List of Nazis

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

  1. List of Nazis (A–E) : from Gustav Abb to Hanns Heinz Ewers (~ 247 names)
  2. List of Nazis (F–K) : from Arnold Fanck to Kurt Küttner (~ 268 names)
  3. List of Nazis (L–R) : from Bodo Lafferentz to Bernhard Rust (~ 232 names)
  4. List of Nazis (S–Z) : from Ernst Sagebiel to Fritz Zweigelt (~ 259 names)

External links

  • A-Z category of Nazi Party members on the German Wikipedia
  • Wistrich, Robert S. (2001). Who's who in Nazi Germany (3 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26038-8.
1938 German parliamentary election and referendum

Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938. They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single list of Nazis and pro-Nazi "guest" candidates for the 813-member Reichstag as well as the recent annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Turnout in the election was officially 99.5% with 98.9% voting "yes". In Austria official figures claimed 99.73% voted in favour with a turnout of 99.71%.

The elections were held largely to rally official support from the new Ostmark (Austrian) province, although further elections for 41 seats were held in the recently annexed Sudetenland on 4 December. NSDAP candidates and "guests" officially received 97.32% of the votes.The new Reichstag, the last of the German Reich, convened for the first time on 30 January 1939, electing a presidium headed by incumbent President of the Reichstag Hermann Göring. It convened only a further seven times, the last on 26 July 1942. On 25 January 1943, Hitler postponed elections for a new Reichstag until after the war, with the inaugural to take place after another electoral term, subsequently on 30 January 1947—by which point the body, and the Nazi state, had ceased to exist. They were the final elections held in a unified Germany prior to 1990 after German reunification.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] (listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP). He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and later Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust.

Hitler was born in Austria—then part of Austria-Hungary—and was raised near Linz. He moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party (DAP), the precursor of the NSDAP, and was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted to seize power in a failed coup in Munich and was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. He frequently denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.

By November 1932, the Nazi Party had the most seats in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, and no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.

Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people in Eastern Europe, and his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. These gains were gradually reversed after 1941, and in 1945 the Allied armies defeated the German army. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days later, on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army; their corpses were burned.

Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen (subhumans) or socially undesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, and the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history.

Beer Hall Putsch

The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch, and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, Bürgerbräu-Putsch or Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle ("March on the Field Marshals's Hall"), was a failed coup d'état by the Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler—along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders—to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, which took place from 8 November to 9 November 1923. Approximately two thousand Nazis were marching to the Feldherrnhalle, in the city center, when they were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler, who was wounded during the clash, escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was arrested and charged with treason.The putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicised and gave him a platform to publicise his nationalist sentiment to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison, where he dictated Mein Kampf to his fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released. Hitler now saw that the path to power was through legal means rather than revolution or force, and accordingly changed his tactics, further developing Nazi propaganda.

Enabling Act of 1933

The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) of 1933, formally titled Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich ("Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich"), was an amendment passed on 23 March 1933 to the Weimar Constitution that gave the German Cabinet — in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler — the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag. The Enabling Act gave Hitler plenary powers and followed on the heels of the Reichstag Fire Decree, which had abolished most civil liberties and transferred state powers to the Reich government. The combined effect of the two laws was to transform Hitler's government into a legal dictatorship.

The act passed in both the Reichstag and Reichsrat on 23 March 1933, and was signed by President Paul von Hindenburg later that day. The act stated that it was to last four years unless renewed by the Reichstag , which occurred twice.

The law was enacted by the Reichstag (meeting at the Kroll Opera House), where non-Nazi members were surrounded and threatened by members of the SA and the SS. The Communists had already been repressed and were not allowed to be present or to vote, and some Social Democrats were kept away as well. In the end most of those present voted for the act, except for the Social Democrats, who voted against it.

German Blood Certificate

A German Blood Certificate (German: Deutschblütigkeitserklärung) was a document provided by Hitler to Mischlinge (those with partial Jewish heritage), declaring them deutschblütig (of German blood). This practice was begun sometime after the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and allowed exemption from most of Germany's racial laws.Mischling is a term used during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. This word literally means "mixed".

In order to join the Nazi party and get a certificate, the candidate had to prove through baptismal records that all direct ancestors born since 1750 were not Jewish, or they could apply for a German Blood Certificate.

These certificates were 300 mm (11¾ in) by 210 mm (8¼ in), with a signature on the front and the red seal of the Office of Racial Research of the Nazi Party. The back listed the ancestry of the individual concerned, back to the grandparents of the father and the mother.

