List of Presidents of the United States

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the 45th and current president is Donald Trump (since January 20, 2017). There are currently four living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election.

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.[2] Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

Presidents

  Unaffiliated (2)       Federalist (1)       Democratic-Republican (4)       Democratic (15)       Whig (4)       Republican (19)       National Union (2)
Presidency[a] President Prior office[b] Party[c] Term[d] Vice President
1 April 30, 1789
[e]

March 4, 1797
Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[3][4][5]
Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army

(1775–1783)
  Unaffiliated
[2]
(1788–89)
1
(1789)
John Adams
[f][g]
(1792)
2
(1793)
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
John Adams, Gilbert Stuart, c1800 1815 John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[6][7][8]
1st
Vice President of the United States
Federalist (1796)
3
(1797)
Thomas Jefferson
[h]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800 Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[9][10][11]
2nd
Vice President of the United States
Democratic-
Republican
(1800)
4
(1801)
Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801March 4, 1805
(1804)
5
(1805)
George Clinton
March 4, 1805March 4, 1809
4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
James Madison James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[12][13][14]
5th
United States Secretary of State

(1801–1809)
Democratic-
Republican
(1808)
6
(1809)
George Clinton
March 4, 1809April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton's term)
(1812)
7
(1813)
Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry's term)
5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
James Monroe White House portrait 1819 James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[15][16][17]
7th
United States Secretary of State

(1811–1817)
Democratic-
Republican
(1816)
8
(1817)
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1820)
9
(1821)
6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
John Quincy Adams cropped John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[18][19][20]
8th
United States Secretary of State

(1817–1825)
Democratic-
Republican
(1824)
10
(1825)
John C. Calhoun
7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837
Andrew jackson head Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[21][22][23]
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1797–1798 & 1823–1825)
Democratic (1828)
11
(1829)
John C. Calhoun
[i]
March 4, 1829December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun's term)
(1832)
12
(1833)
Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833March 4, 1837
8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Martin Van Buren edit Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[24][25][26]
8th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic (1836)
13
(1837)
Richard M. Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)
William Henry Harrison daguerreotype edit William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[27][28][29]
United States Minister to Colombia
(1828–1829)
Whig (1840)
14
(1841)
(1841)

[j]
John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
10 April 4, 1841
[k]


March 4, 1845
Tyler Daguerreotype crop (restoration) John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[30][31][32]
10th
Vice President of the United States
Whig
April 4, 1841September 13, 1841
Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841March 4, 1845
[l]
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
JKP James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[33][34][35]
9th
Governor of Tennessee

(1839–1841)
Democratic (1844)
15
(1845)
George M. Dallas
12
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)
Zachary Taylor restored and cropped Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[36][37][38]
Major General of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office)
Whig (1848)
16
(1849)
(1850)

[j]
Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
13 July 9, 1850
[m]


March 4, 1853
Millard Fillmore by Brady Studio 1855-65-crop Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[39][40][41]
12th
Vice President of the United States
Whig Office vacant
14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
Franklin Pierce - Cropped Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[42][43][44]
Brigadier General of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–1848)
Democratic (1852)
17
(1853)
William R. King
March 4April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King's term)
15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
James Buchanan James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[45][46][47]
United States Minister to the
Court of St James's
(1853–1856)
Democratic (1856)
18
(1857)
John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
(Died in office)
Abraham Lincoln O-77 matte collodion print Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[48][49][50]
U.S. Representative for Illinois's 7th District
(1847–1849)
Republican
(National Union)
[n]
(1860)
19
(1861)
Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861March 4, 1865
(1864)
20
(1865)
(1865)

[j]
Andrew Johnson
March 4April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1 Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[51][52][53]
16th
Vice President of the United States
National Union
April 15, 1865c. 1868
Office vacant
Democratic
c. 1868March 4, 1869
[o]
18
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
Ulysses S Grant by Brady c1870-restored Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[54][55][56]
Commanding General of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1868)
21
(1869)
Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869March 4, 1873
(1872)
22
(1873)
Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson's term)
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[57][58][59]
29th & 32nd
Governor of Ohio

