Major League Baseball and its participating clubs have retired various uniform numbers over the course of time, ensuring that those numbers are never worn again and thus will always be associated with particular players or managers of note. The use of numbers on uniforms to better identify one player from another, and hence to boost sales of scorecards, was tried briefly by the Cleveland Indians of 1916, but this failed. The first team to permanently adopt the practice was the New York Yankees of 1929. By 1932, all 16 major league clubs were issuing numbers, and by 1937, the leagues passed rules requiring it.
The Yankees' original approach was to simply assign the numbers 1 through 8 to the regular starting lineup in their normal batting order. Hence, Babe Ruth wore number 3 and Lou Gehrig number 4. The first major leaguer whose number was retired was Gehrig, in July 1939, following his retirement due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which became known popularly as Lou Gehrig's Disease.
Since then, over 150 other people have had their numbers retired, some with more than one team. This includes managers and coaches, as Major League Baseball is the only one of the major North American professional leagues in which the coaching staff wear the same uniforms as players. Three numbers have been retired in honor of people not directly involved on the playing field – all three for team executives. Some of the game's early stars, such as Ty Cobb and Christy Mathewson, retired before numbers came into usage. Teams often celebrate their retired numbers and other honored people by hanging banners with the numbers and names. Early stars, as well as honored non-players, will often have numberless banners hanging along with the retired numbers. Because fewer and fewer players stay with one team long enough to warrant their number being retired, some players believe that getting their number retired is a greater honor than going into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Ron Santo, upon his number 10 being retired by the Chicago Cubs on the last day of the 2003 regular season, enthusiastically told the Wrigley Field crowd as his #10 flag was hoisted, "This is my Hall of Fame!" However, Santo would be inducted into the Hall of Fame in July 2012, nearly two years after his death, after being voted in by the Veterans Committee.
|Elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame|
|No.||Player or other figure||Team||Date|
|1||Bud Selig[Notes 1]||Brewers||April 6, 2015|
|1||Pee Wee Reese||Dodgers||July 1, 1984|
|1||Bobby Doerr||Red Sox||May 21, 1988|
|1||Fred Hutchinson||Reds||October 19, 1964|
|1||Ozzie Smith||Cardinals||September 26, 1996|
|1||Richie Ashburn||Phillies||August 24, 1979|
|1||Billy Martin||Yankees||August 10, 1986|
|2||Red Schoendienst||Cardinals||May 11, 1996|
|2||Nellie Fox||White Sox||May 1, 1976|
|2||Tommy Lasorda||Dodgers||August 15, 1997|
|2||Charlie Gehringer||Tigers||June 12, 1983|
|2||Derek Jeter||Yankees||May 14, 2017|
|3||Babe Ruth||Yankees||June 13, 1948|
|3||Earl Averill||Indians||June 8, 1975|
|3||Harmon Killebrew||Twins||May 4, 1975|
|3||Dale Murphy||Braves||June 13, 1994|
|3||Harold Baines||White Sox||August 20, 1989|
|3||Alan Trammell||Tigers||August 26, 2018|
|4||Luke Appling||White Sox||June 7, 1975|
|4||Earl Weaver||Orioles||September 19, 1982|
|4||Duke Snider||Dodgers||July 6, 1980|
|4||Ralph Kiner||Pirates||September 19, 1987|
|4||Lou Gehrig||Yankees||July 4, 1939|
|4||Paul Molitor||Brewers||June 11, 1999|
|4||Mel Ott||Giants||July 17, 1948|
|4||Joe Cronin||Red Sox||May 29, 1984|
|5||Brooks Robinson||Orioles||April 14, 1978|
|5||Lou Boudreau||Indians||July 9, 1970|
|5||George Brett||Royals||May 14, 1994|
|5||Johnny Bench||Reds||August 11, 1984|
|5||Hank Greenberg||Tigers||June 12, 1983|
|5||Joe DiMaggio||Yankees||April 18, 1952|
|5||Jeff Bagwell||Astros||August 26, 2007|
|6||Johnny Pesky||Red Sox||September 28, 2008|
|6||Steve Garvey||Padres||April 16, 1988|
|6||Stan Musial||Cardinals||September 29, 1963|
|6||Al Kaline||Tigers||August 17, 1980|
|6||Tony Oliva||Twins||July 14, 1991|
|6||Bobby Cox||Braves||August 12, 2011|
|6||Joe Torre||Yankees||August 23, 2014|
|7||Mickey Mantle||Yankees||June 8, 1969|
