Select groups of Han Chinese bannermen were mass transferred into Manchu Banners by the Qing, changing their ethnicity from Han Chinese to Manchu. Han Chinese bannermen of Tai Nikan 台尼堪 (watchpost Chinese) and Fusi Nikan 抚顺尼堪 (Fushun Chinese) backgrounds into the Manchu banners in 1740 by order of the Qing Qianlong emperor. It was between 1618-1629 when the Han Chinese from Liaodong who later became the Fushun Nikan and Tai Nikan defected to the Jurchens (Manchus). These Han Chinese origin Manchu clans continue to use their original Han surnames and are marked as of Han origin on Qing lists of Manchu clans.
Nara (Manchu: ᠨᠠᡵᠠ ᡥᠠᠯᠠ, Wade-Giles: nara hala, Chinese: 納喇氏, 納蘭氏 or 那拉氏) is a clan name shared by a number of royal Manchu clans. The four tribes of the Hūlun confederation (扈倫四部) – Hada (哈達; Hādá), Ula (烏拉; Wūlā), Hoifa (輝發; Huīfā) and Yehe (葉赫; Yèhè) – were all ruled by clans bearing this name.
The head of each clan held the princely title of "beile" (貝勒; Manchu: "chief, lord").
During the Jin Dynasty, Nara was listed as one of the noble "white clans" (白號姓氏).
Nara is the Mongolic word for 'sun'. In Mongolia, the sun is associated to Genghis Khan as the nara tamga is the main tamga attributed to him.Fuca (clan)
Fuca (Manchu: ᡶᡠᠴᠠᡥᠠᠯᠠ ; Chinese: 富察氏) was a clan of Manchu nobility. After the demise of the dynasty, some of its descendants sinicized their clan name to the Chinese surnames Fu (富/傅) or Li (李).Gūwalgiya
Gūwalgiya (Manchu: ᡤᡡᠸᠠᠯᡤᡳᠶᠠ ; Chinese: 瓜爾佳氏) was one of the most powerful Manchu clans. It is often listed by historians as the first of the eight prominent Manchu clans of the Qing dynasty. After the demise of the dynasty, some of its descendants sinicized their clan name to the Chinese surname Guan (關).Haixi Jurchens
The Haixi Jurchens (Chinese: 海西女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming dynasty. They inhabited an area that consists of parts of modern-day Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia in China.Hešeri
Hešeri (Chinese: 赫舍里; Pinyin: Hesheli; Manchu: ᡥᡝᡧᡝᡵᡳ Hešeri), is a Manchu clan with Jianzhou Jurchens roots, originally hailing from the area which is now the modern Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. It was once one of the most important and powerful families in the early Qing dynasty in China, second only to the royal House of Aisin Gioro, to whom they were closely related by marriage. The power of the family reached its zenith in the period of Marquess Hešeri Sonin and his second son Duke Hešeri Songgotu (from approximately 1650 to 1705). Although its influence declined following Songgotu's death, clan Hešeri continued to play a role in Chinese politics until the demise of the Qing dynasty in early 1912.Irgen Gioro
Irgen Gioro (Manchu: ᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ; Möllendorff: irgen gioro) is a Manchu clan and family name, which was officially categorized as a "notable clan", and member of the eight great houses of the Manchu nobility in Manchu Empire. Sibe and Nanai people also has Irgen Gioro as their family name.Jianzhou Jurchens
The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty. Although the geographic location of the Jianzhou Jurchens has changed throughout history, during the 14th century they were located south of the Wild Jurchens (Chinese: 野人女真) and the Haixi Jurchens (Chinese: 海西女真), inhabiting modern-day Liaoning (Chinese: 辽宁) province and Jilin (Chinese: 吉林) province in China. The Jianzhou Jurchens were known to possess an abundant supply of natural resources. They also possessed industrial secrets, particularly in processing ginseng and the dying of cloth. They were powerful due to their proximity to Ming trading towns such as Fushun, Kaiyuan, and Tieling in Liaodong, and to Manpojin camp on the Korean border.List of Jurchen chieftains
The Jurchens were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria (present-day Northeast China) until the 17th century, when they adopted the name Manchu.Magiya
Magiya Hala (Manchu: ᠮᠠᡤᡳᠶᠠ ᡥᠠᠯᠠ; Chinese: 馬佳氏) was one of the Manchu Great Eight Clans. Originated from Giyaliku Magiya area, named by the place.