(1868–1872 & 1876–1877)
Republican (1876)
23
(1877)
William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Died in office)
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[60][61][62]
U.S. Representative for Ohio's 19th District
(1863–1881)
Republican (1880)
24
(1881)
(1881)

[j]
Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
21 September 19, 1881
[p]


March 4, 1885
Chester Alan Arthur Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[63][64][65]
20th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped) Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[66][67]
28th
Governor of New York

(1883–1885)
Democratic (1884)
25
(1885)
Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks's term)
23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896 Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[68][69][70]
U.S. Senator from Indiana
(1881–1887)
Republican (1888)
26
(1889)
Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Grover Cleveland - NARA - 518139 (cropped) Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[66][67]
22nd
President of the United States

(1885–1889)
Democratic (1892)
27
(1893)
Adlai Stevenson
25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Died in office)
Mckinley William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[71][72][73]
39th
Governor of Ohio

(1892–1896)
Republican (1896)
28
(1897)
Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart's term)
(1900)
29
(1901)
(1901)

[j]
Theodore Roosevelt
March 4September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[74][75][76]
25th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901March 4, 1905
(1904)
30
(1905)
Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905March 4, 1909
27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[77][78][79]
42nd
United States Secretary of War

(1904–1908)
Republican (1908)
31
(1909)
James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman's term)
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Woodrow Wilson-H&E Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[80][81][82]
34th
Governor of New Jersey

(1911–1913)
Democratic (1912)
32
(1913)
Thomas R. Marshall
(1916)
33
(1917)
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[83][84][85]
U.S. Senator from Ohio
(1915–1921)
Republican (1920)
34
(1921)
(1923)

[j]
Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
30 August 2, 1923
[q]


March 4, 1929
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919 Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[86][87][88]
29th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923March 4, 1925
(1924)
35
(1925)
Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925March 4, 1929
31
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
President Hoover portrait Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[89][90][91]
3rd
United States Secretary of Commerce

(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1928)
36
(1929)
Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)
FDR 1944 Color Portrait Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[92][93][94]
44th
Governor of New York

(1929–1932)
Democratic (1932)
37
(1933)
John N. Garner
March 4, 1933January 20, 1941
[r]
(1936)
38
(1937)
(1940)
39
(1941)
Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941January 20, 1945
(1944)
40
(1945)
(1945)

[j]
Harry S. Truman
January 20April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
Truman 58-766-09 Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[95][96][97]
34th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945January 20, 1949
(1948)
41
(1949)
Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949January 20, 1953
34
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
President Eisenhower Portrait 1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[98][99][100]
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (1952)
42
(1953)
Richard Nixon
(1956)
43
(1957)
35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Died in office)
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[101][102][103]
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960)
Democratic (1960)
44
(1961)
(1963)

[j]
Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4 Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[104][105]
37th
Vice President of the United States
Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963January 20, 1965
(1964)
45
(1965)
Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965January 20, 1969
37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)
Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679 Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[106][107][108]
36th
Vice President of the United States

(1953–1961)
Republican (1968)
46
(1969)
Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
(1972)
47
(1973)
(1974)

[j]
Office vacant
October 10December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
Gerald Ford - NARA - 530680 Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[109][110][111]
40th
Vice President of the United States
Republican Office vacant
August 9December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974January 20, 1977
39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
JimmyCarterPortrait2 Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(94 years old)
[112][113][114]
76th
Governor of Georgia

(1971–1975)
Democratic (1976)
48
(1977)
Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981 Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[115][116][117]
33rd
Governor of California

(1967–1975)
Republican (1980)
49
(1981)
George H. W. Bush
(1984)
50
(1985)
41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
George H. W. Bush crop George H. W. Bush
1924–2018
(Lived: 94 years)
[118][119][120]
43rd
Vice President of the United States
Republican (1988)
51
(1989)
Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Bill Clinton Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(72 years old)
[121][122][123]
40th & 42nd
Governor of Arkansas