|7||Craig Biggio||Astros||August 17, 2008|
|7||Iván Rodríguez||Rangers||August 12, 2017|
|7||Joe Mauer||Twins||June 15, 2019|
|8||Willie Stargell||Pirates||September 6, 1982|
|8||Joe Morgan||Reds||June 6, 1998|
|8||Yogi Berra||Yankees||July 22, 1972|
|8||Bill Dickey||Yankees||July 22, 1972|
|8||Cal Ripken Jr.||Orioles||October 6, 2001|
|8||Carl Yastrzemski||Red Sox||August 6, 1989|
|9||Ted Williams||Red Sox||May 29, 1984|
|9||Reggie Jackson||Athletics||May 22, 2004|
|9||Minnie Miñoso||White Sox||May 8, 1983|
|9||Enos Slaughter||Cardinals||September 6, 1996|
|9||Bill Mazeroski||Pirates||August 7, 1987|
|9||Roger Maris||Yankees||July 21, 1984|
|10||Sparky Anderson||Reds||May 28, 2005|
|10||Dick Howser||Royals||July 3, 1987|
|10||Phil Rizzuto||Yankees||August 4, 1985|
|10||Ron Santo||Cubs||September 28, 2003|
|10||Tony La Russa||Cardinals||May 11, 2012|
|10||Tom Kelly||Twins||September 8, 2012|
|10||Chipper Jones||Braves||June 28, 2013|
|11||Jim Fregosi||Angels||August 1, 1998|
|11||Luis Aparicio[Notes 2]||White Sox||August 14, 1984|
|11||Paul Waner||Pirates||July 21, 2007|
|11||Sparky Anderson||Tigers||June 26, 2011|
|11||Barry Larkin||Reds||August 25, 2012|
|11||Edgar Martínez||Mariners||August 12, 2017|
|12||Wade Boggs||Rays||April 7, 2000|
|12||Roberto Alomar||Blue Jays||July 31, 2011|
|13||Dave Concepción||Reds||August 25, 2007|
|14||Ernie Banks||Cubs||August 22, 1982|
|14||Kent Hrbek||Twins||August 13, 1995|
|14||Larry Doby||Indians||July 3, 1994|
|14||Ken Boyer||Cardinals||May 20, 1984|
|14||Gil Hodges||Mets||June 9, 1973|
|14||Jim Bunning||Phillies||April 16, 2001|
|14||Jim Rice||Red Sox||July 28, 2009|
|14||Paul Konerko||White Sox||May 23, 2015|
|14||Pete Rose||Reds||June 26, 2016|
|15||Thurman Munson||Yankees||August 3, 1979|
|16||Ted Lyons||White Sox||July 25, 1987|
|16||Whitey Ford||Yankees||August 3, 1974|
|16||Hal Newhouser||Tigers||July 27, 1997|
|17||Dizzy Dean||Cardinals||September 22, 1974|
|17||Todd Helton||Rockies||August 17, 2014|
|18||Ted Kluszewski||Reds||July 18, 1998|
|18||Mel Harder||Indians||July 28, 1990|
|19||Bob Feller||Indians||December 28, 1956|
|19||Billy Pierce||White Sox||July 25, 1987|
|19||Jim Gilliam||Dodgers||October 10, 1978|
|19||Tony Gwynn||Padres||September 4, 2004|
|19||Robin Yount||Brewers||May 29, 1994|
|20||Luis Gonzalez||Diamondbacks||August 7, 2010|
|20||Monte Irvin||Giants||June 26, 2010|
|20||Lou Brock||Cardinals||September 9, 1979|
|20||Jorge Posada||Yankees||August 22, 2015|
|20||Frank Robinson||Orioles||March 10, 1972|
|20||Frank Robinson||Reds||May 22, 1998|
|20||Frank Robinson||Indians||May 27, 2017|
|20||Pie Traynor||Pirates||April 18, 1972|
|20||Mike Schmidt||Phillies||May 26, 1990|
|20||Don Sutton||Dodgers||August 14, 1998|
|20||Frank White||Royals||May 2, 1995|
|21||Bob Lemon||Indians||June 20, 1998|
|21||Warren Spahn||Braves||December 11, 1965|
|21||Roberto Clemente||Pirates||April 6, 1973|
|22||Jim Palmer||Orioles||September 1, 1985|
|23||Ryne Sandberg||Cubs||August 28, 2005|
|23||Don Mattingly||Yankees||August 31, 1997|
|23||Willie Horton||Tigers||July 15, 2000|
|24||Whitey Herzog||Cardinals||July 31, 2010|
|24||Tony Pérez||Reds||May 27, 2000|
|24||Willie Mays||Giants||May 12, 1972|
|24||Walter Alston||Dodgers||June 5, 1977|
|24||Ken Griffey Jr.||Mariners||August 6, 2016[Notes 3]|
|24||Jimmy Wynn||Astros||June 25, 2005|
|24||Rickey Henderson||Athletics||August 1, 2009|
|25||José Cruz||Astros||October 3, 1992|
|25||Barry Bonds||Giants||August 11, 2018|
|25||Jim Thome||Indians||August 18, 2018|
|26||Billy Williams||Cubs||August 13, 1987|
|26||Gene Autry[Notes 4]||Angels||August 3, 1982|
|26||Johnny Oates||Rangers||August 5, 2005|
|26||Wade Boggs||Red Sox||May 26, 2016|
|27||Carlton Fisk||Red Sox||September 4, 2000|
|27||Catfish Hunter||Athletics||June 9, 1991|
|27||Juan Marichal||Giants||July 10, 1983|
|28||Bert Blyleven||Twins||July 16, 2011|
|29||Rod Carew||Angels||August 6, 1991|
|29||Rod Carew||Twins||July 19, 1987|
|29||John Smoltz||Braves||June 8, 2012|
|29||Adrián Beltré||Rangers||June 8, 2019|
|30||Orlando Cepeda||Giants||July 11, 1999|
|30||Nolan Ryan||Angels||June 16, 1992|
|31||Dave Winfield||Padres||April 14, 2001|
|31||Greg Maddux||Cubs||May 3, 2009|
|31||Greg Maddux||Braves||July 17, 2009|
|31||Ferguson Jenkins||Cubs||May 3, 2009|