Herbert Norkus

Herbert Norkus (26 July 1916 – 24 January 1932) was a Hitler Youth member who was murdered by German Communists. He became a role model and martyr for the Hitler Youth and was widely used in Nazi propaganda, most prominently as the subject of novel and film Hitler Youth Quex.

Herta Bothe

Herta Bothe (born 3 January 1921) was a German concentration camp guard during World War II. She was imprisoned for war crimes after the capitulation of Nazi Germany, and was subsequently released early from prison on 22 December 1951 as an act of leniency by the British government.

List of Nazis (A–E)

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

List of Nazis (F–K)

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

List of Nazis (L–R)

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

List of Nazis (S–Z)

A list of notable people who were at some point members of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). It is not meant to be listing every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and whose course of action was somewhat of historical significance, or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable sources. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

List of Nazis of non-Germanic descent

List of Nazis of non-Germanic descent, including notable people in Nazi German service, such as Schutzstaffel members, who had some non-German ancestry. Notably, there were several high-ranking Nazis of partial Jewish descent. There were also many of Slavic descent. See Nuremberg Laws for further information on the status of non-Aryan people in Nazi Germany.

OKW and OKH secret reports show that half-Jews could only serve in Ersatzreserve II or Landwehr II, while quarter-Jews remained in the Wehrmacht and were eligible for promotion. Employment or promotion of quarter-Jews required Hitler's approval. Cambridge University researcher Bryan Rigg noted that there were two field marshals and fifteen generals (two full generals, eight lieutenant generals, five major generals) who were Jews or of partial Jewish descent. Rigg estimated that there were 150,000 men of some Jewish descent that served in the German armed forces during World War II. 1,671 have been identified (as of 2010). Hitler personally issued German Blood papers to mischlings (mixed Jewish) for their continuing service.

Johannes Blaskowitz, German general, Germanised Slovenian descent

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Prussian, SS-Obergruppenführer, Kashubian nobility

Hermann Baranowski, German Nazi, SS-Oberführer, Germanised Polish descent

Karl Chmielewski, German Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Leonardo Conti, Swiss, Reichsgesundheitsführer, Italian father and German mother

Richard Walther Darré, German Nazi, SS-Obergruppenführer, Huguenot father

Hans Eppinger, Austrian, SS doctor, half-Jewish

Adolf Galland, German, Luftwaffe general, Huguenot ancestry

Wilhelm-Ferdinand Galland, German, Luftwaffe ace, Huguenot ancestry

Gordon Gollob, Austrian, Luftwaffe, mixed ancestry

Alfred Grislawski, German, Luftwaffe ace, Germanised Ruhr Polish

Odilo Globocnik, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Slovene descent

Eugen Hadamovsky, German Nazi, paternal Germanised Czech descent

Hans Hauck, Wehrmacht, Algerian Black father

Walter Hollaender, colonel, Jewish

Bronislav Kaminski, Russian, Polish father and German mother

Erich Kempka, German Nazi, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Ruhr Polish descent

Halim Malkoč (1917–1947), Bosnian volunteer, SS-Obersturmführer, Bosnian Muslim

Erich von Manstein (1887–1973), German, Wehrmacht Generalfeldmarschall, paternal Prussian Kashubian

Hans-Joachim Marseille, German, Luftwaffe ace, paternal Huguenot descent

Victor Matthys, Belgian Rexist

Emil Maurice, German Nazi, Jewish great-grandfather

Christian de la Mazière, French Nazi

Erhard Milch, German Nazi, Jewish father (reclassified as Aryan by Adolf Hitler)

Martin James Monti, American defector to the Nazis, SS-Untersturmführer, Swiss Italian father and German mother

Joachim Mrugowsky, German Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Karl Nicolussi-Leck, Austrian Nazi, Tyrolian

Franz Novak, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Carinthian Slovene descent

Walter Nowotny, Austrian, Luftwaffe ace, Germanised Polish descent

Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski, German, Wehrmacht Generalmajor, Germanised Polish descent

Harry Paletta, German Nazi, West Prussian

Helmuth von Pannwitz, Lusitian nobility

Wladimir von Pawlowski, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Carinthian Slovene descent

Alexander Piorkowski, German Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Paul Radomski, German Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Lothar Rendulic (1887–1971), Austrian, Wehrmacht Generaloberst, Croatian ancestry