(1979–1981 & 1983–1992)
Democratic (1992)
52
(1993)
Al Gore
(1996)
53
(1997)
43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
George-W-Bush.jpeg George W. Bush
Born 1946
(72 years old)
[124][125]
46th
Governor of Texas

(1995–2000)
Republican (2000)
54
(2001)
Dick Cheney
(2004)
55
(2005)
44 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Official portrait of Barack Obama Barack Obama
Born 1961
(57 years old)
[126][127]
U.S. Senator from Illinois
(2005–2008)
Democratic (2008)
56
(2009)
Joe Biden
(2012)
57
(2013)
45 January 20, 2017

Incumbent
Donald Trump official portrait Donald Trump
Born 1946
(72 years old)
[128][129]
Chairman of
The Trump Organization
(1971–2017)
(No prior elected office)
Republican (2016)
58
(2017)
Mike Pence

Subsequent public office

Three presidents held another U.S. federal office after serving as president.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. Representative from Massachusetts (1831–1848)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1875)
William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930)

Several presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after serving as president.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts (1833)
Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States (1844)
President of the United States (1848)
Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States (1856)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. Senator from Tennessee (1870)
U.S. Representative from Tennessee (1872)
Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States (1880)
Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States (1912)
Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States (1940)

Additionally, one former president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c The presidents are numbered according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon's second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right. Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A vice president who temporarily becomes acting president under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution is not counted, because the president remains in office during such a period.
  2. ^ Listed here is the most recent office (either with a U.S. state, the federal government, or a private corporation) held by the individual prior to becoming president.
  3. ^ Three presidents are counted above with multiple political affiliations: John Tyler (Whig, Unaffiliated), Abraham Lincoln (Republican, National Union), and Andrew Johnson (National Union, Democratic).
  4. ^ Listed and numbered here are the elections and inaugurations that constitute a presidential term.
  5. ^ Due to logistical delays, instead of being inaugurated on March 4, 1789, the date scheduled for operations of the federal government under the new Constitution to begin, Washington's first inauguration was held 1 month and 26 days later. As a result, his first term was only 1,404 days long (as opposed to the usual 1,461), and was the shortest term for a U.S. president who served a full term.
  6. ^ Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788, nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in 1788–89. When they did develop, during Washington's first term, Adams joined the faction that became the Federalist Party. The elections of 1792 were the first ones in the United States that were contested on anything resembling a partisan basis.
  7. ^ Due to logistical delays, Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who served a full term.
  8. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and the only one in which a president and vice president were elected from opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected president, and Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected vice president.
  9. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to oppose the Tariff of 1828 and advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the democratic coalition led by Jackson.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Intra-term extraordinary inauguration.
  11. ^ John Tyler was sworn in as president on April 6, 1841.
  12. ^ John Tyler, a former Democrat, ran for vice president on the Whig Party ticket with Harrison in 1840. Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  13. ^ Millard Fillmore was sworn in as president on July 10, 1850.
  14. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket.
  15. ^ Democrat Andrew Johnson ran for vice president on the National Union Party ticket with Republican Abraham Lincoln in 1864. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  16. ^ Chester A. Arthur was initially sworn in as president on September 20, 1881, and then again on September 22.
  17. ^ Calvin Coolidge was initially sworn in as president on August 3, 1923, and then again on August 21.
  18. ^ The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (ratified on January 23, 1933) moved Inauguration Day from March 4 to January 20, beginning in 1937. As a result, Garner's first term in office was 1 month and 12 days shorter than a normal term.

