List of Nazi concentration camps

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the West German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany,[2] while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries."[3] Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.[4]

In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans.[5] They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.

Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.[6]

Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years,[7] according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently.[7] The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror.[5] Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.[8]

Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival.[9] The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.[9][10][11]

The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.

Birkenau gate
The main gate into Auschwitz II (Birkenau) concentration camp, where an estimated 1.1 million people were killed.[1]

Selected examples

Statistical and numerical data presented in the table below originates from a wide variety of publications and therefore does not constitute a representative sample of the total.

The Ghettos in German-occupied Europe are generally not included in this list. Relevant information can be found at the separate List of Nazi-era ghettos.

# Camp name Country (today) Camp type Dates of use Est. prisoners Est. deaths Sub-camps Webpage
1 Alderney Guernsey Labour camps Jan 1942 – Jun 1944 6,000 700 Lager Borkum, Lager Helgoland, Lager Norderney, Lager Sylt [1]
2 Amersfoort Netherlands Transit camp and prison Aug 1941 – Apr 1945 35,000 1,000 [2]
3 Arbeitsdorf Germany Labour camp 8 Apr 1942 – 11 Oct 1942 600 min. none
4 Auschwitz-Birkenau Poland Extermination and labour camp Apr 1940 – Jan 1945 135,000 min.[12] in August 1944 1,100,000 min.[13] with 400,000 recorded arrivals [14] list of 48 sub-camps with description at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum [15] [12] [13] [15] [14]
5 Banjica Serbia Concentration camp Jun 1941 – Sep 1944 23,637 3,849[16]
6 Bardufoss Norway Concentration camp Mar 1944 – ???? 800 250 [17]
7 Bełżec Poland Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jun 1943 434,508 min. [3]
8 Bergen-Belsen Germany Concentration camp Apr 1943 – Apr 1945 120,000 52,000 2 [4]
9 Berlin-Marzahn Germany Early a "rest place" then labour camp for Roma July 1936 – ???? none [5]
10 Bernburg Germany Collection point Apr 1942 – Apr 1945 14,385 2
11 Bogdanovka Ukraine Concentration camp 1941 54,000 40,000
12 Bolzano Italy Transit camp Jul 1944 – Apr 1945 11,116
13 Bor Serbia Labour camp July 1943 – September 1944 6,000 1,800–2,800 [6]
14 Bredtvet Norway Concentration camp Fall, 1941 – May, 1944 1,000 min. none
15 Breendonk Belgium Prison and labour camp 20 Sep 1940 – Sep 1944 3532 min. 391 min. none [7]
16 Breitenau Germany "Early wild camp", then labour camp Jun 1933 – Mar 1934,
1940–1945
470 – 8500 [8]
17 Buchenwald Germany Concentration camp Jul 1937 – Apr 1945 266,000 56,545 list [9]
18 Chełmno
(Kulmhof)
Poland Extermination camp Dec 1941 – Apr 1943,
Apr 1944 – Jan 1945
152,000 min. [10]
19 Crveni Krst Serbia Concentration camp 1941–1944 30,000 10,000
20 Dachau Germany Concentration camp Mar 1933 – Apr 1945 200,000 31,591 list [11]
21 Drancy France Internment camp, transit 20 Aug 1941 – 17 Aug 1944 70,000 Three of five Paris annexes: Austerlitz, Lévitan and Bassano camps [12]
22 Falstad Norway Prison camp Dec 1941 – May 1945 200 min. none [13]
23 Flossenbürg Germany Concentration camp May 1938 – Apr 1945 96,000 30,000 list of subcamps [14]
24 Fort de Romainville France Prison and transit camp 1940 – Aug 1944 8,100 min. 200 min. none [15]
25 Fort VII (Posen) Poland Concentration, detention, transit Oct 1939 – Apr 1944 18,000 min. 4,500 min. [16]
26 Fossoli Italy Prison and transit camp 5 Dec 1943 – Nov 1944 2,800
27 Grini Norway Prison camp 2 May 1941 – May 1945 19,788 8 Fannrem
Bardufoss
Kvænangen
28 Gross-Rosen Poland Labour camp; Nacht und Nebel camp Aug 1940 – Feb 1945 125,000 40,000 list [17]
29 Herzogenbusch
(Vught)
Netherlands Concentration camp 1943 – Summer 1944 31,000 750 list [18]
30 Hinzert Germany Collection point and subcamp Jul 1940 – Mar 1945 14,000 302 min. [19]
31 Jägala Estonia Labour camp Aug 1942 – Aug 1943 200 3,000 none [20]
32 Janowska
(Lwów)
Ukraine Ghetto; transit, labour, & extermination camp Sep 1941 – Nov 1943 40,000 min. none [21]
(see "A-Z")
33 Kaiserwald
(Mežaparks)
Latvia Concentration camp 1942 – 6 Aug 1944 20,000? 16,
incl. Eleja-Meitenes
[22]
34 Kaufering/Landsberg Germany Concentration camp Jun 1943 – Apr 1945 30,000 14,500 min. [23][24]
35 Kauen
(Kaunas)
Lithuania Ghetto and internment camp June 22, 1941 - August 1, 1944 Prawienischken [25]
36 Kemna Germany Early concentration camp Jun 1933 – Jan 1934 4,500 none [26]
37 Kistarcsa Hungary Concentration camp 1944 – 1945 1,800 [27]
38 Klooga Estonia Labour camp Summer 1943 – 28 Sep 1944 1,800
39 Koldichevo Belarus Labour camp Summer 1942 – Jun 1944 22,000
40 Le Vernet France Internment camp 1939–1944
41 Majdanek
(KZ Lublin)
Poland Extermination and concentration camp Oct 1941 – Jul 1944 78,000 [28]
42 Malchow Germany Concentration and transit camp Winter 1943 – 8 May 1945 5,000
43 Maly Trostenets Belarus Extermination camp Jul 1941 – Jun 1944 60,000-65,000 [18][19]
44 Mauthausen-Gusen Austria Concentration camp Aug 1938 – May 1945 195,000 122,766-

