba Schools Question. Last prime minister to serve while in the Senate.
6
Chas Tupper - GG Bain
Sir Charles Tupper
(1821–1915)
Did not serve in Parliament while Prime Minister
1 May 1896

8 July 1896
  • Appointment (no parl't)
Conservative Party (historical) 7th [16][17]
Minister of Customs, Minister of Railways and Canals; Oldest Canadian PM. Aimed to defeat Patrons of Industry, but dominated by Manitoba Schools Question. Never sat in parliament as Prime Minister.
7
The Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier Photo C (HS85-10-16873) - medium crop
Sir Wilfrid Laurier
(1841–1919)
MP for Quebec East, QC
11 July 1896

6 October 1911
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1887
8th [18][19]
Manitoba Schools Question; Boer War; Alberta and Saskatchewan created; Creation of the Royal Canadian Navy; Reciprocity with the US; Department of External Affairs established; First French Canadian Prime Minister; Removed the right of status Indians to vote.
8
Sir Robert Laird Borden, 1915
Sir Robert Borden
(1854–1937)
MP for Halifax, NS until 1917
MP for Kings, NS
10 October 1911

11 October 1917
Conservative Party (historical)
Named leader in 1901
9th [19][20][21]
12 October1917

10 July 1920
Unionist Party 10th
First World War; Military Service Act; Conscription Crisis of 1917; Union government; National Research Council; Introduction of income tax; Nickle Resolution; Women's suffrage; Suppression of Winnipeg General Strike; Canada sits at the Paris Peace Conference, signs the Treaty of Versailles and joins League of Nations.
9
Arthur Meighen-
Arthur Meighen
(1874–1960)
MP for Portage la Prairie, MB
10 July 1920

29 December 1921
National Liberal and Conservative Party
Named leader in 1920
11th [22][23]
Solicitor General of Canada, Minister of Mines, Secretary of State for Canada, Minister of the Interior, Superintendent Indian Affairs; Grand Trunk Railway placed under control of Canadian National Railways.
10
Wm Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874–1950)
MP for York North, ON until 1925
MP for Prince Albert, SK
29 December 1921

28 June 1926
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1919
12th [24][25]
Minister of Labour; Chanak Crisis; lower tariffs; reinstated Crowsnest Pass Agreement; 1923 Imperial Conference; Halibut Treaty; Continued after 1925 with third party Progressive support until resigning after his request for an election was refused by Governor General Lord Byng.
(9)
Arthur Meighen-
Arthur Meighen
(1874–1960)
MP for Portage la Prairie, MB
29 June 1926

25 September 1926
Conservative Party (historical) 13th [22][26]
Appointed as a result of the King–Byng Affair.
(10)
Wm Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874–1950)
MP for Prince Albert, SK
25 September 1926

7 August 1930
Liberal Party 14th [24][27]
Balfour Declaration; Introduction of old age pensions; first Canadian envoys with full diplomatic status sent to foreign countries (USA, France, Japan); Great Depression.
11
Richard Bedford Bennett
R. B. Bennett
(1870–1947)
MP for Calgary West, AB
7 August 1930

23 October 1935
Conservative Party (historical)
Named leader in 1927
15th [28][29]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Finance; Great Depression; Imperial Preference; Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; Canadian Wheat Board; Creation of the Bank of Canada.
(10)
Wm Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1874–1950)
MP for Prince Albert, SK until 1945
MP for Glengarry, ON
23 October 1935

15 November 1948
Liberal Party 16th [24][30]
Creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; National Film Board of Canada; Unemployment Insurance Act of 1940; Nationalization of the Bank of Canada; Second World War; Japanese Canadian internment; Conscription Crisis of 1944; Canada's entry into the United Nations; Trans-Canada Airlines; Gouzenko Affair.
12
Louisstlaurent
Louis St. Laurent
(1882–1973)
MP for Quebec East, QC
15 November 1948

21 June 1957
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1948
17th [31][32]
Minister of Justice, Secretary of State for External Affairs; Dominion of Newfoundland joins confederation; right of appeal to Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ended; Canada's entrance into NATO; Suez Crisis; Creation of the United Nations Emergency Force; London Declaration; Newfoundland Act; Equalization; Trans-Canada Highway; St. Lawrence Seaway; Trans-Canada Pipeline; Pipeline Debate.
13
John G. Diefenbaker
John Diefenbaker
(1895–1979)
MP for Prince Albert, SK
21 June 1957

22 April 1963
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1956
18th [33][34]
Avro Arrow cancellation; Coyne Affair; Cuban Missile Crisis; NORAD; Establishment of Board of Broadcast Governors; Canadian Bill of Rights; Allowed status aboriginals to vote in federal elections 1960; Alouette 1 satellite programme.
14
Lester B. Pearson 1957
Lester B. Pearson
(1897–1972)
MP for Algoma East, ON
22 April 1963