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
  2. ^ a b Jamison, Dennis (December 31, 2014). "George Washington's views on political parties in America". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  3. ^ "George Washington". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  4. ^ "George Washington". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  5. ^ "Life Portrait of George Washington". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  6. ^ "John Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  7. ^ "John Adams". History. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  8. ^ "Life Portrait of John Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  9. ^ "Thomas Jefferson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  10. ^ "Thomas Jefferson". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  11. ^ "Life Portrait of Thomas Jefferson". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  12. ^ "James Madison". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  13. ^ "James Madison". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  14. ^ "Life Portrait of James Madison". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  15. ^ "James Monroe". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  16. ^ "James Monroe". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  17. ^ "Life Portrait of James Monroe". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  18. ^ "John Quincy Adams". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  19. ^ "John Quincy Adams". History.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  20. ^ "Life Portrait of John Quincy Adams". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  21. ^ "Andrew Jackson". whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
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External links

List of Presidents of the United States by date of death

The following is a list of Presidents of the United States by date of death, plus additional lists of presidential death related statistics. Of the 44 persons who have served as President of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789, 39 have died – eight died while in office.

The oldest president at the time of death was George H. W. Bush, who died at the age of 94 years, 171 days. John F. Kennedy, assassinated at the age of 46 years, 177 days, was the nation's shortest-lived president; the youngest to have died by natural causes was James K. Polk, who died of cholera at the age of 53 years, 225 days.

List of Presidents of the United States by home state

These lists give the states of primary affiliation and of birth for each President of the United States.

List of Presidents of the United States by judicial appointments

Following is a list indicating the number of Article III federal judicial appointments made by each President of the United States. The number of judicial offices has risen significantly from the time when Washington's 39 appointments were sufficient to maintain the entire federal judiciary for eight years. As of March 2015, there are 870 authorized Article III judgeships – 9 on the Supreme Court, 179 on the Courts of Appeals, 673 for the district courts and 9 on the United States Court of International Trade.

To date, Ronald Reagan has appointed the largest number of federal judges, with 382, followed closely by Bill Clinton with 378. William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after his inauguration, is the only president to have appointed no federal judges.

List of Presidents of the United States by military service

The United States Constitution names the President of the United States the commander in chief of the U.S. armed forces. Previous service in the military is not a prerequisite for the position of president. As of the 2016 presidential election, no member of the U.S. Marine Corps or U.S. Coast Guard has yet been elected President. The most frequent military experience is Army/Army Reserve with 15 presidents, followed by State Militias at 9, Navy/Naval Reserve at 6 and the Continental Army with 2 presidents serving.

Eight presidents served during World War II, while seven served in the military during the American Civil War.

The following list outlines the military service of each president before becoming the commander in chief.

List of Presidents of the United States by net worth

The peak wealth of Presidents of the United States has varied considerably. Debt and depreciation often meant that Presidents had negative net worth when they died.

Most presidents before 1845 were extremely wealthy, including Andrew Jackson, who was born into poverty, and George Washington. Many of these early presidents were landowners, and some of them owned plantations, including slaves.Presidents since 1929, when Herbert Hoover took office, have generally been wealthier than before; all except Harry Truman were millionaires. These presidents have often received income from autobiographies and other writing; other than John F. Kennedy (who died in office in 1963), all presidents beginning with Calvin Coolidge have written autobiographies. In addition, many presidents, including Bill Clinton, had considerable income from public speaking after leaving office.The richest president in history is Donald Trump, who is the first billionaire president. His net worth, however, is not known precisely because The Trump Organization is privately held and Trump has not disclosed his tax returns. By estimate, Trump is wealthier than all former presidents combined.

List of Presidents of the United States by other offices held

This is a list of Presidents of the United States by other offices (either elected or appointive) held. Every President of the United States except Donald Trump has served as either:

Vice President of the United States

a Member of Congress (either U.S. Senator or Representative)

a Governor of a state

a Cabinet Secretary

a General of the United States Army

List of Presidents of the United States by previous experience

Although many paths may lead to the Presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been lawyer. This sortable table enumerates all holders of that office, along with major elective or appointive offices or periods of military service prior to election to the Presidency. The column immediately to the right of the Presidents' names shows the position or office held just before the Presidency. The next column to the right lists the next previous position held, and so on. Note that the total number of previous positions held by an individual may exceed four; the number of columns was limited to what would fit within the page width. The last two columns on the right list the home state (at the time of election to the Presidency) and primary occupation of each future President, prior to beginning a political career.

