This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the West German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries." Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.
In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans. They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.
Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.
Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years, according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently. The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror. Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.
Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival. The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.
The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.
Statistical and numerical data presented in the table below originates from a wide variety of publications and therefore does not constitute a representative sample of the total.
|#||Camp name||Country (today)||Camp type||Dates of use||Est. prisoners||Est. deaths||Sub-camps||Webpage|
|1||Alderney||Guernsey||Labour camps||Jan 1942 – Jun 1944||6,000||700||Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt|||
|2||Amersfoort||Netherlands||Transit camp and prison||Aug 1941 – Apr 1945||35,000||1,000|||
|3||Arbeitsdorf||Germany||Labour camp||8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942||600 min.||none|
|4||Auschwitz-Birkenau||Poland||Extermination and labour camp||Apr 1940 – Jan 1945||135,000 min. in August 1944||1,100,000 min. with 400,000 recorded arrivals ||list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum ||   |
|5||Banjica||Serbia||Concentration camp||Jun 1941 – Sep 1944||23,637||3,849|
|6||Bardufoss||Norway||Concentration camp||Mar 1944 – ????||800||250|||
|7||Bełżec||Poland||Extermination camp||Oct 1941 – Jun 1943||434,508 min.|||
|8||Bergen-Belsen||Germany||Concentration camp||Apr 1943 – Apr 1945||120,000||52,000||2|||
|9||Berlin-Marzahn||Germany||Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma||July 1936 – ????||none|||
|10||Bernburg||Germany||Collection point||Apr 1942 – Apr 1945||14,385||2|
|12||Bolzano||Italy||Transit camp||Jul 1944 – Apr 1945||11,116|
|13||Bor||Serbia||Labour camp||July 1943 – September 1944||6,000||1,800–2,800|||
|14||Bredtvet||Norway||Concentration camp||Fall, 1941 – May, 1944||1,000 min.||none|
|15||Breendonk||Belgium||Prison and labour camp||20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944||3532 min.||391 min.||none|||
|16||Breitenau||Germany||"Early wild camp", then labour camp||Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
|470 – 8500|||
|17||Buchenwald||Germany||Concentration camp||Jul 1937 – Apr 1945||266,000||56,545||list|||
|Poland||Extermination camp||Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
|19||Crveni Krst||Serbia||Concentration camp||1941–1944||30,000||10,000|
|20||Dachau||Germany||Concentration camp||Mar 1933 – Apr 1945||200,000||31,591||list|||
|21||Drancy||France||Internment camp, transit||20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944||70,000||Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps|||
|22||Falstad||Norway||Prison camp||Dec 1941 – May 1945||200 min.||none|||
|23||Flossenbürg||Germany||Concentration camp||May 1938 – Apr 1945||96,000||30,000||list of subcamps|||
|24||Fort de Romainville||France||Prison and transit camp||1940 – Aug 1944||8,100 min.||200 min.||none|||
|25||Fort VII (Posen)||Poland||Concentration, detention, transit||Oct 1939 – Apr 1944||18,000 min.||4,500 min.|||
|26||Fossoli||Italy||Prison and transit camp||5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944||2,800|
|27||Grini||Norway||Prison camp||2 May 1941 – May 1945||19,788||8||Fannrem
|28||Gross-Rosen||Poland||Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp||Aug 1940 – Feb 1945||125,000||40,000||list|||
|Netherlands||Concentration camp||1943 – Summer 1944||31,000||750||list|||
|30||Hinzert||Germany||Collection point and subcamp||Jul 1940 – Mar 1945||14,000||302 min.|||
|31||Jägala||Estonia||Labour camp||Aug 1942 – Aug 1943||200||3,000||none|||
|Ukraine||Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp||Sep 1941 – Nov 1943||40,000 min.||none|||
|Latvia||Concentration camp||1942 – 6 Aug 1944||20,000?||16,
|34||Kaufering/Landsberg||Germany||Concentration camp||Jun 1943 – Apr 1945||30,000||14,500 min.|||
|Lithuania||Ghetto and internment camp||June 22, 1941 - August 1, 1944||Prawienischken|||
|36||Kemna||Germany||Early concentration camp||Jun 1933 – Jan 1934||4,500||none|||
|37||Kistarcsa||Hungary||Concentration camp||1944 – 1945||1,800|||
|38||Klooga||Estonia||Labour camp||Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944||1,800|
|39||Koldichevo||Belarus||Labour camp||Summer 1942 – Jun 1944||22,000|
|40||Le Vernet||France||Internment camp||1939–1944|
|Poland||Extermination and concentration camp||Oct 1941 – Jul 1944||78,000|||
|42||Malchow||Germany||Concentration and transit camp||Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945||5,000|
|43||Maly Trostenets||Belarus||Extermination camp||Jul 1941 – Jun 1944||60,000-65,000|||
|44||Mauthausen-Gusen||Austria||Concentration camp||Aug 1938 – May 1945||195,000||122,766-
|45||Mechelen||Belgium||Transit camp||July 1942 – Sep 1944||25267 min.||300 min.||none|||