20 April 1968
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1958
19th [35][36]
Secretary of State for External Affairs; Bomarc missile program; Federal involvement in universal healthcare; Canada Pension Plan; Canada Student Loans; Creation of a new Canadian flag; Auto Pact; Rejection of troop deployment to Vietnam; Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Unification of the Armed Forces; Canadian Centennial Celebrations.
15
Pierre Trudeau (1975)
Pierre Trudeau
(1919–2000)
MP for Mount Royal, QC
20 April 1968

3/4 June[*] 1979
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1968
20th [37]
Minister of Justice; "Trudeaumania"; "Just Society"; October Crisis and Use of the War Measures Act; Official Languages Act; Establishment of relations with Communist China; Victoria Charter; Creation of Petro-Canada; Membership in the G7; Metric Commission, Metrication of Canada, Creation of Via Rail.
16
JoeClark
Joe Clark
(b. 1939)
MP for Yellowhead, AB
4 June 1979

2/3 March[*] 1980
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1976
21st [38]
Youngest Canadian PM. Defeated in a motion of no confidence on first budget.
(15)
Pierre Elliot Trudeau-2
Pierre Trudeau
(1919–2000)
MP for Mount Royal, QC
3 March 1980

29/30 June[*] 1984
Liberal Party 22nd [37]
Quebec referendum, 1980; Access to Information Act; Patriation of the Canadian Constitution; Montreal Protocol; Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; National Energy Program; Canada Health Act; Western alienation.
17
John Turner by Gage Skidmore
John Turner
(b. 1929)
Did not serve in Parliament while Prime Minister
30 June 1984

16/17 September[*] 1984
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1984
23rd [39]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Finance; Trudeau Patronage Appointments. Never sat in parliament as Prime Minister.
18
Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
(b. 1939)
MP for Manicouagan, QC until 1988
MP for Charlevoix, QC
17 September 1984

24/25 June[*] 1993
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1983
24th [40]
Cancellation of the National Energy Program; Meech Lake Accord; Petro-Canada privatization; Canada-US Free Trade Agreement; Introduction of the Goods and Services Tax; Charlottetown Accord; Gulf War; Oka Crisis; Environmental Protection Act; Privatization of Air Canada, North American Free Trade Agreement; Airbus affair.
19
KimCampbell
Kim Campbell
(b. 1947)
MP for Vancouver Centre, BC
25 June 1993

3/4 November[*] 1993
Progressive Conservative Party
Named leader in 1993
25th [41]
Minister of Justice, Minister of Veterans Affairs, Minister of National Defence, Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs; Only female Prime Minister of Canada. Defeated and lost her seat in 1993 election.
20
Chrétien crop Sept 9 2002
Jean Chrétien
(b. 1934)
MP for Saint-Maurice, QC
4 November 1993

11/12 December[*] 2003
Liberal Party
Named leader in 1990
26th [42]
Minister of Finance, Minister of Indian Affairs, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources, Minister of Justice and Energy Minister, President of the Treasury Board, Minister of National Revenue, Deputy Prime Minister of Canada; Privatization of Canadian National Railway, Red Book; Harmonized Sales Tax; Quebec referendum, 1995; Clarity Act; Assassination attempt; Kosovo War; 1997 Red River Flood; Social Union Framework Agreement; Creation of Nunavut Territory; Youth Criminal Justice Act; Operation Yellow Ribbon; Invasion of Afghanistan; Opposition to the Invasion of Iraq; Sponsorship scandal; Kyoto Protocol; Gomery Inquiry.
21
Paul martin 2004
Paul Martin
(b. 1938)
MP for LaSalle—Émard, QC
12 December 2003

5/6 February[*] 2006
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2003
27th [40]
Minister of Finance; Minority government. Civil Marriage Act; Kelowna Accord; Rejection of US Anti-Missile Treaty; Sponsorship scandal; Gomery inquiry; G20; Atlantic Accord; Martin and his father Paul Martin Sr have the honorific title of Right Honourable.
22
Stephen Harper by Remy Steinegger
Stephen Harper
(b. 1959)
MP for Calgary Southwest, AB
6 February 2006

3/4 November[*] 2015
Conservative Party
Named leader in 2004
28th [43]
Accountability Act; Softwood Lumber Agreement; Afghanistan Mission; 2006 Ontario terrorism plot; Québécois nation motion; Apologies for Residential Schools and Head Tax; 2008 Financial crisis; Coalition crisis; Economic Action Plan; Afghan detainee issue; Parliamentary contempt; Withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol; Repeal of the Long-Gun Registry; Senate expenses scandal; Anti-terrorism Act, 2015.
23
Justin Trudeau in Lima, Peru - 2018 (41507133581) (cropped)
Justin Trudeau
(b. 1971)
MP for Papineau, QC
4 November 2015