320,000

list [29]
45 Mechelen Belgium Transit camp July 1942 – Sep 1944 25267 min.[20] 300 min.[21] none [30]
46 Mittelbau-Dora Germany Concentration camp Sep 1943 – Apr 1945 60,000 20,000 min. list [31]
47 Natzweiler-Struthof (Struthof) France Concentration camp; Nacht und Nebel camp; extermination camp May 1941 – Sep 1944 52,000 22,000 list [22]
48 Neuengamme Germany Concentration camp 13 Dec 1938 – 4 May 1945 106,000 42,900+ list [32]
49 Niederhagen Germany Concentration and labour camp Sep 1941 – early 1943 3,900 1,285 none [33]
50 Oberer Kuhberg concentration camp Germany Concentration camp Nov 1933 – 1935 600 0 Former infantry base Gleißelstetten (Fortress of Ulm) [34]
51 Oranienburg Germany Early concentration camp Mar 1933 – Jul 1934 3,000 16 min.
52 Osthofen Germany Collective point Mar 1933 – Jul 1934
53 Płaszów Poland Labour camp Dec 1942 – Jan 1945 150,000 min. 9,000 min. list
54 Ravensbrück Germany Concentration camp for women May 1939 – Apr 1945 132,000 28,000 list [35][36]
55 Risiera di San Sabba
(Trieste)
Italy Police detainment camp, transit camp Sep 1943 – 29 Apr 1945 25,000 5,000 [37]
56 Sachsenhausen Germany Concentration camp Jul 1936 – Apr 1945 200,000 min. 30,000 list [38]
57 Sajmište Serbia Extermination camp Oct 1941 – Jul 1944 50,000 20,000–23,000
58 Salaspils (Kirchholm) Latvia Concentration camp Oct 1941 – Summer 1944 2,000 [39]
59 Skrochowitz
(Skrochovice)
Czech Republic Transit (1939) and labour camp Sept 1939 - Dec 1939, 1940–1943 700 13 [40]
60 Sobibór Poland Extermination camp May 1942 – Oct 1943 170,165 [41]
61 Soldau Poland Labour and transit camp Winter 1939/40 – Jan 1945 30,000 13,000 3
62 Stutthof Poland Concentration camp Sep 1939 – May 1945 110,000 65,000 list [42]
63 Syrets
(Kiev)
Ukraine Labor and extermination camp July 1942 – spring 1943 2,000 [43]
64 Theresienstadt
(Terezín)
Czech Republic Transit camp and Ghetto Nov 1941 – May 1945 140,000 33,000 min. [44]
65 Treblinka Poland Extermination camp Jul 1942 – Nov 1943 1,000,000 (approx.) [45]
66 Vaivara Estonia Concentration and transit camp 15 Sep 1943 – 29 Feb 1944 20,000 950 22 [46] [47]
67 Warsaw Poland Concentration and extermination camp 1942–1944 400,000 max. 20,000–35,000
68 Westerbork Netherlands Transit camp May 1940 – Apr 1945 102,000