|46||Mittelbau-Dora||Germany||Concentration camp||Sep 1943 – Apr 1945||60,000||20,000 min.||list|||
|47||Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof)||France||Concentration camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp||May 1941 – Sep 1944||52,000||22,000||list|||
|48||Neuengamme||Germany||Concentration camp||13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945||106,000||42,900+||list|||
|49||Niederhagen||Germany||Concentration and labour camp||Sep 1941 – early 1943||3,900||1,285||none|||
|50||Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp||Germany||Concentration camp||Nov 1933 – 1935||600||0||Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm)|||
|51||Oranienburg||Germany||Early concentration camp||Mar 1933 – Jul 1934||3,000||16 min.|
|52||Osthofen||Germany||Collective point||Mar 1933 – Jul 1934|
|53||Płaszów||Poland||Labour camp||Dec 1942 – Jan 1945||150,000 min.||9,000 min.||list|
|54||Ravensbrück||Germany||Concentration camp for women||May 1939 – Apr 1945||132,000||28,000||list|||
|55||Risiera di San Sabba
|Italy||Police detainment camp, transit camp||Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945||25,000||5,000|||
|56||Sachsenhausen||Germany||Concentration camp||Jul 1936 – Apr 1945||200,000 min.||30,000||list|||
|57||Sajmište||Serbia||Extermination camp||Oct 1941 – Jul 1944||50,000||20,000–23,000|
|58||Salaspils (Kirchholm)||Latvia||Concentration camp||Oct 1941 – Summer 1944||2,000|||
|Czech Republic||Transit (1939) and labour camp||Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943||700||13|||
|60||Sobibór||Poland||Extermination camp||May 1942 – Oct 1943||170,165|||
|61||Soldau||Poland||Labour and transit camp||Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945||30,000||13,000||3|
|62||Stutthof||Poland||Concentration camp||Sep 1939 – May 1945||110,000||65,000||list|||
|Ukraine||Labor and extermination camp||July 1942 – spring 1943||2,000|||
|Czech Republic||Transit camp and Ghetto||Nov 1941 – May 1945||140,000||33,000 min.|||
|65||Treblinka||Poland||Extermination camp||Jul 1942 – Nov 1943||700,000 - 900,000 |||
|66||Vaivara||Estonia||Concentration and transit camp||15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944||20,000||950||22|| |
|67||Warsaw||Poland||Concentration and extermination camp||1942–1944||400,000 max.||20,000–35,000|
|68||Westerbork||Netherlands||Transit camp||May 1940 – Apr 1945||102,000|
The Alderney camps were prison camps built and operated by Nazi Germany during its World War II occupation of the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Isles to be occupied.Auschwitz concentration camp
The Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of Auschwitz I, the main camp (Stammlager) and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim; Auschwitz II–Birkenau, a combined concentration and extermination camp three kilometers away in Brzezinka; Auschwitz III–Monowitz, a labor camp created to staff an IG Farben synthetic-rubber factory; and dozens of other subcamps.After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, the Germans converted Auschwitz I, a former army barracks, to hold Polish political prisoners. The first prisoners, German criminals brought to the camp as functionaries, arrived in May 1940, and the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau went on to become a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. From early 1942 until late 1944, transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers. Of the estimated 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz, at least 1.1 million died, around 90 percent of them Jews. Approximately one in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp. Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of others of diverse nationalities, and an unknown number of gay men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, and medical experiments.
In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel (SS), approximately 12 percent of whom were later convicted of war crimes; several, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss, were executed. The Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities at the camp, and their failure to bomb the camp or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape from Auschwitz, 144 successfully, and on 7 October 1944 two Sonderkommando units, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers, launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising.
As Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of its population was sent west on a death march. The remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the following decades, survivors such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947 Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and in 1979 it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Bergen-Belsen [ˈbɛʁɡn̩.bɛlsn̩], or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.
After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most commonly associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there. Overcrowding, lack of food and poor sanitary conditions caused outbreaks of typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and dysentery, leading to the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation.