Incumbent
Liberal Party
Named leader in 2013
29th [44]
Son of 15th Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau; Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs and Youth; Senate Liberal Caucus; Paris Agreement; 150th anniversary celebrations; Apologies for Komagata Maru incident and fruit machine; Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement; Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership; Cannabis Act; United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement; SNC-Lavalin affair.
Min. Minority government
LS Party won the election, but prime minister lost own seat
* The Interpretation Act of 1967 states that "where an appointment is made effective or terminates on a specified day, that appointment is considered to be effective or to terminate after the end of the previous day." Under the Act, Prime Ministers' tenures are therefore credited as having concluded at the end of their last full day in office (the earlier date given), although their resignation was received by the Governor General on the following day. This provision applies to P. Trudeau in 1979[45] and 1984,[46] Clark,[47] Turner,[48] Mulroney,[49] Campbell,[50] Chrétien,[51] Martin,[51] and Harper.[51]

Living former prime ministers

As of June 2019, there are seven living former prime ministers of Canada, the oldest being John Turner (born 1929). The most recent former Prime Minister to die was Pierre Trudeau (Born 1919), on 28 September 2000. The living former prime ministers, in order of service, are:

JoeClark

Joe Clark
(1979–1980)
Age: 80

John Turner by Gage Skidmore

John Turner
(1984)
Age: 90

Mulroney 2011

Brian Mulroney
(1984–1993)
Age: 80

Kim Campbell

Kim Campbell
(1993)
Age: 72

Jean Chrétien 2010

Jean Chrétien
(1993–2003)
Age: 85

Paul Martin in 2011 crop

Paul Martin
(2003–2006)
Age: 80

Stephen-Harper-January-26-2012

Stephen Harper
(2006–2015)
Age: 60

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

29th Canadian Ministry

The Twenty-Ninth Canadian Ministry is the combined Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, and Ministers that began governing Canada shortly before the opening of the 42nd Parliament. The original members were sworn in during a ceremony held at Rideau Hall on November 4, 2015. Those who were not already members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada were sworn into the Privy Council in the same ceremony. The Cabinet currently consists of 35 members including Trudeau, with 17 women and 18 men. When the ministry was first sworn in, with fifteen men and fifteen women (aside from Trudeau), it became the first gender-balanced cabinet in Canadian history.

Fathers of Confederation

The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.Queen Victoria has been called the "Mother of Confederation". Her role in Confederation is recognized by the celebration of Victoria Day in Canada.

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation. The provisional government established by Louis Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870. The leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871. The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, who was then referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation".Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Campbell, Carter, Chandler, Galt, Gray, Haviland, Henry, Pope, and Tilley.

Historical rankings of Prime Ministers of Canada

Historical rankings of Canadian prime ministers are surveys conducted in order to construct rankings of the success of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Canada. Ranking systems are usually based on surveys of academic historians, economists and political scientists. The rankings focus on the achievements, leadership qualities, failures and faults in office.

List of Canadian ministries

This is a list of Canadian ministries, the collective body of ministers of the Crown that advises the Canadian monarch—presently Queen Elizabeth II—on how to exercise their Crown prerogatives. Since Canadian Confederation, July 1, 1867, there have been 29 ministries.

In Canada, a ministry is formed when a new prime minister is appointed and dissolved when that individual leaves office. The one exception occurred in 1917, when incumbent Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden formed a new national unity government (the 10th Canadian Ministry) as a wartime coalition composed primarily of members of his own Conservative Party with some individual Liberal Party members of parliament.

In contrast to various other Commonwealth realms (such as Australia and the United Kingdom) where a "new" ministry is considered to have been formed after every general election regardless of the winner, elections in Canada do not cause dissolution of the ministry unless they result in the government's defeat. As such, the current 29th Ministry, chaired by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, began governing shortly before the opening of the 42nd Parliament in 2015.

With a duration of 15 years, 87 days, the 8th Ministry, under the leadership of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, was the lengthiest; the 68-day-long 7th Ministry, under the leadership of Sir Charles Tupper, was the briefest. William Lyon Mackenzie King led three ministries—the 12th, 14th, and 16th—the most for any Canadian prime minister.

List of Prime Ministers of Australia by time in office

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Australia by time in office. The basis of the list is the inclusive number of days from being sworn in until leaving office.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by academic degrees

This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Canada and their academic degrees

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by approval rating

The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada by their highest and lowest approval rating during their term. The approval rating system came into effect when John Diefenbaker was prime minister (1957–63).