|31||Mike Piazza||Mets||July 30, 2016|
|32||Steve Carlton||Phillies||July 29, 1989|
|32||Sandy Koufax||Dodgers||June 4, 1972|
|32||Elston Howard||Yankees||July 21, 1984|
|32||Jim Umbricht||Astros||April 12, 1965|
|32||Roy Halladay||Blue Jays||March 29, 2018|
|33||Mike Scott||Astros||October 3, 1992|
|33||Eddie Murray||Orioles||June 7, 1998|
|33||Honus Wagner||Pirates||February 16, 1952|
|34||Rollie Fingers||Brewers||August 9, 1992|
|34||Rollie Fingers||Athletics||July 5, 1993|
|34||Nolan Ryan||Rangers||September 15, 1996|
|34||Nolan Ryan||Astros||September 29, 1996|
|34||Kirby Puckett||Twins||May 25, 1997|
|34||David Ortiz||Red Sox||June 23, 2017|
|35||Randy Jones||Padres||May 9, 1997|
|35||Phil Niekro||Braves||August 6, 1984|
|35||Frank Thomas||White Sox||August 29, 2010|
|36||Gaylord Perry||Giants||July 23, 2005|
|36||Robin Roberts||Phillies||March 21, 1962|
|37||Casey Stengel||Yankees||August 8, 1970|
|37||Casey Stengel||Mets||September 2, 1965|
|39||Roy Campanella||Dodgers||June 4, 1972|
|40||Don Wilson||Astros||April 13, 1975|
|40||Danny Murtaugh||Pirates||April 7, 1977|
|41||Eddie Mathews||Braves||July 26, 1969|
|41||Tom Seaver||Mets||June 24, 1988|
|42||Mariano Rivera[Notes 5]||Yankees||September 22, 2013|
|42||Jackie Robinson||Dodgers||June 4, 1972|
|42||Jackie Robinson||All MLB||April 15, 1997|
|42||Bruce Sutter[Notes 5]||Cardinals||September 17, 2006|
|43||Dennis Eckersley||Athletics||August 13, 2005|
|44||Hank Aaron||Braves||April 15, 1977|
|44||Hank Aaron||Brewers||October 3, 1976|
|44||Reggie Jackson||Yankees||August 14, 1993|
|44||Willie McCovey||Giants||September 21, 1980|
|45||Bob Gibson||Cardinals||September 1, 1975|
|45||Pedro Martínez||Red Sox||July 28, 2015|
|46||Andy Pettitte||Yankees||August 23, 2015|
|47||Tom Glavine||Braves||August 6, 2010|
|47||Jack Morris||Tigers||August 12, 2018|
|49||Larry Dierker||Astros||May 19, 2002|
|49||Ron Guidry||Yankees||August 23, 2003|
|50||Jimmie Reese||Angels||August 2, 1995|
|51||Randy Johnson||Diamondbacks||August 8, 2015|
|51||Trevor Hoffman||Padres||August 21, 2011|
|51||Bernie Williams||Yankees||May 24, 2015|
|53||Don Drysdale||Dodgers||July 1, 1984|
|56||Mark Buehrle||White Sox||June 24, 2017|
|66||Don Zimmer||Rays||April 6, 2015|
|72||Carlton Fisk||White Sox||September 14, 1997|
|85||August Busch, Jr.[Notes 6]||Cardinals||April 13, 1984|
|455||Indians fans[Notes 7]||Indians||May 29, 2001|
|No.||Player or other figure||Team||Date|
|10||Michael Young||Rangers||August 31, 2019|
It is very rare for a team to reissue a retired number, and usually requires a special circumstance, such as the person for whom the number was retired returning to the team in a player, coach or manager role. Harold Baines provides one example of this when he returned to the White Sox multiple times. The White Sox also re-issued Luis Aparicio's number 11, with his permission, to fellow countryman Omar Vizquel in 2010–11.
In cases of franchise relocation, the handling of existing retired numbers is at the discretion of team management. The team may decide to continue honoring the retired numbers (as did the San Francisco Giants), or it may choose to make a "fresh start" and reissue the numbers (as the Washington Nationals have done).
When the Florida Marlins moved to their current stadium, Marlins Park, and were rebranded as the Miami Marlins, the number 5, which had been retired for the team's late first president Carl Barger, was returned to circulation because player Logan Morrison requested permission to wear the number to honor his father.
|5||Carl Barger[Notes 1]||Marlins||April 5, 1993|
|8||Gary Carter[Notes 2]||Expos||July 31, 1993|
|10||Andre Dawson[Notes 2]||Expos||July 6, 1997|
|5||Willard Hershberger[Notes 3]||Reds||1940|
|30||Tim Raines[Notes 2]||Expos||June 19, 2004|
|10||Rusty Staub[Notes 2]||Expos||May 15, 1993|
The following numbers have been retired in honor of multiple players:
A handful of players who had notable careers for multiple teams have had their numbers retired by each team.
Managers Casey Stengel and Sparky Anderson have also had numbers retired by two teams. Stengel's #37 was retired by both the Yankees and Mets. Anderson's #10 was retired by the Reds, and his #11 was retired by the Tigers.
