Following the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the new ghetto system had been imposed by Nazi Germany roughly between October 1939 and July 1942 in order to confine Poland's Jewish population of 3.5 million for the purpose of persecution, terror, and exploitation. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest ghetto in all of Nazi occupied Europe, with over 400,000 Jews crammed into an area of 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2), or 7.2 persons per room. The Łódź Ghetto was the second largest, holding about 160,000 inmates.
Shanghai Ghetto (1937-1941 Less Restriction over Jews by Japanese) (1942-1945) Japanese forced 16,000 Jews into a one square mile Ghetto, where they were often the victims of air raids by the U.S.' 7th Air Force, and often had no running water, no bathroom, heavy rations, and it was not uncommon for 30-40 people to sleep in the same room. 
Spector, Shmuel; Wigoder, Geoffrey, eds. (2001). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814793565.
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