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by constituency

The following list indicates ridings represented by Canadian Prime Ministers during their term(s) of office. Some Prime Ministers represented more than one constituency during their term(s), hence the tallied numbers exceed the number of Prime Ministers. Moreover, one Prime Minister - Sir Mackenzie Bowell - served his term while a member of the Senate, although he had previously been a member of the House of Commons from Ontario.

Three provinces - New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island - have not been represented by a sitting Prime Minister. Mackenzie King briefly represented the Prince Edward Island riding of Prince; and Jean Chrétien even more briefly represented the New Brunswick riding of Beauséjour prior to their assuming the premiership. None of the three territories have been represented by a person who served as Prime Minister.

Two ridings have been represented by two sitting Prime Ministers. Prince Albert was served by King and Diefenbaker; and Quebec East was represented by Laurier and St. Laurent. Calgary West was represented by Bennett during his term, and by Harper prior to his. Similarly, Macdonald served his fourth term as MP for Carleton, a riding represented by Borden as Opposition Leader in the 10th Parliament.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by date and place of birth

This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Canada by date and place of birth. Twenty–three persons have served as Prime Minister of Canada since the office came into existence in 1867.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by date of death

This is a complete list of Canadian Prime Ministers by date of death. As of June 2019, there are seven living former Prime Ministers (John Turner, Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin, Brian Mulroney, Joe Clark, Kim Campbell and Stephen Harper, in order from oldest to youngest), as well as the incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by longevity

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada by longevity. Where the Prime Minister in question is still living, the longevity is calculated up to June 25, 2019.

Two measures of the longevity are given - this is to allow for the differing number of leap days occurring within the life of each Prime Minister. The first column is the number of days between date of birth and date of death, allowing for leap days; the second column breaks this number down into years and days, with the years being the number of whole years the Prime Minister lived, and the days being the remaining number of days after his/her last birthday.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by military service

This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Canada and their military service

The Prime Minister is not Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, rather the role is held by the Queen of Canada and is held on behalf of the monarch by the Governor General of Canada.

Only seven Prime Ministers have served in the military:

Four Prime Ministers served in volunteer militia units (see Canadian Militia) attached to the British Army in Canada in later part of the 19th century

One Prime Minister (Trudeau) was a cadet (not a full member) of the volunteer Canadian Army during World War II

Only Diefenbaker and Pearson served as officers and overseas (during World War I)

Seven Prime Ministers were members of the Army (none in the Navy or Air Force)

One Prime Minister (Pearson) served in a non-Canadian military unit, the Royal Flying Corps (later RAF) during World War ITwo Prime Ministers have been Minister of Militia and Defence (Macdonald and Bowell) and one as Minister of National Defence (Campbell).

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by religious affiliation

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada by religious affiliation. It notes party affiliation after the name. All Canadian Prime Ministers have affiliations with Christianity.

In early Canadian history, religion played an important role in politics. The Conservative Party was composed mainly of Anglicans and conservative French-Canadian Catholics while the Liberal Party was backed by reform-minded French Canadian Catholics and non-Anglican English Canadians due to their support in Quebec and Ontario. In recent years, religion has played a background role in Canadian politics. Modern Prime Ministers have been reticent about discussing their faith.

List of Prime Ministers of Canada by time in office

This article is a list of the prime ministers of Canada by their time in office. The list starts with Confederation on July 1, 1867, and the first prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. It includes all prime ministers since then, up to the current prime minister, Justin Trudeau, the twenty-third to hold the office.

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by tenure

This article lists each Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in order of term length. This is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater.

Of the 54 Prime Ministers, nine served more than 10 years while seven served less than a year.

Robert Walpole is the only person to have served as Prime Minister for more than two decades. George Canning served for less than four months before his death.

List of ambassadors of Gabon to Canada

The Gabonese ambassador in Ottawa is the official representative of the Government in Libreville to the Government of Canada.

List of ambassadors of Myanmar to Canada

The Myanmar Ambassador in Ottawa is the official representative of the Government in Naypyidaw to the Government of Canada.

Prime Minister of Canada

The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and Canada's head of government. The current, and 23rd, Prime Minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2015 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable (French: Le Très Honorable), a privilege maintained for life.

The Prime Minister of Canada is in charge of the Prime Minister's Office. The Prime Minister also chooses the ministers that make up the Cabinet. The two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces. The Cabinet and the Prime Minister also appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and federal courts, and the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, and selects the Governor General of Canada. Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is actually vested in the Monarchy of Canada, but in practice the Canadian monarch (who is the head of state) or their representative, the Governor General of Canada approves them routinely, and their role is largely ceremonial, and their powers are only exercised under the advice of the Prime Minister.Not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention (originating in Canada's former colonial power, the United Kingdom) that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

Religious affiliations of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands

The following is a list of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands by religious affiliations.

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