List of Presidents of the United States by time in office

This is a list of Presidents of the United States by time in office. The basis of the list is the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater, with the exception of Grover Cleveland, who would receive two days.

Since 1789, there have been 44 people sworn into office as President of the United States, and 45 presidencies, as Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and 24th president. Of the individuals elected president, four (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt) died of natural causes while in office, four (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy) were assassinated, and one (Richard Nixon) resigned.

William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office, and Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest. Roosevelt is the only president to have served more than two terms. Following ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment in 1951, presidents—beginning with Dwight D. Eisenhower—have been ineligible for election to a third term or for election to a second full term after serving more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected president. The amendment contained a grandfather clause that explicitly exempted the incumbent president, then Harry S. Truman, from the new term limitations, which first applied to Dwight D. Eisenhower.

List of Presidents of the United States on currency

Several presidents of the United States have appeared on currency. The President of the United States has appeared on official banknotes, coins for circulation, and commemorative coins in the United States, the Confederate States of America, the Philippine Islands, the Commonwealth of the Philippines and around the world.

List of Presidents of the United States who died in office

During the history of the United States, eight presidents have died in office. Of those eight, four were assassinated and four died of natural causes. In all eight cases, the Vice President of the United States took over the office of presidency as part of the United States presidential line of succession.William Henry Harrison holds the record for shortest term served, holding the office of presidency for 31 days before his death. Harrison was the first president to die in office when he caught pneumonia and died on April 4, 1841. On July 9, 1850, Zachary Taylor died from acute gastroenteritis. Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated. He was shot by John Wilkes Booth on the night of April 14, 1865 and died the following morning. Sixteen years later, on July 2, 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot by Charles J. Guiteau, surviving for over two months before dying on September 19, 1881. Nearly twenty years later, President William McKinley died eight days after being shot twice by Leon Czolgosz on September 6, 1901. President Warren G. Harding suffered a heart attack, and died on August 2, 1923. On April 12, 1945, Franklin D. Roosevelt collapsed and died as a result of a cerebral hemorrhage. The most recent president to die in office was John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald with two rifle shots on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.

List of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves

This is a list of Presidents of the United States who owned slaves. Slavery in the United States was legal from its beginning as a nation, having been practiced in British North America from early colonial days. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution formally abolished slavery, though the practice effectively ended only after the end of the American Civil War. In total, twelve presidents owned slaves at some point in their lives, eight of whom owned slaves while serving as president. George Washington was the first president to own slaves, including while he was president. Zachary Taylor was the last president to own slaves during his presidency, and Ulysses S. Grant was the last president to have owned a slave at some point in his life.

Slave owning was common among early presidents; of the first twelve, only John Adams (2) and his son John Quincy Adams (6) never owned slaves, although two of the others (Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison) did not own slaves while serving as president.

The U.S. president who owned the most slaves was Thomas Jefferson, with 600+ slaves, followed by George Washington, with 200 slaves. The presidents who owned the fewest slaves were Martin van Buren, with 1 slave, and Ulysses S. Grant, who had owned only one slave, as the least among former slave owners.

List of Presidents of the United States who were Freemasons

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as President of the United States. Of these, 14 (roughly one-third) are known to have been freemasons, beginning with the nation's first president, George Washington, and most recently the 38th president, Gerald R. Ford.

List of Presidents of the United States with facial hair

The majority of men who have held the office of President of the United States have been clean shaven, including the Founding Fathers. Between 1861 and 1913, however, all but two presidents wore either beards or mustaches during their tenure in office.