The camp was liberated on April 15, 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division. The soldiers discovered approximately 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and seriously ill, and another 13,000 corpses, including those of Anne and Margot Frank, lying around the camp unburied. The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, made the name "Belsen" emblematic of Nazi crimes in general for public opinion in many countries in the immediate post-1945 period. Today, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site.Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp (; German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or Arbeitskommandos, and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U.S. forces on 29 April 1945.
Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed in 1960.
There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, which is open to the public.Herzogenbusch concentration camp
Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, pronounced [kɑmp ˈfɵxt], German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch [kɔntsɛntʁaˈtsi̯oːnsˌlaːɡɐ hɛʁtsoːɡənˈbʊʃ]) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside Germany. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. After the war the camp was used as a prison for Germans and Dutch collaborators. Today there is a visitors' center with exhibitions and a national monument remembering the camp and its victims. The camp is now a museum.International concentration camp committees
International concentration camp committees are organizations composed of former inmates of the various Nazi concentration camps, formed at various times, primarily after the Second World War. Although most survivors have since died and those who are still alive are generally octogenarians, the committees are still active.Janowska concentration camp
Janowska concentration camp (Polish: Janowska, Russian: Янов or "Yanov", Ukrainian: Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine). The camp was labeled Janowska after the nearby street ulica Janowska in Lwów, renamed Shevchenka (Ukrainian: Шевченка) after the city was ceded to the Ukrainian SSR at the end of war in Europe. The camp was liquidated by the Germans in November 1943 ahead of the Red Army's counteroffensive. According to Soviet prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, Janowska was a pure death camp, although it also housed a factory. Modern estimates put the total number of prisoners who passed through Janowska at over 100,000. The number of victims murdered at the camp is estimated at 35,000–40,000.:255Kovno Ghetto
The Kovno ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust. At its peak, the Ghetto held 29,000 people, most of whom were later sent to concentration and extermination camps, or were shot at the Ninth Fort. About 500 Jews escaped from work details and directly from the Ghetto, and joined Soviet partisan forces in the distant forests of southeast Lithuania and Belarus.Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp
Płaszów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpwaʂuf]) or Kraków-Płaszów (German: Konzentrationslager Plaszow) was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków (now part of Podgórze district), soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland.List of Nazi doctors
This is a list of notable Nazi medical doctors (physicians).
When the Nazi government came to power it purged Germany of its 6,000 to 7,000 Jewish doctors.
Reportedly more than 7% of all German physicians became members of the Nazi party during World War II, a far higher percentage than the general population. In 1942 more than 38,000 German doctors, half the total number of doctors, had joined the Nazi party. While most of these doctors were physicians, some were psychiatrists, and some held doctorates (PhD.'s) in biology, anthropology, or similarly related fields.
Psychiatrists/Doctors who were working for the state, and not for their patient, using a Mendelian type of logic chart, saw extermination of their patients as the correct solution to the problem of mental illness and the supposedly genetically defective."The participation in the ‘betrayal of Hippocrates’ had a broad basis within the German medical profession. Without the doctors' active help, the Holocaust could not have happened." wrote E Ernst in the International Journal of Epidemiology.Psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin was the founder of the psychiatric genetics field and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement.Killing and experimentation became medical procedures as they were performed by licensed doctors. A doctor was present at all the mass killings for legal reasons. The excuse that there wasn't any international law to differentiate between legal and illegal human experimentation, was used in the Doctors' trial. Due to the lack of international laws to govern doctors, the Nuremberg Code (1947) was created.
After the war the German Medical Association blamed Nazi atrocities on a small group of 350 criminal doctors.Doctors such as Werner Heyde and Robert Ley, changed their name after the war to avoid responsibility. Dr Walter Schreiber first used by the Soviets was later taken into Operation Paperclip in 1951.
Alphabetical List of the Nazi physicians.List of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany
Part of Lists of Prisoner-of-War Camps section in the Prisoner-of-war camp article.This article is a list of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany (and in German occupied territory) during any conflict. These are the camps that housed captured members of the enemy armed forces, crews of ships of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft.
For civilian and concentration camps, see List of concentration camps of Nazi Germany.List of subcamps of Auschwitz
The Auschwitz concentration camp complex was a system of concentration camps run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1940–1945. The main camp (German: Stammlager) was Auschwitz I. Auschwitz II, or Birkenau, was a concentration and extermination camp, and became the most notorious of the camps. Auschwitz III, or Monowitz, was a labour camp.