See also

References

  1. ^ "Auschwitz". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  2. ^ Bundesministerium der Justiz (2011), List of concentration camps and their outposts in alphabetical order. Internet Archive. (in German)
  3. ^ Concentration Camp Listing Sourced from Van Eck, Ludo Le livre des Camps. Belgium: Editions Kritak; and Gilbert, Martin Atlas of the Holocaust. New York: William Morrow 1993 ISBN 0-688-12364-3. In this on-line site are the names of 149 camps and 814 subcamps, organized by country.
  4. ^ Search Results: Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System. Alphabetical listing. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Further Reading. Bergen, Dawidowicz, Gilbert, Gutman, Hilberg, Yahil.
  5. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Nazi Camps. Introduction. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  6. ^ Peter Vogelsang & Brian B. M. Larsen (2002), The difference between concentration camps and extermination camps. Archived 2015-10-27 at the Wayback Machine The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
  7. ^ a b Anat Helman (2015). "The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos by Geoffrey P. Megargee". Exploring the Universe of Camps and Ghettos. Jews and Their Foodways. Oxford University Press. pp. 251–252. ISBN 0190265426.
  8. ^ Source: Abzug, Bridgman, Chamberlin, Goodell (2015). "Liberation of German Camps". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 July 2015.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia, Killing Centers: An Overview.Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  10. ^ Yad Vashem (2012). "The Implementation of the Final Solution: The Death Camps". The Holocaust. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013 – via Internet Archive, 4 November 2013. Also in: Wolf Gruner (2004). "Jewish Forced Labor as a Basic Element of Nazi Persecution: Germany, Austria, and the Occupied Polish Territories (1938–1943)" (PDF). Forced and Slave Labor in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: 43–44.
  11. ^ Robert Gellately; Nathan Stoltzfus (2001). Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Princeton University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-691-08684-2.
  12. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Construction and Expansion of KL Auschwitz ("Budowa i rozbudowa KL Auschwitz"). Archived 2010-09-25 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  13. ^ a b Franciszek Piper, Dead victims of KL Auschwitz per nationality and/or profile of deportees ("Liczba uśmierconych w KL Auschwitz ogółem wg Narodowości lub kategorii deportowanych"). Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland, 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  14. ^ a b Franciszek Piper. "Victims of KL Auschwitz" [Liczba ofiar KL Auschwitz]. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (in Polish). Oświęcim, Poland. 1999–2010. Overwhelming majority of Auschwitz arrivals were killed within hours. Only about 10 percent of the prisoners from transports organized by the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) were registered and assigned to the Birkenau barracks. There were around 400,000 registrations at Auschwitz in total, including 195,000 non-Jews, and around 202,000 Jews. — Franciszek Piper. See also: Vincent Châtel & Chuck Ferree (2006). "Auschwitz-Birkenau Death Factory". The Forgotten Camps. Archived from the original on 2010-09-25 – via Internet Archive, 2010-09-25.
  15. ^ a b List of Subcamps of KL Auschwitz (Podobozy KL Auschwitz). Archived 2011-10-12 at the Wayback Machine The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim, Poland (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu), 1999–2010 (in Polish)
  16. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P., The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation: 1918–2005. Indiana University Press, 2006. (p. 131)
  17. ^ Store norske leksikon (2010-04-09). "Bardufoss fangeleir" (in Norwegian).
  18. ^ Gerlach, Christian (2013). Kalkulierte Morde (in German) (Kindle ed.). Hamburger Edition. loc 25883. ISBN 978-3-86854-567-8.
  19. ^ "Shoah Resource Center - Maly Trostinets" (PDF). Yad Vashems.
  20. ^ Schram, Laurence (2006). "De cijfers van de deportatie uit Mechelen naar Auschwitz. Perspectieven en denkpistes". De Belgische tentoonstelling in Auschwitz. Het boek - L'exposition belge / Auschwitz. Le Livre (in Dutch). Het Joods Museum voor Deportatie en Verzet. ISBN 978-90-76109-03-9. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  21. ^ Mikhman, Dan; Gutman, Israel, eds. (2005). The encyclopedia of the righteous among the nations: rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. Belgium. Yad Vashem Publications. ISBN 978-9653083769.
  22. ^ Roger Boulanger (2006), L'historique du camp de Natzweiler-Struthof via Internet Archive.

