The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president.
The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.
The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.
|President of Czechoslovakia|
|Formation||14 November 1918|
|First holder||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk|
|Final holder||Václav Havel|
|Abolished||20 July 1992|
|Succession|| Václav Havel|
|No.||Portrait||Name||Lifespan||Ethnicity||Elected||Took office||Left office||Political affiliation(s)|
|1||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk||1850–1937||Czech||1918
|14 November 1918||14 December 1935||Independent|
|2||Edvard Beneš||1884–1948||Czech||1935||18 December 1935||5 October 1938||ČSNS|
|3||Emil Hácha||1872–1945||Czech||1938||30 November 1938||15 March 1939||Independent|
Emil Hácha became State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a de jure autonomous region incorporated into Nazi Germany.
Edvard Beneš proclaimed himself President within the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, recognized as the only legitimate Czechoslovak Government during World War II.
Jozef Tiso became President of the quasi-independent, pro-Nazi and clero-fascist Slovak Republic.
Avgustyn Voloshyn became President of the Carpatho-Ukraine few days before occupation by the Kingdom of Hungary.
|4||Edvard Beneš||1884–1948||Czech||1946||4 April 1945||7 June 1948||ČSNS|
Official names: Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989)
|5||Klement Gottwald||1896–1953||Czech||1948||14 June 1948||14 March 1953||KSČ|
|6||Antonín Zápotocký||1884–1957||Czech||1953||21 March 1953||13 November 1957||KSČ|
|19 November 1957||22 March 1968||KSČ|
|30 March 1968||28 May 1975||KSČ|
|29 May 1975||10 December 1989||KSČ|
Official names: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1989–1990), Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990–1992)
|29 December 1989||20 July 1992||OF|
Title: Chairman (1948–1953) and First Secretary (1953–1971).
|No.||Portrait||Name||Lifespan||Ethnicity||Took office||Left office|
|1||Klement Gottwald||1896–1953||Czech||February 1948||14 March 1953|
|2||Antonín Novotný||1904–1975||Czech||14 March 1953||5 January 1968|
|3||Alexander Dubček||1921–1992||Slovak||5 January 1968||17 April 1969|
|4||Gustáv Husák||1913–1991||Slovak||17 April 1969||17 December 1987|
|5||Miloš Jakeš||born 1922||Czech||17 December 1987||24 November 1989|
|6||Karel Urbánek||born 1941||Czech||24 November 1989||20 December 1989|
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule. Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union.Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989. Several other state symbols were changed in 1960. Shortly after the Velvet Revolution, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.Czechoslovak government-in-exile
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939. Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940. The Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile offices were at various locations in London but mainly at a building called Fursecroft.
It was the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War. A specifically anti-Fascist government, it sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to return the Republic to its 1937 boundaries. As such it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognised it, the legal continuation of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (; Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate.
From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy. Its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Czechs
The Czechs (Czech: Češi, pronounced [ˈtʃɛʃɪ]; singular masculine: Čech [ˈtʃɛx], singular feminine: Češka [ˈtʃɛʃka]) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and Czech language.
Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", and formed a principality in the 9th century, which was part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic.
The Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Canada, Israel, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland, Italy, the United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Argentina and Brazil, among others.History of Slovakia
This article discusses the history of the territory of Slovakia.History of the Czech lands
The history of what are now known as the Czech lands (Czech: České země) is very diverse. These lands have changed hands many times, and have been known by a variety of different names. Up until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the First World War, the lands were known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown and formed a constituent state of that empire: the Kingdom of Bohemia (in Czech: "Království české", the word "Bohemia" is a Latin term for Čechy).