After the demise of the dynasty, some of its descendants sinicized their clan name to the Chinese surnames Ma (馬) or Jin (金).Manchu name
Manchu names are the names of the Manchu people in their own language. In addition to such names, most modern Manchus live in China and possess Chinese names.
Traditionally, Manchus were called only by their given names in daily life although each belonged to a clan with its own clan name (Manchu: hala). Each clan would be divided into several sub-clans (mukūn), but these did not have separate names.Niohuru
The Niohuru (Manchu: ᠨᡳᠣᡥᡠᡵᡠ ; Chinese: 鈕祜祿; pinyin: Niǔhùlù; Wade–Giles: Niu3-hu4-lu4; literally: 'wolf' in Manchu) were a prominent Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty. The clan had inhabited the Changbai Mountains since as early as the Liao dynasty. The clan was well known during the Qing dynasty for producing a variety of consorts of all ranks for emperors, several of whom went on to become mothers to reigning emperors. Prominent people who belonged or trace heritage to the Niohuru clan including famed Manchu warrior Eidu, his son the high official Ebilun, the Empress Dowager Ci'an, the infamous corrupt official Heshen, and the contemporary concert pianist Lang Lang.Qing dynasty
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.
In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon. He defeated the rebels and seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades. The conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign (1661–1722). The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia. The early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, and while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus. They also adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories.
During the Qianlong Emperor reign (1735–1796) the dynasty reached its apogee, but then began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control. The population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate, virtually guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis. Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, and ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers. The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi. When the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, and abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform. The Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912.Socoro
Socoro (Manchu: ᠰᠣᠴᠣᡵᠣ ᡥᠠᠯᠠ Socoro Hala; Chinese: 索绰罗; pinyin: Suǒ chuò luō) is a Manchu clan and surname in China. The surname Suo (索) has been used for short for generations.Tatara (clan)
Tatara (Manchu: ᡨᠠᡨᠠᡵᠠᡥᠠᠯᠠ ; Chinese: 他他拉氏) was a clan of Manchu nobility. After the demise of the dynasty, some of its descendants sinicized their clan name to the Chinese surnames Tang (唐), Tan (譚), Shu (舒) or Song (松).Uya
Uya (Manchu: ᡠᠶᠠ ᡥᠠᠯᠠ ; Chinese: 烏雅氏) was a clan of Manchu nobility.Wanyan
The Wanyan (Chinese: 完颜; pinyin: Wányán; Manchu:ᠸᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ Wanggiyan; Jurchen script: ) clan was among of the clans of the Heishui Mohe tribe living in the drainage region of the Heilong River during the time of the Liao dynasty, which was ruled by the Khitan. Of the Heishui Mohe, the clan was counted by the Liao among the "uncivilized Jurchen" (生女真) indicating that the clan was not subject to the direct rule of the Khitan Emperors. Those Heishui Mohe clans ruled by the Liao dynasty/Khitan Empire were referred to as "civilized Jurchen" (熟女真).Wild Jurchens
The Wild Jurchens (Chinese: 野人女真) or Haidong Jurchens (Chinese: 海東女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the northernmost group of the Jurchen people (the other being the Jianzhou Jurchens and Haixi Jurchens) in the fourteenth century, inhabiting the northernmost part of Manchuria from the western side of the Greater Khingan mountains to the Ussuri River and the lower Amur River bordered by the Tatar Strait and the Sea of Japan.
The descendants of wild Jurchens do not identify themselves as Manchus. Instead, they formed different nations such as Nanai, Evenks, Negidals, Oroqen and Nivkh.Šumuru
Šumuru (Manchu: ᡧᡠᠮᡠᡵᡠᡥᠠᠯᠠ ; Chinese: 舒穆祿氏) was one of the eight great clans of Manchu nobility. After the demise of the dynasty, some of its descendants sinicized their clan name to the Chinese surnames Shu (舒), Xu (徐) or Xiao (蕭).