A number of teams have formal or informal policies of only retiring numbers of players inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame, although there is no league-wide uniformity and teams sometimes break their own guidelines. As an alternative to retiring numbers, many teams have established other means of honoring former players, such as team-specific Halls of Fame (Angels, Astros, Athletics, Braves, Brewers, Cardinals, Indians, Mariners, Mets, Orioles, Padres, Rangers, Reds, Red Sox, and Twins) or Walls of Fame (Giants and Phillies), a Ring of Honor (Nationals) or Level of Excellence (Blue Jays). In addition, several teams have kept certain numbers out of circulation since a player left, but have not formally retired them.
Only one team does not currently have any retired jersey numbers (other than Robinson's #42 retired in all of MLB). The Washington Nationals franchise had retired jerseys in honor of four players when known as the Montreal Expos, but un-retired them upon moving to Washington. The Nationals have established a "Ring of Honor" instead, which includes two of those Expos players, Gary Carter and Andre Dawson; the Nationals' first manager, Frank Robinson; players from the original Washington Senators Joe Cronin, Rick Ferrell, Goose Goslin, Bucky Harris, Walter Johnson, Heinie Manush, Sam Rice, Harmon Killebrew, and Early Wynn, as well as owner Clark Griffith; players from the second Senators franchise Frank Howard; and Homestead Grays players Cool Papa Bell, Ray Brown, Josh Gibson, Buck Leonard, Cumberland Posey, and Jud Wilson.
Some teams have not formally retired certain numbers, but nonetheless kept them out of circulation. For example, the Los Angeles Dodgers' current policy is only to retire the numbers of longtime club members if they are inducted into the Hall of Fame; the lone exception was longtime Dodger player and coach Jim Gilliam, whose #19 was retired when he died of a cerebral hemorrhage during the Dodgers' 1978 postseason run. Nevertheless, the Dodgers have informally kept Fernando Valenzuela's #34 out of circulation since he last played for the team in 1990. The San Francisco Giants have a similar policy, and have kept Tim Lincecum's #55 out of circulation since he departed after the 2015 season, though it is not formally retired.
The Milwaukee Brewers have not issued Jim Gantner’s #17 since his retirement.
The Seattle Mariners have kept the following numbers out of circulation since the departure of a popular member of the team who wore it: #14 (Lou Piniella), #19 (Jay Buhner), and #51 (initially for Randy Johnson, and later for Ichiro Suzuki). Similarly, no one had worn #33 for the Colorado Rockies since the departure of Larry Walker in 2004 until Walker gave his approval for Justin Morneau, a fellow British Columbia native who had idolized Walker as a boy, to wear it when Morneau was with the team from 2014 to 2015.
On Opening Day of the 2012 season, the New York Mets unveiled a memorial "Kid 8" logo to honor the late Gary Carter. Although no Met has worn the number 8 since Carter's election to the Hall of Fame, it is not retired. Following Willie Mays' retirement in 1973, Mets owner Joan Payson promised him that the team would not reissue his #24; since then, the only two Met players to wear it have been Rickey Henderson from 1999 to 2000 and Robinson Cano for the 2019 season (with the exception of a minor league call-up named Kelvin Torve, who was inexplicably issued #24 in August 1990 before fan complaints prompted the team to change his number to #39 ten days later).
The New York Yankees have not re-issued Paul O'Neill's #21 since he ended his career, except for a brief period in 2008 when Morgan Ensberg and then LaTroy Hawkins wore #21, before fan complaints led Hawkins to change his number to #22 in April. Additionally, the Yankees have held Alex Rodriguez's #13 out of circulation since his retirement in 2016.
The Baltimore Orioles have not re-issued numbers 7, 44, and 46 since the passing of Cal Ripken, Sr., Elrod Hendricks, and Mike Flanagan respectively. The team has placed a moratorium on the three numbers in their honors.
The Los Angeles Angels have not re-issued Nick Adenhart's uniform number 34, after he was killed in a car accident on April 9, 2009.
Normally the individual clubs are responsible for retiring numbers. On April 15, 1997, Major League Baseball took the unusual move of retiring a number for all teams. On the 50th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's breaking the major league color barrier, his number 42 was retired throughout the majors, at the order of Commissioner Bud Selig. This meant that no future player on any major league team could wear number 42, although players wearing #42 at the time were allowed to continue wearing it (Mariano Rivera was the last active player to be grandfathered in, retiring after the 2013 season). Starting in the 2007 season, the 60th anniversary of Robinson's Major League debut, players and coaches have all worn the number 42 as a tribute to Robinson on Jackie Robinson Day, April 15.
Four teams have honored players who played before the advent of uniform numbers by placing their names among those of players whose numbers have been retired:
Albert William Kaline (; born December 19, 1934), nicknamed "Mr. Tiger", is an American former Major League Baseball right fielder. He is a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame. Kaline played his entire 22-year baseball career with the Detroit Tigers. For most of his career, Kaline played in the outfield, mainly as a right fielder where he won ten Gold Gloves and was known for his strong throwing arm. He was selected to 18 All-Star Games and was selected as an All-Star each year between 1955 and 1967.