Prior to the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Kingdom was an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire. After that battle the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were incorporated into the Austrian Empire, and later into the aforementioned Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
They came to be known as the Czech lands after the fall of the Empire, and the rise of the First Czechoslovak Republic, when the term Bohemia (Czech: Čechy), which also refers to the core region of the former kingdom, was no longer deemed acceptable by those in Moravia and Czech Silesia (historically, other two core lands of the Bohemian Crown). These three integral Czech lands (Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia) now form the boundaries of the Czech Republic.Jozef Lenárt
Jozef Lenárt (3 April 1923 – 11 February 2004) was a Slovak politician who was Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1963 to 1968.List of Presidents of the Czech Republic
This is a list of Presidents of the Czech Republic, a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary representative democracy, with the President acting as head of state and the Prime Minister acting as head of government.
The first President of the Czech Republic was Václav Havel. The current President is Miloš Zeman, in office since 8 March 2013.
Until 2012, the President was elected by the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, for a term lasting five years. Since 2013 the President is elected by popular vote. The only living former President of the Czech Republic is Václav Klaus.List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
In periods when the post of the President of Czechoslovakia was vacant, some presidential duties were carried out by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions do not define anything like a post of acting president.
As of 2017, there are three living former Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia: Lubomír Štrougal, Marián Čalfa and Jan Stráský.List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic
This is list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic. For individual information about Prime Minister see, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic (Czech: Předseda vlády České republiky, literally translated as Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic), a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary representative democracy, with the Prime Minister acting as head of government and the President acting as head of state.
The first Prime Minister of the Czech Republic was Václav Klaus, who served as the second President from 7 March 2003 until 7 March 2013. The current and 12th Prime Minister is Andrej Babiš, leader of the ANO 2011, who was appointed by the President on 6 December 2017.List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Socialist Republic.
1 January 1969 – 5 March 1990: called "Czech Socialist Republic" within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Czech Republic" within the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Stanislav Rázl: 8 January – 29 September 1969
Josef Kempný: 29 September 1969 – 28 January 1970
Josef Korčák: 28 January 1970 – 20 March 1987
Ladislav Adamec: 20 March 1987 – 12 October 1988
František Pitra: 12 October 1988 – 6 February 1990
Petr Pithart: 6 February 1990 – 2 July 1992
Václav Klaus: 2 July 1992 – 31 December 1992List of Prime Ministers of the Slovak Socialist Republic
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Slovak Socialist Republic.
1 January 1969 – 5 March 1990: called "Slovak Socialist Republic" within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.6 March 1990 – 31 December 1992: called "Slovak Republic" within the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Štefan Sádovský: 2 January 1969 – 5 May 1969
Peter Colotka: 5 May 1969 – 12 October 1988
Ivan Knotek: 13 October 1988 – 22 June 1989
Pavel Hrivnák: 23 June 1989 – 8 December 1989
Milan Čič: 10 December 1989 – 27 June 1990
Vladimír Mečiar: 27 June 1990 – 6 May 1991
Ján Čarnogurský: 6 May 1991 – 24 June 1992
Vladimír Mečiar: 24 June 1992 – 31 December 1992List of rulers of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
This is a list of rulers of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, which from 15 March 1939 until 5 May 1945 comprised the German-occupied parts of Czechoslovakia. It includes both the representatives of the recognized Czech authorities as well as the German Reichsprotektoren ("Reich protectors") and the Minister of State, who held the real executive power.Lists of office-holders
These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.
A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current office holders.
Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2007 in politics, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.
Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet (government), chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), Secretary of State.President of Slovakia
The President of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Prezident Slovenskej republiky) is the head of state of Slovakia and the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The president is directly elected by the people for five years, and can be elected for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the president does exercise certain limited powers with absolute discretion. The president's official residence is the Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava.President of the Czech Republic
The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic. Unlike counterparts in other Central European countries such as Austria and Hungary, who are generally considered figureheads, the Czech president has a considerable role in political affairs. Because many powers can only be exercised with the signatures of both the President and the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, responsibility over some political issues is effectively shared between the two offices.
Presidents of Czechoslovakia
|First Czechoslovak Republic|
|Second Czechoslovak Republic|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic|
See also: Czech presidential election * Slovak presidential election * Czechoslovakian elections
Heads of state and government of Europe