Bibliography

External links

Alderney camps

The Alderney camps were prison camps built and operated by Nazi Germany during its World War II occupation of the Channel Islands. The Channel Islands were the only part of the British Isles to be occupied.

Auschwitz concentration camp

The Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was a complex of more than 40 Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of Auschwitz I, the main camp (Stammlager) and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim; Auschwitz II–Birkenau, a combined concentration and extermination camp three kilometers away in Brzezinka; Auschwitz III–Monowitz, a labor camp seven kilometers from Auschwitz I set up to staff an IG Farben synthetic-rubber factory; and dozens of other subcamps.Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, and they converted Auschwitz I from an army barracks to a prison camp for Polish political prisoners. The first prisoners were German criminals who were brought to the camp as functionaries in May 1940, and the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau became a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers from early 1942 until late 1944. At least 1.1 million people died at Auschwitz of the estimated 1.3 million sent there, and some 90 percent of them were Jews. Approximately one in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp. Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of diverse nationalities, and an unknown number of homosexual men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, and medical experiments.

In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel (SS), approximately 12 percent of whom were later convicted of war crimes. Several were executed, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss. The Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities, and their failure to bomb it or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 successfully, and two Sonderkommando units launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising on 7 October 1944, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers.

Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, and most of the prisoners were sent west on a death march. The remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the following decades, survivors wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen [ˈbɛʁɡn̩.bɛlsn̩], or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, parts of it became a concentration camp. Initially this was an "exchange camp", where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was later expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps.

After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, but it is most commonly associated with the concentration camp. From 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there. Overcrowding, lack of food and poor sanitary conditions caused outbreaks of typhus, tuberculosis, typhoid fever and dysentery, leading to the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the first few months of 1945, shortly before and after the liberation.

The camp was liberated on April 15, 1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division. The soldiers discovered approximately 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and seriously ill, and another 13,000 corpses, including those of Anne and Margot Frank, lying around the camp unburied. The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, made the name "Belsen" emblematic of Nazi crimes in general for public opinion in many countries in the immediate post-1945 period. Today, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site.

Dachau concentration camp

Dachau concentration camp (; German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, IPA: [ˈdaxaʊ]) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or Arbeitskommandos, and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U.S. forces on 29 April 1945.

Prisoners lived in constant fear of brutal treatment and terror detention including standing cells, floggings, the so-called tree or pole hanging, and standing at attention for extremely long periods. There were 32,000 documented deaths at the camp, and thousands that are undocumented.Approximately 10,000 of the 30,000 prisoners were sick at the time of liberation.In the postwar years the Dachau facility served to hold SS soldiers awaiting trial. After 1948, it held ethnic Germans who had been expelled from eastern Europe and were awaiting resettlement, and also was used for a time as a United States military base during the occupation. It was finally closed in 1960.

There are several religious memorials within the Memorial Site, which is open to the public.