In addition to the three largest camps, Auschwitz consisted of several subcamps. The satellite camps were named Aussenlager (external camp), Nebenlager (extension or subcamp), and Arbeitslager (labour camp). Several lay within ten kilometres of the main camp, with prisoner populations ranging from dozens to several thousand.List of subcamps of Buchenwald
The following is a list of the forced labor subcamps of the Nazi Buchenwald concentration camp.Majdanek concentration camp
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact, because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure, and the inept Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed in his task of removing incriminating evidence of war crimes. Therefore, Majdanek became the first concentration camp discovered by Allied forces. Also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager (KL) Lublin, Majdanek remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust.Unlike other similar camps in Nazi-occupied Poland, Majdanek was not in a remote rural location away from population centres but within the boundaries of a major city (see also: Nisko Plan preceding the formation of the Ghetto). The proximity led the camp to be named Majdanek ("little Majdan") by local people in 1941 because it was adjacent to the suburb of Majdan Tatarski in Lublin. The Nazi documents initially called the site a Prisoner of War Camp of the Waffen-SS in Lublin because of the way it was operated and funded. It was renamed by Reich Main Security Office in Berlin as Konzentrationslager Lublin on April 9, 1943, but the local Polish name is usually still used.Maly Trostinets extermination camp
Maly Trostinets (Малы Трасцянец, "Little Trostinets") is a village near Minsk in Belarus, formerly the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. During Nazi Germany's occupation of the area during World War II (when the Germans referred to it as Reichskommissariat Ostland), the village became the location of a German camp and extermination site.Throughout 1942, Jews from Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia were taken by train to Maly Trostinets to be lined up in front of pits and shot. From the summer of 1942, mobile gas vans were also used. According to Yad Vashem, the Jews of Minsk were killed and buried in Maly Trostinets and in another village, Bolshoi Trostinets, between 28 and 31 July 1942 and on 21 October 1943. As the Red Army approached the area in June 1944, the Germans killed most of the prisoners and destroyed the camp.Estimates of how many people died at Maly Trostinets vary. According to Yad Vashem, 65,000 Jews were murdered in one of the nearby pine forests, mostly by shooting. Holocaust historian Stephan Lehnstaedt places the figure higher, writing that at least 106,000 Jews died there. Researchers from the Soviet Union estimated there had been around 200,000 deaths at the camp and nearby execution sites. Lehnstaedt writes that the estimates include the Jews of the Minsk ghetto, who numbered 39,000 to almost 100,000.Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) southwest of the city of Strasbourg. Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy.
Between 1941 and 1944, Alsace was administered by Germany as an integral part of the German Reich. The camp operated from 21 May 1941 and was evacuated early in September 1944. Only a small staff of Nazi SS personnel remained until the camp was liberated by the French First Army under the command of the U.S. Sixth Army Group on 23 November 1944.About 52,000 prisoners were estimated to be held there during its time of operation. The prisoners were mainly from the resistance movements in German-occupied territories. It was a labor camp, a transit camp and, as the war went on, a place of execution. Some died from the exertions of their labor and malnutrition. There were an estimated 22,000 deaths at the camp, including its network of subcamps. Many prisoners were moved to other camps; in particular, in 1944 the former head of Auschwitz concentration camp was brought in to evacuate the prisoners of Natzweiler-Struthof to Dachau as the Allied Armies neared. The anatomist August Hirt conducted some of his efforts in making a Jewish skeleton collection at the camp. A documentary movie was made about the 86 named men and women who were killed there for that project. Some of the people responsible for atrocities in this camp were brought to trial after the war ended.
The camp is preserved as a museum in memory of those held or killed there. The European Centre of Deported Resistance Members is located at this museum, focusing on those held. The Monument to the Departed stands at the site. The present museum was restored in 1980 after damage by neo-Nazis in 1976. Among notable prisoners, the writer Boris Pahor was interned in Natzweiler-Struthof and wrote his novel Necropolis based on his experience.Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen (German pronunciation: [zaksənˈhaʊzən]) or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950 (See NKVD special camp Nr. 7). The camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum.There Is Many Like Us (film)
There Is Many Like Us is a 2015 documentary film directed by Josh Webber and starring Tyler Mauro, Kayleigh Gilbert, Eric Roberts, Michael Girgenti, Zach Silverman, Stefanja Orlowska, and Douglas Bierman. It is based on the true life story of Max and Rena Fronenberg.
The documentary film follows Max Fronenberg during his forced labor and imprisonment in Pawiak Prison Camp in Warsaw, Poland, during World War II. While imprisoned Max befriends two women who would later become his wives. Max and two friends, Karochic and Goodman, escape by digging a tunnel under the prison camp. Through their courageous actions fifteen prisoners escaped certain death but Fronenburg had to leave the love of his life in the process.