List of Vice Presidents of the United States

There have been 48 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the Vice President was the person who received the second most votes for President in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800 a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the President by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.The Vice President is the first person in the presidential line of succession and assumes that presidency if the President dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office. Nine Vice Presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight (John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman and Lyndon B. Johnson) through the president's death and one (Gerald Ford) through the president's resignation. In addition, the Vice President serves as the President of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice Presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.Prior to adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the office of the Vice President could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Several such vacancies occurred—seven Vice Presidents died, one resigned and eight succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled through appointment by the President and confirmation by both chambers of the Congress. Since its ratification, the vice presidency has been vacant twice (both in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon administration) and was filled both times through this process, namely in 1973 following Spiro Agnew's resignation, and again in 1974 after Gerald Ford succeeded to the presidency. The amendment also established a procedure whereby a Vice President may, if the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. George H. W. Bush did so once on July 13, 1985. Dick Cheney did so twice on June 29, 2002 and on July 21, 2007.

The persons who have served as Vice President were born in or primarily affiliated with 27 states plus the District of Columbia. New York has produced the most of any state as eight have been born there and three others considered it their home state. Most Vice Presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office. The youngest person to become Vice President was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two Vice Presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one President.

There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

List of multilingual presidents of the United States

Of the 44 men who have served as Presidents of the United States, at least half have displayed proficiency in speaking or writing a language other than English. Of these, only one, Martin Van Buren, learned English as his second language; his first language was Dutch. Four of the earliest Presidents were multilingual, with John Quincy Adams and Thomas Jefferson demonstrating proficiency in a number of foreign languages.

James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur knew Ancient Greek and Latin, but it was Garfield's ambidextrous ability that would lead to rumors that he could write both at the same time. Both Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke French, and Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke German. Herbert Hoover spoke some Mandarin Chinese.

List of presidents of the United States by age

This is a list of presidents of the United States by age. The first table charts the age of each United States president at the time of presidential inauguration (first inauguration if elected to multiple and consecutive terms), upon leaving office, and at the time of death. Where the president is still living, their lifespan is calculated up to January 19, 2019. The second table includes those presidents who had the distinction among their peers of being the oldest living president, and charts both when they became and ceased to be oldest living.

List of presidents of the United States by education

Most presidents of the United States received a college education, even most of the earliest. Of the first seven presidents, five were college graduates. College degrees have set the presidents apart from the general population, and presidents have held such a degree even when this was quite rare indeed, as well as unnecessary, for practicing most occupations, including law. Of the forty-four individuals to have been the president, twenty-four of them graduated from a private undergraduate college, nine graduated from a public undergraduate college, and twelve held no degree. Every president since 1953 has had a bachelor's degree, reflecting the increasing importance of higher education in the United States.

List of presidents of the United States by military rank

The United States Constitution names the President of the United States the Commander-in-Chief of the United States armed forces. Many Presidents, however, also served in the military before taking office; all but 13 of 45 people to become president as of 2018 have served.

President of the Continental Congress

The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates that emerged as the first (transitional) national government of the United States during the American Revolution. The president was a member of Congress elected by the other delegates to serve as a neutral discussion moderator during meetings of Congress. Designed to be a largely ceremonial position without much influence, the office was unrelated to the later office of President of the United States. Upon the ratification of the Articles of Confederation (the new nation's first constitution) in March 1781, the Continental Congress became the Congress of the Confederation. The membership of the Second Continental Congress carried over without interruption to the First Congress of the Confederation, as did the office of president.

Fourteen men served as president of Congress between September 1774 and November 1788. They came from 9 of the original 13 states: Virginia (3), Massachusetts (2), Pennsylvania (2), South Carolina (2), Connecticut (1), Delaware (1), Maryland (1), New Jersey (1), and New York (1). The median age at the time of election was 47.

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