Herzogenbusch concentration camp

Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught, pronounced [kɑmp ˈfɵxt], German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch [kɔntsɛntʁaˈtsi̯oːnsˌlaːɡɐ hɛʁtsoːɡənˈbʊʃ]) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Herzogenbusch was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside Germany. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. After the war the camp was used as a prison for Germans and Dutch collaborators. Today there is a visitors' center with exhibitions and a national monument remembering the camp and its victims. The camp is now a museum.

International concentration camp committees

International concentration camp committees are organizations composed of former inmates of the various Nazi concentration camps, formed at various times, primarily after the Second World War. Although most survivors have since died and those who are still alive are generally octogenarians, the committees are still active.

Janowska concentration camp

Janowska concentration camp (Polish: Janowska, Russian: Янов or "Yanov", Ukrainian: Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine). The camp was labeled Janowska after the nearby street ulica Janowska in Lwów, renamed Shevchenka (Ukrainian: Шевченка) after the city was ceded to the Ukrainian SSR at the end of war in Europe. The camp was liquidated by the Germans in November 1943 ahead of the Red Army's counteroffensive. According to Soviet prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, Janowska was a pure death camp, although it also housed a factory. Modern estimates put the total number of prisoners who passed through Janowska at over 100,000. The number of victims murdered at the camp is estimated at 35,000–40,000.:255

Kovno Ghetto

The Kovno ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust. At its peak, the Ghetto held 29,000 people, most of whom were later sent to concentration and extermination camps, or were shot at the Ninth Fort. About 500 Jews escaped from work details and directly from the Ghetto, and joined Soviet partisan forces in the distant forests of southeast Lithuania and Belarus.

Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp

Płaszów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpwaʂuf]) or Kraków-Płaszów (German: Konzentrationslager Plaszow) was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków (now part of Podgórze district), soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland.

List of Nazi doctors

This is a list of notable Nazi medical doctors (M.D. or physicians).

When the Nazi government came to power it purged Germany of its 6,000 to 7,000 Jewish doctors.

Reportedly more than 7% of all German physicians became members of the Nazi party during World War II, a far higher percentage than the general population. In 1942 more than 38,000 German doctors, half the total number of doctors, had joined the Nazi party. While most of these doctors were physicians, some were psychiatrists, and some held doctorates (PhD.'s) in biology, anthropology, or similarly related fields.

Psychiatrists/Doctors who were working for the state, and not for their patient, using a Mendelian type of logic chart, saw extermination of their patients as the correct solution to the problem of mental illness and the supposedly genetically defective."The participation in the ‘betrayal of Hippocrates’ had a broad basis within the German medical profession. Without the doctors' active help, the Holocaust could not have happened." wrote E Ernst in the International Journal of Epidemiology.Psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin was the founder of the psychiatric genetics field and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement.Killing and experimentation became medical procedures as they were performed by licensed doctors. A doctor was present at all the mass killings for legal reasons. The excuse that there wasn't any international law to differentiate between legal and illegal human experimentation, was used in the Doctors' trial. Due to the lack of international laws to govern doctors, the Nuremberg Code (1947) was created.

After the war the German Medical Association blamed Nazi atrocities on a small group of 350 criminal doctors.Doctors such as Werner Heyde and Robert Ley, changed their name after the war to avoid responsibility. Dr Walter Schreiber first used by the Soviets was later taken into Operation Paperclip in 1951.

Alphabetical List of the Nazi physicians.

List of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany

Part of Lists of Prisoner-of-War Camps section in the Prisoner-of-war camp article.This article is a list of prisoner-of-war camps in Germany (and in German occupied territory) during any conflict. These are the camps that housed captured members of the enemy armed forces, crews of ships of the merchant marine and the crews of civil aircraft.

For civilian and concentration camps, see List of concentration camps of Nazi Germany.

List of subcamps of Auschwitz

The Auschwitz concentration camp complex was a system of concentration camps run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1940–1945. The main camp (German: Stammlager) was Auschwitz I. Auschwitz II, or Birkenau, was a concentration and extermination camp, and became the most notorious of the camps. Auschwitz III, or Monowitz, was a labour camp.

In addition to the three largest camps, Auschwitz consisted of several subcamps. The satellite camps were named Aussenlager (external camp), Nebenlager (extension or subcamp), and Arbeitslager (labour camp). Several lay within ten kilometres of the main camp, with prisoner populations ranging from dozens to several thousand.