Near the end of his career, Kaline also played as first baseman and, in his last season, was the Tigers' designated hitter. He retired not long after reaching the 3,000 hit milestone. Immediately after retiring from playing, he became the Tigers' TV color commentator, a position he held until 2002. Kaline still works for the Tigers as a front office official.Bob Gibson
Robert Gibson (born November 9, 1935) is an American retired baseball pitcher who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the St. Louis Cardinals (1959–75). Nicknamed "Gibby" and "Hoot" (after actor Hoot Gibson), Gibson tallied 251 wins, 3,117 strikeouts, and a 2.91 earned run average (ERA) during his career. A nine-time All-Star and two-time World Series champion, he won two Cy Young Awards and the 1968 National League (NL) Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award. In 1981 he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility. The Cardinals retired his uniform number 45 in September 1975 and inducted him into the team Hall of Fame in 2014.
Born in Omaha, Nebraska, Gibson overcame childhood illness to excel in youth sports, particularly basketball and baseball. After briefly playing under contract to both the basketball Harlem Globetrotters team and the St. Louis Cardinals organization, Gibson decided to continue playing only baseball professionally. Once becoming a full-time starting pitcher in July 1961, Gibson began experiencing an increasing level of success, earning his first All-Star appearance in 1962. Gibson won two of three games he pitched in the 1964 World Series, then won 20 games in a season for the first time in 1965. Gibson also pitched three complete game victories in the 1967 World Series.
The pinnacle of Gibson's career was 1968, when he posted a 1.12 ERA for the season and then followed that by recording 17 strikeouts during Game 1 of the 1968 World Series. Over the course of his career, Gibson became known for his fierce competitive nature and the intimidation factor he used against opposing batters. Gibson threw a no-hitter during the 1971 season, but began experiencing swelling in his knee in subsequent seasons. After retiring as a player in 1975, Gibson later served as pitching coach for his former teammate Joe Torre. At one time a special instructor coach for the St. Louis Cardinals, Gibson was later selected for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999. Gibson is the author of the memoir Pitch by Pitch, with Lonnie Wheeler (Flatiron Books, 2015).Cincinnati Reds
The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. They were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890.The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994. They have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, and 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006.
For 1882–2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10,524–10,306 (a 0.505 winning percentage).Craig Biggio
Craig Alan Biggio (; born December 14, 1965) is an American former second baseman, outfielder and catcher in Major League Baseball who played his entire career from 1988 through 2007 for the Houston Astros. A seven-time National League (NL) All-Star often regarded as the greatest all-around player in Astros history, he is the only player ever to be named an All-Star at both catcher and second base. With longtime teammates Jeff Bagwell and Lance Berkman, he formed the core of the "Killer B's" who led Houston to six playoff appearances from 1997 to 2005, culminating in the franchise's first World Series appearance in 2005. At the end of his career he ranked sixth in NL history in games played (2,850), fifth in at bats (10,876), twenty-first in hits (3,060), and seventh in runs scored (1,844). His 668 career doubles ranked fifth in major league history, and are the most ever by a right-handed hitter; his 56 doubles in 1999 were the most in the major leagues in 63 years.
Biggio, who batted .300 four times and scored 100 runs eight times, holds Astros franchise records for most career games, at bats, hits, runs scored, doubles, total bases (4,711) and extra base hits (1,014), and ranks second in runs batted in (1,175), walks (1,160) and stolen bases (414). He also holds the NL record for most times leading off a game with a home run (53), and is one of only five players with 250 home runs and 400 steals. A four-time Gold Glove Award winner who led NL second basemen in assists six times and putouts five times, he retired ranking fourth in NL history in games at second base (1,989), sixth in assists (5,448) and fielding percentage (.984), seventh in putouts (3,992) and double plays (1,153), and eighth in total chances (9,596). He was the ninth player in the 3,000 hit club to collect all his hits with one team. Biggio also led the NL in times hit by pitch five times, with his career total of 285 trailing only Hughie Jennings' 287 in major league history.
One of the most admired players of his generation, Biggio received the 2005 Hutch Award for perseverance through adversity and the 2007 Roberto Clemente Award for sportsmanship and community service. The Astros retired the number 7 in his honor the year following his retirement. Since 2008, Biggio has served as special assistant to the general manager of the Astros. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2015, and is the first member of the Hall to be depicted in an Astros uniform on his plaque.Danny Murtaugh
Daniel Edward Murtaugh (October 8, 1917 – December 2, 1976) was an American second baseman, manager, front-office executive, and coach in Major League Baseball best known for his 29-year association with the Pittsburgh Pirates, where he won two World Series as field manager (in 1960 and 1971). He also played 416 of his 767 career MLB games during four seasons with the Pirates as a second baseman.Dave Winfield
David Mark Winfield (born October 3, 1951) is an American former Major League Baseball (MLB) right fielder. He is the special assistant to the executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association. Over his 22-year career, he played for six teams: the San Diego Padres, New York Yankees, California Angels, Toronto Blue Jays, Minnesota Twins, and Cleveland Indians. He had the winning hit in the 1992 World Series with the Blue Jays over the Atlanta Braves.
Winfield is a 12-time MLB All-Star, a seven-time Gold Glove Award winner, and a six-time Silver Slugger Award winner. The Padres retired No. 31, Winfield's uniform number, in his honor. He also wore No. 31 while playing for the Yankees and Indians and wore No. 32 with the Angels, Blue Jays and Twins. In 2004, ESPN named him the third-best all-around athlete of all time in any sport. He is a member of both the Baseball Hall of Fame and the College Baseball Hall of Fame.Gary Carter
Gary Edmund Carter (April 8, 1954 – February 16, 2012) was an American professional baseball catcher whose 19-year Major League Baseball (MLB) career was spent primarily with the Montreal Expos and New York Mets.