Bernhard Rogge, admiral, Jewish ancestry

Jazep Sažyč, Belarusian

Baldur von Schirach, Wendish nobility

Hermann Senkowsky, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Carinthian Slovene descent

Otto Skorzeny, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Alexander Stahlberg, colonel, Jewish

Alfred Trzebinski, German Nazi, Germanised Polish descent

Erich Wasicky, Austrian Nazi, Germanised Carinthian Slovene descent

Udo von Woyrsch, German Nazi, SS-Obergruppenführer, Bohemian noble descent

Felix Zymalkowski, German, Kriegsmarine Korvettenkapitän, Germanised Polish descent

Werner Goldberg, German, foot soldier, half-Jewish

Hubert Jura, Polish, SD And Gestapo agent

Alexander Löhr, Generaloberst in the Luftwaffe, mother with Jewish-Ukrainian roots

March 1933 German federal election

Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January and just six days after the Reichstag fire. Nazi stormtroopers had unleashed a widespread campaign of violence against the Communist Party (KPD), left-wingers, trade unionists, the Social Democratic Party of Germany, and the Centre Party. They were the last multi-party elections in a unified Germany until 1990.

The 1933 election followed the previous year's two elections (July and November) and Hitler's appointment as Chancellor. In the months before the 1933 election, brownshirts and SS displayed "terror, repression and propaganda [...] across the land", and Nazi organizations "monitored" the vote process. In Prussia 50,000 members of the SS, SA and Stahlhelm were ordered to monitor the votes by acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring, as auxiliary police.The Nazis registered a large increase in votes in 1933. However, despite waging a campaign of terror against their opponents, the Nazis only tallied 43.9 percent of the vote, well short of a majority. They needed the votes of their coalition partner, the German National People's Party (DNVP), for a bare working majority in the Reichstag.

This would be the last contested election held in Germany before World War II. Two weeks after the election, Hitler was able to pass an Enabling Act on 23 March with the support of all non-socialist parties, which effectively gave Hitler dictatorial powers. Within months, the Nazis banned all other parties and turned the Reichstag into a rubberstamp legislature comprising only Nazis and pro-Nazi guests.

Martin Faust

Martin Faust may refer to:

Martin Faust (actor) (1886–1943), American actor

Martin Faust (1901–1923), German bank clerk, one of the list of Nazis killed in the Beer Hall Putsch

Martin Faust (Texas politician), state senator, District 21, President pro tempore of the Texas Senate, 36th Legislature

Prince Friedrich Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe

Prince Friedrich Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe (5 June 1906 – 20 September 1983) was a German prince, the youngest son of Georg, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe and his consort Princess Marie Anne of Saxe-Altenburg.Unhappy and disillusioned with the state of Germany after World War I, Friedrich Christian turned to the Nazi Party as a solution for the country's ills. As an ardent Party supporter, he worked vigorously to gain noble and royal support for it, and eventually became an upper privy councillor and adjutant to Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. In 1939, Friedrich Christian was asked to become king of Iceland by Icelanders sympathetic to the Nazi party, but refused due to the opposition of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.

After World War II, the prince devoted his writings to defending the record of the Third Reich, producing such works as Was Hitler Really a Dictator? (a personal account of the German leader) and "Als die goldne Abendsonne..." Aus meinen Tagebüchern der Jahre 1933–1937 (the prince's personal diaries).

Waffen-SS foreign volunteers and conscripts

During World War II, the Waffen-SS recruited significant numbers of non-Germans, both as volunteers and conscripts. In total some 500,000 non-Germans and ethnic Germans from outside Germany, mostly from German-occupied Europe, were recruited between 1940 and 1945. The units were under the control of the SS Führungshauptamt (SS Command Main Office) beneath Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Upon mobilization, the units' tactical control was given to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (High Command of the Armed Forces).

Weimar Constitution

The Constitution of the German Reich (German: Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933). The constitution declared Germany to be a democratic parliamentary republic with a legislature elected under proportional representation. Universal suffrage was established, with a minimum voting age of 20. The constitution technically remained in effect throughout the Nazi era from 1933 to 1945.

The constitution's title was the same as the Constitution of the German Empire that preceded it. The German state's official name was Deutsches Reich until the adoption of the 1949 Basic Law.

Wilhelm Gustloff

Wilhelm Gustloff (30 January 1895 – 4 February 1936) was the founder of the Swiss NSDAP/AO (the Nazi Party organisation for German citizens abroad) at Davos. He remained its leader from 1932 until he was assassinated in 1936.

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