List of subcamps of Buchenwald

The following is a list of the forced labor subcamps of the Nazi Buchenwald concentration camp.

Majdanek concentration camp

Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact, because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure, and the inept Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed in his task of removing incriminating evidence of war crimes. Therefore, Majdanek became the first concentration camp discovered by Allied forces. Also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager (KL) Lublin, Majdanek remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust.Unlike other similar camps in Nazi-occupied Poland, Majdanek was not in a remote rural location away from population centres but within the boundaries of a major city (see also: Nisko Plan preceding the formation of the Ghetto). The proximity led the camp to be named Majdanek ("little Majdan") by local people in 1941 because it was adjacent to the suburb of Majdan Tatarski in Lublin. The Nazi documents initially called the site a Prisoner of War Camp of the Waffen-SS in Lublin because of the way it was operated and funded. It was renamed by Reich Main Security Office in Berlin as Konzentrationslager Lublin on April 9, 1943, but the local Polish name is usually still used.

Maly Trostinets extermination camp

The Trostinets extermination camp, also known as Maly Trostinets, Maly Trastsianiets and Trascianec (see alternative spellings), was a World War II Nazi German death camp located near the village of Maly Trostinets (Малы Трасцянец, "Little Trostinets") on the outskirts of Minsk in Reichskommissariat Ostland. It operated between July 1942 and October 1943, by which time, virtually all Jews remaining in Minsk had been murdered and buried there.

Natzweiler-Struthof

Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) southwest of the city of Strasbourg. Natzweiler-Struthof was the only concentration camp established by the Nazis on French territory, though there were French-run temporary camps such as the one at Drancy.

Between 1941 and 1944, Alsace was administered by Germany as an integral part of the German Reich. The camp operated from 21 May 1941 and was evacuated early September 1944. Only a small staff of Nazi SS personnel remained until the camp was liberated by the French First Army under the command of the U.S. Sixth Army Group on 23 November 1944.About 52,000 prisoners were estimated to be held there during its time of operation. The prisoners were mainly from the resistance movements in German-occupied territories. It was a labor camp, a transit camp and, as the war went on, a place of execution. Some died from the exertions of their labor and malnutrition. There were an estimated 22,000 deaths at the camp, including its network of subcamps. Many prisoners were moved to other camps; in particular, in 1944 the former head of Auschwitz concentration camp was brought in to evacuate the prisoners of Natzweiler-Struthof to Dachau as the Allied Armies neared. The anatomist August Hirt conducted some of his efforts in making a Jewish skeleton collection at the camp. A documentary movie was made about the 86 named men and women who were killed there for that project. Some of the people responsible for atrocities in this camp were brought to trial after the war ended.

The camp is preserved as a museum in memory of those held or killed there. The European Centre of Deported Resistance Members is located at this museum, focusing on those held. The Monument to the Departed stands at the site. The present museum was restored in 1980 after damage by neo-Nazis in 1976. Among notable prisoners, the writer Boris Pahor was interned in Natzweiler-Struthof and wrote his novel Necropolis based on his experience.

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sachsenhausen (German pronunciation: [zaksənˈhaʊzən]) or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD special camp until 1950 (See NKVD special camp Nr. 7). The camp ground with the remaining buildings is now open to the public as a museum.

There Is Many Like Us (film)

There Is Many Like Us is a 2015 documentary film directed by Josh Webber and starring Tyler Mauro, Kayleigh Gilbert, Eric Roberts, Michael Girgenti, Zach Silverman, Stefanja Orlowska, and Douglas Bierman. It is based on the true life story of Max and Rena Fronenberg.

The documentary film follows Max Fronenberg during his forced labor and imprisonment in Pawiak Prison Camp in Warsaw, Poland, during World War II. While imprisoned Max befriends two women who would later become his wives. Max and two friends, Karochic and Goodman, escape by digging a tunnel under the prison camp. Through their courageous actions fifteen prisoners escaped certain death but Fronenburg had to leave the love of his life in the process.

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