Nicknamed "The Kid" for his youthful exuberance, Carter was named an All-Star 11 times, and was a member of the 1986 World Champion Mets.
Known throughout his career for his hitting and his excellent defense behind the plate, Carter made a major contribution to the Mets' World Series championship in 1986, including a 12th-inning single against the Houston Astros which won Game 5 of the NLCS and a 10th-inning single against the Boston Red Sox to start the fabled comeback rally in Game 6 of the World Series. He is one of only four people ever to be named captain of the Mets, and he had his number retired by the Expos.After retiring from baseball, Carter coached baseball at the college and minor-league level.
In 2003, he was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. Carter was the first Hall of Famer whose plaque depicts him as a member of the Montreal Expos.Johnny Bench
Johnny Lee Bench (born December 7, 1947) is an American former professional baseball catcher who played in the Major Leagues for the Cincinnati Reds from 1967 to 1983 and is a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Bench is a 14-time All-Star selection and a two-time National League Most Valuable Player. He was a key member of the Big Red Machine that won six division titles, four National League pennants, and two consecutive World Series championships. Known for his prowess on both offense and defense, ESPN has called him the greatest catcher in baseball history.Ken Boyer
Kenton Lloyd "Ken" Boyer (May 20, 1931 – September 7, 1982) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) third baseman, coach and manager who played on the St. Louis Cardinals, New York Mets, Chicago White Sox, and Los Angeles Dodgers for 15 seasons, 1955 through 1969.
Boyer was an All-Star for seven seasons (11 All-Star Game selections), a National League (NL) Most Valuable Player (MVP), and a Gold Glove winner five seasons. He was named the NL MVP in 1964 after batting .295 with 185 hits and leading the NL with 119 runs batted in, and leading the Cardinals to the World Series title. He hit over .300 for five seasons and hit over 20 home runs for eight seasons.
He became the second third baseman to hit 250 career home runs, retiring with the third highest slugging average by a third baseman (.462); he was the third after Pie Traynor and Eddie Mathews to drive in 90 runs eight-times, and he remains the only Cardinal since 1900 to hit for the cycle twice. When Boyer hit 255 home runs, he was second to Stan Musial (475) with Cardinal career home runs; he held the team record for a right-handed hitter from 1962 until Albert Pujols passed him in 2007. Boyer also led the NL in double plays five-times and in fielding average once, and he retired among the all-time leaders in games (sixth, 1,785), assists (sixth, 3,652) and double plays (third, 355) at third base.List of Major League Baseball awards
Major League Baseball presents a variety of annual awards and trophies to recognize both its teams and its players. Three team trophies are awarded annually: one each to the National League and American League champions, and one of the champion of the World Series. Additionally, various organizations—such as the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA), the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball, and select corporate sponsors—present awards for such accomplishments as excellence in batting, pitching performance, fielding prowess, and community service.The Most Valuable Player Award, commonly known as the "MVP", is the oldest individual award, given in its current format since 1931. MVP awards are also presented for performances in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the League Championship Series, and the World Series. Offensive awards include the Silver Slugger Award and the Hank Aaron Award, while the Cy Young Award and Rolaids Relief Man Award recognize pitching; the Rawlings Gold Glove Award is given for fielding. The DHL Delivery Man and Major League Baseball Comeback Player of the Year Awards are the newest awards, both established in 2005. Additionally, the Commissioner, at his discretion, can present an Historic Achievement Award for any great contribution to the sport that he deems worthy.Luis Aparicio
Luis Ernesto Aparicio Montiel (born April 29, 1934), nicknamed "Little Louie", is a former professional baseball player. He was a Major League Baseball (MLB) shortstop from 1956 to 1973, most notably for the Chicago White Sox. He became known for his exceptional fielding and base stealing skills, and is the first Venezuelan player to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.Aparicio won the American League (AL) Rookie of the Year Award in 1956. He helped the "Go-Go" White Sox win the AL championship in 1959 and was the AL Most Valuable Player (MVP) runner-up that season (he led the AL in stolen bases, putouts, assists, and fielding as shortstop). He was an AL All-Star for ten seasons, an AL stolen base leader for 9 consecutive seasons, and an AL Gold Glove winner for 9 seasons.MLB legend Ted Williams called Aparicio "the best shortstop he had ever seen". He was nominated for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team (one-hundred greatest players) in 1999.Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, and the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League (AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901, respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament.
Baseball's first openly all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869. (There had been teams in the past that paid some players, and some that had paid all players but under the table.) The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another.
The period before 1920 in baseball is known as the dead-ball era; players rarely hit home runs during this time. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.
The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.
Today, MLB is composed of 30 teams: 29 in the United States and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world. MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 69.6 million spectators in 2018.Mel Harder
Melvin Leroy Harder (October 15, 1909 – October 20, 2002), nicknamed "Chief", was an American right-handed starting pitcher, coach and manager in Major League Baseball, who played his entire career with the Cleveland Indians. He spent 36 seasons overall with the Indians, as a player from 1928 to 1947 and as one of the game's most highly regarded pitching coaches from 1948 to 1963. He set franchise records for wins (223), games started (433) and innings pitched (34261⁄3) which were later broken by Bob Feller, and still holds the club record of 582 career games pitched; he was among the American League's career leaders in wins (9th), games (8th) and starts (10th) when he retired. He was also an excellent fielder, leading AL pitchers in putouts four times, then a record.Miami Marlins
The Miami Marlins are an American professional baseball team based in Miami, Florida. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) East division. Their home park is Marlins Park. Though one of only two MLB franchises to have never won a division title (the other is the Colorado Rockies), the Marlins have won two World Series championships as a wild card team.
The team began play as an expansion team in the 1993 season as the Florida Marlins and played home games from their inaugural season to the 2012 season at what was originally called Joe Robbie Stadium, which they shared with the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL). Since the 2012 season, they have played at Marlins Park in downtown Miami, on the site of the former Orange Bowl. The new park, unlike their previous home (which was criticized in its baseball configuration for poor sight lines in some locations), was designed foremost as a baseball park. Per an agreement with the city and Miami-Dade County (which owns the park), the Marlins officially changed their name to the "Miami Marlins" on November 11, 2011. They also adopted a new logo, color scheme, and uniforms.The Marlins have the distinction of winning a World Series championship in both seasons they qualified for the postseason, doing so in 1997 and 2003—both times as the National League wild card team, making them the only franchise in the major four North American professional sports leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL, NHL) to have never lost a playoff round. They defeated the American League (AL) champion Cleveland Indians in the 1997 World Series, with shortstop Édgar Rentería driving in second baseman Craig Counsell for the series-clinching run in the 11th inning of the seventh and deciding game. In the 2003 season, manager Jeff Torborg was fired after 38 games. The Marlins were in last place in the NL East with a 16–22 record at the time. Torborg's successor, 72-year-old Jack McKeon, led them to the NL wild card berth in the postseason; they defeated the New York Yankees four games to two in the 2003 World Series.Retired number
Retiring the number of an athlete is an honor a team bestows upon a player, usually after the player has left the team, retires from the sport, or dies. Once a number is retired, no future player from the team may wear that number on their uniform, unless the player so-honored permits it; however, in many cases the number cannot be used at all. Such an honor may also be bestowed on players who had highly memorable careers, died prematurely under tragic circumstances, or have had their promising careers ended by serious injury. Some sports that retire team numbers include baseball, cricket, ice hockey, basketball, American football, and association football. Retired jerseys are often referred to as "hanging from the rafters" as they are, literally, put to hang in the team's home arena.The first number officially retired by a team in a professional sport was that of ice hockey player Ace Bailey, whose number 6 was retired by the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1934. Some teams have also retired number 12 in honor of their fans, or the "Twelfth Man". Similarly, the Sacramento Kings and Orlando Magic retired number 6 in honor of their fans, the "Sixth Man". In some cases, a team may decide to retire a number in honor of tragedies involving the team's city or state. For example, the number 58 was retired in 2018 by the Vegas Golden Knights hockey team in honor of the 58 victims killed in the 2017 Las Vegas shooting.Ron Santo
Ronald Edward Santo (February 25, 1940 – December 3, 2010) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) third baseman who played for the Chicago Cubs from 1960 through 1973 and the Chicago White Sox in 1974. In 1990, Santo became a member of the Cubs broadcasting team providing commentary for Cubs games on WGN radio and remained at that position until his death in 2010. In 1999, he was selected to the Cubs All-Century Team. He was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2012.Santo was raised in Southeast Seattle, attending Franklin High School (Seattle), and played newly organized youth baseball in the Babe Ruth League. He grew up near Sicks Stadium, home of the Pacific Coast League’s Seattle Rainiers, and had summer jobs there as a batboy, groundskeeper and clubhouse attendant, while playing three sports in high school. At age 14 he made the Seattle, Washington All Star Babe Ruth team which advanced to the 1954 Babe Ruth World Series. In a game at then Washington DC Stadium, Dave Tacher (coach) inserted Santo at first base to replace his 15 year old who broke his thumb. In that game Santo hit a grand slam home run over the 354 foot mark in left center field and the Washington All Stars defeated Tennessee.
Santo was an All-Star for nine seasons during his 15-year career. He led the National League (NL) in triples one time, in walks four times, and in on-base percentage two times. He batted .300 or more and hit 30 or more home runs four times each, and is the only third baseman in MLB history to post eight consecutive seasons with over 90 runs batted in (RBI) (1963–70). Santo is second to Mathews in slugging average (.464), and is the third ranking third baseman in walks (1,108), in RBI (1,331), and total bases (3,779).
He also was a Gold Glove Award winner for five consecutive seasons. He led the NL in total chances eight times, in games, putouts and assists seven times each, and in double plays six times. From 1966 to 1974, he held the NL record for assists in a single season. He also set NL records for career assists (4,532), total chances (6,777) and double plays (389) at third base, all of which were eventually broken between 1986 and 1988 by Mike Schmidt. His NL total of 2,102 games at third base is 52 short of Mathews' league record, and he ranks sixth in putouts (1,930) and ninth in fielding percentage (.954).
Santo enjoyed his success despite battling diabetes since he was a teenager, a condition which was carefully and generally concealed publicly until 1971; it eventually necessitated the amputation of the lower half of both his legs. Since 1979, Santo endorsed the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation's annual Ron Santo Walk to Cure Diabetes in Chicago. He helped raise over $65 million for the foundation. In 2002, he was named the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation's "Person of the Year".San Diego Padres retired numbers
The San Diego Padres are an American professional baseball team in Major League Baseball (MLB) based in San Diego, California. The club was founded in 1969 as part of the league's expansion. MLB clubs have retired various uniform numbers, ensuring that those numbers are never worn within the respective clubs in honor of a particular player or manager of note. The Padres no longer issue six numbers that have been retired. The numbers are commemorated at the team's home stadium at Petco Park in a display at the park entrance as well as in the Ring of Honor.
Steve Garvey was the first player to have his number retired by the Padres in 1988. The first baseman had retired during the offseason, and his No. 6 was being worn by Keith Moreland, who switched to No. 7 after presenting Garvey with a framed Padres No. 6 jersey during a pregame ceremony. Garvey played only five seasons with San Diego, but hit the game-winning two-run home run in the bottom of the ninth inning against Lee Smith of the Chicago Cubs in Game 4 of the 1984 National League Championship Series (NLCS), tying the series before the Padres won the next day. He was named the NLCS Most Valuable Player, and San Diego advanced to their first World Series. In 2016, The San Diego Union-Tribune ranked Garvey's Game 4 homer as the No. 1 moment in San Diego sports history. However, he played 14 of his 19 seasons with the rival Los Angeles Dodgers, where he was also more productive, and the retirement of his number by San Diego has been heavily debated.On April 15, 1997, exactly 50 years after Jackie Robinson broke the baseball color line, the No. 42 he wore with the Brooklyn Dodgers was retired throughout major league baseball. Later that year, Randy Jones's No. 35 was retired by the Padres. He was a two-time All-Star in 1975 and 1976, when he was named the NL Comeback Player of the Year a year before becoming the club's first Cy Young Award winner in 1976. On the day his number was retired, the Union-Tribune wrote that Jones was "the most popular athlete in the history of this city" during the mid-1970s until his career was derailed by a severed nerve in his left arm. His starts at home would spike attendance by the thousands, and the crowd began a tradition on Opening Day in 1976 of greeting him with a pregame ovation.Dave Winfield was next to have his No. 31 retired in 2001, when he was also inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. His retirement ceremony also celebrated his decision to be the first member of the Hall of Fame to have his plaque depicted with him wearing a Padres cap. Winfield played for six teams in his 22-year career, spending his first eight seasons in San Diego followed by eight with the New York Yankees. In 2004, the Padres retired No. 19 in honor of Tony Gwynn, who is widely considered the greatest Padres player ever. He played his entire 20-year career with San Diego and won an NL-record eight batting titles. The most recent number to be retired was Trevor Hoffman's No. 51 in 2011. He had retired from playing after 2010, when he left the game as MLB's career leader in saves with 601, including 552 with the Padres.
The Padres' retired numbers are displayed at Petco Park at Home Plate Plaza. Fans are allowed to pose for pictures next to the aluminum numbers, which are 3 feet 11 inches (1.19 m) high, 5 1⁄3 feet (1.6 m) wide, and 1 foot (0.30 m) deep. Originally, the numbers were atop the batter's eye in center field, until they were relocated in 2016. The numbers were not ready for display in time for the park's opening in 2004, but they were unveiled midseason. Also beginning in 2016, the numbers are displayed in the Ring of Honor on the upper deck façade above the press box behind home plate.Prior to moving to Petco, the team played at Qualcomm Stadium, where the retired numbers were originally displayed on banners hanging from the light towers above the left field stands. However, Garvey's number was commemorated instead on the wall behind the spot in right‑center field where his legendary winning home run in the 1984 NLCS cleared the fence, but the number disappeared when the stadium was expanded in 1997 and the location was masked by an overhang. It reappeared in 2002 when all the retired numbers were moved and inscribed on the outfield fence.Sports commentator
In sports broadcasting, a sports commentator (also known as sports announcer, sportscaster or play-by-play announcer) gives a running commentary of a game or event in real time, usually during a live broadcast, traditionally delivered in the historical present tense. Radio was the first medium for sports broadcasts, and radio commentators must describe all aspects of the action to listeners who cannot see it for themselves. In the case of televised sports coverage, commentators are usually presented as a voiceover, with images of the contest shown on viewers' screens and sounds of the action and spectators heard in the background. Television commentators are rarely shown on screen during an event, though some networks choose to feature their announcers on camera either before or after the contest or briefly during breaks in the action.Ted Kluszewski
Theodore Bernard "Big Klu" Kluszewski (September 10, 1924 – March 29, 1988) was an American professional baseball player from 1947 through 1961. He spent most of his 15-year Major League Baseball (MLB) career playing for the Cincinnati Reds as a first baseman.
Kluszewski was a National League (NL) All-Star for four seasons. He had a .298 lifetime batting average, hitting over .300 seven times. In 1954, he was the NL Most Valuable Player (MVP) runner-up (he had a .326 batting average, led the NL in home runs (49), RBI (141), and fielding average (.996)). In 1959, Kluszewski was traded late in the season to the Chicago White Sox from the Pittsburgh Pirates. He batted .297 and did not commit any errors in 31 games for Chicago which helped the "Go Go" White Sox of the 1950s clinch the American League pennant. In 1962, he was inducted into the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame.