List of Late Quaternary prehistoric bird species

Late Quaternary prehistoric birds are avian taxa that became extinct during the Late Quaternary – the Holocene or Late Pleistocene – and before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by ornithological science. They became extinct before the period of global scientific exploration that started in the late 15th century. In other words, this list basically deals with extinctions between 40,000 BC and 1500 AD. For the purposes of this article, a "bird" is any member of the clade Neornithes, that is, any descendant of the most recent common ancestor of all currently living birds.

Giant Haasts eagle attacking New Zealand moa
Artist's rendition of a giant Haast's eagle attacking New Zealand moa.

The birds are known from their remains, which are subfossil (not fossilized, or not completely fossilized). Some are also known from folk memory, as in the case of Haast's eagle in New Zealand. As the remains are not completely fossilized, they may yield organic material for molecular analyses to provide additional clues for resolving their taxonomic affiliations.

The extinction of the taxa in this list was coincident with the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond Africa and Eurasia, and in most cases, anthropogenic factors have played a crucial part in their extinction, be it through hunting, introduced predators or habitat alteration. It is notable that a large proportion of the species are from oceanic islands, especially in Polynesia. Bird taxa that evolved on oceanic islands are usually very vulnerable to hunting or predation by rats, cats, dogs or pigs – animals commonly introduced by humans – as they evolved in the absence of mammalian predators, and therefore have only rudimentary predator avoidance behavior. Many, especially rails, have additionally become flightless for the same reason and thus presented even easier prey.

Taxon extinctions taking place before the Late Quaternary happened in the absence of significant human interference. Rather, reasons for extinction are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate changes, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa – it is notable for example that in the early Neogene, seabird biodiversity was much higher than today; this is probably due to competition by the radiation of marine mammals after that time. The relationships of these ancient birds are often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and complete fossilization precludes analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing.

The taxa in this list should be classified with the Wikipedia conservation status category "Prehistoric" in their individual accounts.

Taxonomic list of Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

All of these are Neornithes.

Struthioniformes

The ostrich and related ratites.

  • Aepyornithidae Bonaparte 1853 – elephant birds
    • Mullerornis Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894
      • M. agilis Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894 (Agile/coastal Elephant-Bird)
      • M. grandis Lamberton 1934
      • M. rudis Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894 [Flacourtia rudis Andrews 1894] (Robust elephant-Bird)
      • M. betsilei Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894 (Betsile Elephant-Bird)
    • Aepyornis St. Hilaire 1850
      • A. maximus St. Hilaire 1851 [Aepyornis modestus Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1869; Aepyornis ingens Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894; Aepyornis titan Andrews 1894; Mullerornis titan (Andrews 1894); Diornis maximus (St. Hilaire 1851)] (Giant Elephant-Bird)
      • A. gracilis Monnier 1913 [Mullerornis gracilis (Monnier 1913)] (Graceful Elephant-Bird)
      • A. hildebrandti Burckhardt 1893 [Aepyornis mulleri Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894; Mullerornis hildebrandti (Burckhardt 1893); Aepyornis minimus] (Hildebrandt's Elephant-Bird)
      • A. medius Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1866 [Aepyornis grandidieri Rowley 1867; Aepyornis cursor Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894; Aepyornis lentus Milne-Edwards & Grandidier 1894; Aepyornis intermedius] (Medium/greater Elephant-Bird)
    • Vorombe Hansford & Turvey 2018
  • Emeidae – moa
  • Dinornithidae – moa
  • Megalapterygidae – moa
    • Megalapteryx
      • Megalapteryx, Megalapteryx didinus (South Island, New Zealand) – may have survived until historic times (syn.Megalapteryx benhami)
  • Struthionidae – ostriches
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Apterygidae – kiwi
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Eastern tokoeka, Apteryx sp. (South Island, New Zealand) – possibly the same as the Ōkārito, Haast or South Island tokoeka.

Dromornithidae

An extinct clade of massive galloansere birds.

Anseriformes

The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Anatidae – ducks, geese and swans
    • Cnemiornis
    • Centrornis
    • Chelychelynechen
    • Ptaiochen
    • Thambetochen
    • Chendytes
      • Chendytes lawi (California and Southern Oregon Coasts and Channel Islands, E Pacific)
    • Talpanas
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Aitutaki whistling-duck, Dendrocygna sp. (Aitutaki, Cook Islands)
      • Nēnē-nui, Branta hylobadistes (Maui, possibly Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Branta rhuax (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands) (formerly in monotypic genus Geochen) Synonym: giant Hawai'i goose, Branta sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Chatham Islands shelduck, Tadorna cf. variegata (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Malagasy shelduck, Alopochen sirabensis (Madagascar)
      • Scarlett's duck, Malacorhynchus scarletti (New Zealand)
      • Finsch's duck, Chenonetta finschi (New Zealand; possibly survived to 1870)
      • Bermuda flightless duck, Anas pachyscelus (Bermuda, W Atlantic)
      • Macquarie Islands teal, Anas cf. chlorotis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Chatham Island duck, Anas chathamica (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)[2]
      • Anser djuktaiensis (Yakutia, Russia)
      • Chatham Island merganser, Mergus milleneri (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • New Zealand stiff-tailed duck, Oxyura vantetsi (North Island, New Zealand)
      • New Zealand musk duck, Biziura delautouri (New Zealand)
      • Chatham Islands swan, Cygnus chathamicus (Chatham Islands)
      • Cygnus falconeri (Malta, Sicily)
      • Cygnus equitum (Malta, Sicily), occasionally placed into the genus Anser
      • Anser aff. erythropus (Ibiza)
      • Neochen barbadiana (Barbados)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • New Zealand swan, Cygnus atratus sumnerensis (New Zealand)
        • Chatham Islands teal, Anas chlorotis ssp. nov. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Giant O'ahu goose, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Long-legged shelduck", Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Rota flightless duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Rota, Marianas)

Pangalliformes

The group that includes modern chickens and quails.

True Galliformes

Charadriiformes

Gulls, auks, shorebirds

Gruiformes

The group that includes modern rails and cranes.

  • Rallidae – rails
    • Capellirallus (syn.Gallirallus)
    • Vitirallus (syn.Gallirallus)
    • Hovacrex (syn.Gallinula)
    • Nesotrochis
      • Antillean cave-rail, Nesotrochis debooyi (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, West Indies) – may have survived until historic times
      • Haitian cave-rail, Nesotrochis steganinos (Haiti, West Indies)
      • Cuban cave-rail, Nesotrochis picapicensis (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian swamphen, Porphyrio kukwiedei (New Caledonia, Melanesia) – may have survived into historic times
      • North Island takahē, Porphyrio mantelli (North Island, New Zealand)
      • Huahine swamphen, Porphyrio mcnabi (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesas swamphen, Porphyrio paepae (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas) – may have survived to the late 19th century
      • Buka swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Buka, Solomon Islands)
      • Giant swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Mangaia swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) (not to genus Pareudiastes)
      • New Ireland swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
      • Rota swamphen, Porphyrio sp. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Ibiza rail, Rallus eivissensis (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
      • Madeira rail, Rallus lowei (Madeira, Macaronesia)
      • Porto Santo rail, Rallus adolfocaesaris (Porto Santo Island, Macaronesia)
      • Rallus sp. (known from subfossil remains found on Madeira and Porto Santo Island).
      • São Miguel rail, Rallus carvaoensis (São Miguel Island, Azores)
      • Pico rail, Rallus montivagorum (Pico Island, Azores)
      • São Jorge rail, Rallus nanus (erroneously previously described as Rallus minutus which is a junior homonym) (São Jorge Island, Azores)
      • Graciosa rail, Rallus sp. (Graciosa, Azores)
      • Terceira rail, Rallus sp. (Terceira, Azores)
      • Santa Maria rail, Rallus sp. (Santa Maria Island, Azores)
      • Lifuka rail, Gallirallus sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
      • Nuku Hiva rail, Gallirallus epulare (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas)
      • Ua Huka rail, Gallirallus gracilitibia (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Niue rail, Gallirallus huiatua (Niue, Cook Islands)
      • Mangaia rail, Gallirallus ripleyi (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Tahuata rail, Gallirallus roletti (Tahuata, Marquesas)
      • Huahine rail, Gallirallus storrsolsoni (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Hiva Oa rail, Gallirallus sp. (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • 'Eua rail, Gallirallus vekamatolu ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Rota rail, Gallirallus temptatus (Rota, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Aguiguan rail, Gallirallus pisonii (Aguiguan, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Tinian rail, Gallirallus pendiculentus (Tinian, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • Saipan rail, Gallirallus sp. (Saipan, Marianas, West Pacific)
      • New Ireland rail, Gallirallus ernstmayri (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Norfolk Island rail, Gallirallus sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific) – may have survived to the 19th century
      • Great O‘ahu crake, Porzana ralphorum (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Maui crake, Porzana severnsi (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Mangaia crake, Porzana rua (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Liliput crake, Porzana menehune (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Oʻahu crake, Porzana ziegleri (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Maui crake, Porzana keplerorum (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Easter Island crake, Porzana sp. (Easter Island, Southeast Pacific)
      • Great Big Island crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Great Kaua‘i crake, Porzana sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Huahine crake, Porzana sp. (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Mangaia crake #2, Porzana sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
      • Marquesas crake, Porzana sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
      • Mariana crake, Porzana sp. (Marianas, West Pacific) – possibly 4 species
      • Medium Kaua'i crake, Porzana sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Medium Maui crake, Porzana sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Small Big Island crake, Porzana sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Hodgen's waterhen, Gallinula hodgenorum (New Zealand)
      • Viti Levu gallinule, ?Gallinula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) – would also be separated in Pareudiastes if that genus is considered valid, or may be new genus.
      • Chatham Island coot, Fulica chathamensis (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • New Zealand coot, Fulica prisca (New Zealand)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Barbados rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Barbados, West Indies) – formerly Fulica podagrica (partim)
      • Easter Island rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island)
      • Fernando de Noronha rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, Atlantic) – probably survived to historic times
  • Gruidae – cranes
  • Aptornithidae – Adzebills (probably belongs in distinct order)

Eurypygiformes

Ciconiiformes

Pelecaniformes

  • Ardeidae – herons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bennu heron, Ardea bennuides (United Arab Emirates)
      • 'Eua night heron, Nycticorax sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Lifuka night heron, Nycticorax sp. (Lifuka, Tonga) – may be same as ‘Eua species
      • Niue night heron, Nycticorax kalavikai (Niue)
      • Mangaia night heron, Nycticorax sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ardeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island, E Pacific)
  • Threskiornithidae – ibises
    • Apteribis
      • Maui flightless ibis, Apteribis brevis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)[4]:23-28
      • Moloka'i flightless ibis, Apteribis glenos (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)[4]:22-23
      • Maui lowland apteribis, Apteribis sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Xenicibis

Cathartiformes

Suliformes

The group that includes modern boobies and cormorants.

  • Phalacrocoracidae – cormorants and shags
    • Extinct species of extant genus
      • Serventy's cormorant, Microcarbo serventyorum (Western Australia)
      • Madagascar cormorant, Phalacrocorax sp. (Madagascar)
      • Kohatu shag, Leucocarbo septentrionalis (North Island, New Zealand)[5]
  • Sulidae – gannets and boobies
    • Extinct subspecies of extant species
      • Ua Huka booby, Papasula abbotti costelloi (Ua Huka, Marquesas)

Phoenicopteriformes

The group that include modern flamingos

Procellariiformes

The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm petrels.

  • Procellariidae – petrels
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Dune shearwater or Hole's shearwater, Puffinus holeae (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, and Atlantic coast of Iberian peninsula)
      • Lava shearwater or Olson's shearwater, Puffinus olsoni (Canary Islands, E Atlantic)
      • Saint Helena shearwater Puffinus pacificoides (St Helena, S Atlantic)
      • Scarlett's shearwater, Puffinus spelaeus (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Menorcan shearwater, Puffinus sp. (Menorca, Balearic Islands) – possibly extirpated population of extant species
      • 'Eua shearwater Puffinus sp ('Eua, Tonga)
      • O'ahu petrel, Pterodroma jugabilis (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)[4]:17-22
      • 'Eua petrel Puffinus sp ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Canary Islands petrel, Pterodroma sp. (El Hierro, Canary Islands) – possibly extirpated population of extant species
      • Pterodroma sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
      • Henderson Island petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Bourne's petrel, Pterodroma sp. (Rodrigues)
      • Pseudobulweria sp. (Taravai, Angakauitai, Mangareva)
      • Pterodroma sp. (Norfolk Island)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Procellariidae sp. (Easter Island, East Pacific) – possibly extirpated population of extant species

Sphenisciformes

Columbiformes

  • Columbidae – doves and pigeons
    • Dysmoropelia
      • Saint Helena dove, Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos (Saint Helena, Atlantic) – known from Pleistocene bones but might have persisted until the 16th century
    • Natunaornis
    • Bountyphaps
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine cuckoo-dove, Macropygia arevarevauupa (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Marquesan cuckoo-dove, Macropygia heana (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • Puerto Rican quail-dove, Geotrygon larva (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Great ground-dove, Gallicolumba nui (Marquesas and Cook Islands)
      • Henderson ground dove, Gallicolumba leonpascoi (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • New Caledonian ground-dove, Gallicolumba longitarsus (New Caledonia)
      • Huahine ground-dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Huahine, Society Islands) – G. nui?
      • Mangaia ground-dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) – G. nui?
      • Rota ground dove, Gallicolumba sp. (Rota, Marianas)
      • Tongan tooth-billed pigeon, Didunculus placopedetes (Tonga, Pacific)
      • Kanaka pigeon, Caloenas canacorum (New Caledonia, Tonga)
      • Henderson imperial pigeon, Ducula harrisoni (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
      • Lakeba imperial-pigeon, Ducula lakeba (Lakeba, Fiji)
      • Steadman's imperial-pigeon, Ducula david ('Eua, Tonga, and Wallis Island)
      • Tongan imperial-pigeon, Ducula sp. ('Eua, Foa and Lifuka, Tonga) – may be D. david, D. lakeba or new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Cook Islands) – possibly new species
      • Ducula cf. galeata (Society Islands) – possibly new species
      • Ducula sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) – may be D. lakeba
      • Tubuai fruit-dove, Ptilinopus sp. (Tubuai, Austral Islands)
      • Columba melitensis (Malta)

Mesitornithiformes

Psittaciformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Psittaciformes gen. et sp. indet. (Rota, Marianas) – cf. Cacatua/Eclectus?
  • Strigopidae – kakas and kakapos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Cacatuidae cockatoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • New Caledonian cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Caledonia)
      • New Ireland cockatoo, Cacatua sp. (New Ireland)
  • Psittacidae – parrots, parakeets, and lorikeets
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Saint Croix macaw, Ara autocthones (Saint Croix, West Indies)
      • Oceanic eclectus parrot, Eclectus infectus (Tonga, Vanuatu, possibly Fiji) – may have survived to the 18th century or even longer.
      • Sinoto's lorikeet, Vini sinotoi (Marquesas, Pacific)
      • Conquered lorikeet, Vini vidivici (Mangaia, Cook Islands, and Marqesas)
      • Campbell parakeet, Cyanoramphus sp. (Campbell Island, New Zealand)
    • Extinct subspecies of an extant species
      • Virgin Islands parrot (Amazona vittata ssp. indet.)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (Easter Island)
      • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Guam, Marianas) – cf. Trichoglossus/Vini?

Cuculiformes

  • Cuculidae – cuckoos
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Henderson Island koel, Eudynamis cf. taitensis
      • Ancient coua, Coua primaeva (Madagascar)
      • Bertha's coua, Coua berthae (Madagascar)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • Conkling's roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus conklingi (Inland SW North America)

Accipitriformes

Birds of prey

  • Accipitridae – hawks and eagles
    • Bermuteo
    • Gigantohierax
      • Cuban giant-hawk, Gigantohierax suarezi (Cuba, West Indies)
    • Titanohierax
      • Bahaman titan-hawk, Titanohierax gloveralleni (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Hispaniolan titan-hawk, Titanohierax sp. (Hispaniola, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Powerful goshawk, Accipiter efficax (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Gracile goshawk, Accipiter quartus (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 1 (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Accipiter sp. 2 (New Ireland, Melanesia) – one of the two New Ireland species may be Meyer's goshawk
      • Aquila sp. "large" (Madagascar)
      • Aquila sp. "small" (Madagascar)
      • Borras' eagle-hawk, Buteogallus borrasi (Cuba, West Indies) – formerly in Aquila/Titanohierax
      • Wood harrier, Circus dossenus (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Eyles' harrier, Circus eylesi (New Zealand) (The Forbes' harrier, Circus teauteensis, is considered as synonym of the Eyles' harrier by some authors)
      • Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei (South Island, New Zealand)
      • A subfossil sea eagle (Haliaeetus) from Maui may be a valid species or subspecies; another one listed from the Chatham Islands is in error.
      • Malagasy crowned eagle, Stephanoaetus mahery (Madagascar)
    • Extinct subspecies of extant species

Falconiformes

  • Falconidae – falcons
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bahaman caracara, Caracara creightoni (Bahamas and Cuba, West Indies) – may be same as C. latebrosus
      • Puerto Rican caracara, Caracara latebrosus (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
      • Caracara major (Venezuela)
      • Caracara seymouri (Peru, Ecuador)
      • Jamaican caracara, Caracara tellustris (Jamaica, West Indies) – may have survived to historical times
      • Cuban caracara, Milvago carbo (Cuba, West Indies)
      •  ?Milvago sp. (Jamaica, West Indies)
      • Cuban kestrel, Falco kurochkini (Cuba, West Indies) – may have survived to the 17th century
      • Phalcoboenus napieri (Falkland Islands)

Caprimulgiformes

Nightjars and potoos

  • Caprimulgidae – nightjars
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban pauraque, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies) – possibly extant

Aegotheliformes

Owlet-nightjars

Apodiformes

Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Apodidae – swifts
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Mangaia swiftlet, Aerodramus manuoi (Mangaia, Cook Islands) – formerly Collocalia

Bucerotiformes

Hornbills and relatives. Formerly included in Coraciiformes.

  • Bucerotidae – hornbills
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Lifou hornbill, Rhyticeros ("Aceros") sp. (Lifou, Loyalty Islands)

Piciformes

Woodpeckers, puffbird and jacamars.

  • Picidae – woodpeckers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Bermuda flicker, Colaptes oceanicus (Bermuda, known from Pleistocene bones, but might have persisted until the Holocene)

Coraciiformes

Strigiformes

Owls and barn owls.

  • Strigidae – typical owls
    • Grallistrix
      • Kauaʻi stilt-owl, Grallistrix auceps (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui stilt-owl, Grallistrix erdmani (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Molokaʻi stilt-owl, Grallistrix geleches (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • O'ahu stilt-owl, Grallistrix orion (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Ornimegalonyx
      • Cuban giant owl, Ornimegalonxy oteroi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Ornimegalonyx sp. – probably subspecies of O. oteroi
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Cuban horned owl, Bubo osvaldoi (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Cretan little owl, Athene cretensis (Crete, Mediterranean)
      • New Caledonia boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia) – possibly extant
      • Madeiran scops owl (Otus mauli) (Madeira)
      • São Miguel scops owl (Otus frutuosoi) (Azores)
      • Bermuda saw-whet owl (Aegolius gradyi) (Bermuda) – known from Pleistocene bones, but might have persist until the early 1600s
    • Placement unresolved
      • Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
  • Tytonidae – barn-owls
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Puerto Rican barn-owl, Tyto cavatica (Puerto Rico, West Indies) – may still have existed in 1912
      • New Caledonian barn-owl, ?Tyto letocarti (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
      • Maltese barn-owl, Tyto melitensis (Malta, Mediterranean) – possibly a paleosubspecies or a synonym of Tyto alba
      • Noel's barn-owl, Tyto noeli (Cuba, Barbuda, West Indies) (Tyto neddi is a synonym)
      • Hispaniolan barn-owl, Tyto ostologa (Hispaniola, West Indies)
      • Tyto pollens (Andros, Bahamas, Cuba, West Indies) (Tyto riveroi is a synonym)
      • Antiguan barn-owl Tyto sp. (Antigua, West Indies)
      • Mussau barn-owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (Mussau, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland greater barn-owl, Tyto cf. novaehollandiae (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • New Ireland lesser barn-owl, Tyto cf. alba/aurantiaca (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Craves’s giant barn-owl, Tyto cravesae (Cuba, West Indies)

Passeriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Slender-billed Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Tiny Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Acanthisittidae – New Zealand "wrens"
    • Pachyplichas
      • Stout-legged wren, or South Island stout-legged wren, Pachyplichas yaldwyni (North Island, New Zealand)
      • North Island stout-legged wren, Pachyplichas jagmi (South Island, New Zealand) – may be subspecies of P. yaldwyni
    • Dendroscansor
      • Long-billed wren, Dendroscansor decurvirostris (South Island, New Zealand)
      • Extinct subspecies of extant species
        • North Island Piwauwau, Xenicus gilviventris ssp. nov. (North Island, New Zealand) – rock wren subspecies
  • Mohoidae
    • Prehistorically extinct species of Recently extinct genera
      • Oʻahu kioea, Chaetoptila cf. angustipluma (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Narrow-billed kioea, ?Chaetoptila sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Corvidae – crows, ravens, jays and magpies
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Chatham Islands raven, Corvus moriorum (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
      • High-billed crow, Corvus impluviatus (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Corvus sp. (Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a’, North Kona District, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Zealand raven, Corvus antipodum (New Zealand)
      • Robust crow, Corvus viriosus (O'ahu and Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
      • New Ireland crow, Corvus sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
      • Puerto Rican crow, Corvus pumilis (Puerto Rico and St Croix, West Indies) – probably a subspecies of C. nasicus or C. palmarum
  • Sturnidae – starlings
    • Cryptopsar
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Huahine starling, Aplonis diluvialis (Huahine, Society Islands)
      • Erromango starling, Aplonis sp. (Erromango, Vanuatu)
  • Sylviidae – Old World warblers
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • ʻEua bush warbler, Cettia sp. (ʻEua, Tonga)
  • Zosteropidae – white-eyes
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tongan large white-eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. ('Eua, Tonga)
      • Guam large white-eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. (Guam, Marianas)
  • Turdidae – thrushes
    • Meridiocichla
      • Meridiocichla salotti (Corsika)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Maui olomaʻo, Myadestes cf. lanaiensis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) – may have survived until the 19th century
  • Fringillidae – finches
  • Drepanididae – Hawaiian honeycreepers
    • Orthiospiza
    • Xestospiza
    • Vangulifer
      • Strange-billed finch, Vangulifer mirandus (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Thin-billed finch, Vangulifer neophasis (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Aidemedia
      • Oʻahu icterid-like gaper, Aidemedia chascax (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Sickle-billed gaper, Aidemedia zanclops (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui icterid-like gaper, Aidemedia lutetiae (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Prehistorically extinct species of extant and recently extinct genera
      • Kauaʻi finch, Telespiza persecutrix (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui Nui finch, Telespiza ypsilon (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Maui finch, Telespiza cf. ypsilon (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Pila's palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) – possibly survived until the early 18th century
      • Scissor-billed koa-finch, Rhodacanthis forfex (Kauaʻi and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Primitive koa-finch, Rhodacanthis litotes (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Wahi grosbeak, Chloridops wahi (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant ("King Kong") grosbeak finch, Chloridops regiskongi (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Kauaʻi grosbeak finch, Chloridops sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) – may be same as Chloridops wahi
      • Maui grosbeak finch, Chloridops sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant nukupu‘u, Hemignathus vorpalis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Giant ʻakialoa, Hemignathus sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands) – sometimes in genus Akialoa
      • Hoopoe-billed ʻakialoa, Hemignathus upupirostris (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu) – sometimes in genus Akialoa
      • Hemignathus aff. upupirostris (Maui)
      • Stout-legged finch, Ciridops tenax (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Molokaʻi ula-ai-hawane, Ciridops cf. anna (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
      • Oʻahu ula-ai-hawane, Ciridops sp. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) – at least 3 species
      • Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
  • Emberizidae – buntings
    • Pedinornis
      • Puerto Rican obscure bunting, Pedinornis stirpsarcana (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
    • Extinct species of extant genera
  • Hirundinidae – swallows and martins
    • Extinct subspecies of extant species
      • Henderson Island Pacific swallow, Hirundo tahitensis ssp. nov. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
  • Estrildidae – waxbills
    • Extinct species of extant genera
      • Marianas parrotfinch, Erythrura sp. (Guam and Rota, Marianas)

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Jain, Sonal; Rai, Niraj; Kumar, Giriraj; Pruthi, Parul Aggarwal; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Bajpai, Sunil; Pruthi, Vikas (2017). "Ancient DNA Reveals Late Pleistocene Existence of Ostriches in Indian Sub-Continent". PLOS ONE. 12 (3): e0164823. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164823. PMC 5342186. PMID 28273082.
  2. ^ Mitchell, Kieren J.; Wood, Jamie R.; Scofield, R. Paul; Llamas, Bastien; Cooper, Alan (2014). "Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals unsuspected taxonomic affinity of the extinct Chatham duck (Pachyanas chathamica) and resolves divergence times for New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 70: 420–428. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.017. PMID 23994164.
  3. ^ Guthrie, David A.; Thomas, Howell W.; Kennedy, George L. (2000). "An extinct Late Pleistocene Puffin from the Southern California Channel Islands. (Aves: Alcidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of a Fifth California Islands Symposium: 525–530.
  4. ^ a b c Olson, Storrs L.; James, Helen F (1991). "Descriptions of Thirty-Two New Species of Birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part I. Non-Passeriformes". Ornithological Monographs. 45. doi:10.2307/40166794. hdl:10088/1745.
  5. ^ Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Till, Charlotte E.; Easton, Luke J.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Schuckard, Rob; Melville, David S.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J.D.; Rayner, Matt J.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Kennedy, Martyn (2017). "Speciation, range contraction and extinction in the endemic New Zealand King Shag complex" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 115: 197–209. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.07.011.
  6. ^ Boessenkool, Sanne; et al. (2008). "Relict or colonizer? Extinction and range expansion of penguins in southern New Zealand". Proc. R. Soc. B. 276 (1658): 815–21. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1246. PMC 2664357. PMID 19019791.
  7. ^ Rando, J.C; Pieper, H.; Olson, Storrs L.; Pereira, F.; Alcover, J.A. (2017-06-27). "A new extinct species of large bullfinch (Aves: Fringillidae: Pyrrhula ) from Graciosa Island (Azores, North Atlantic Ocean)". Zootaxa. 4282 (3). ISSN 1175-5334.

General

External links

List of birds

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that.

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

List of recently extinct bird species

This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since 1500; for the list of birds known only from fossils, see List of fossil bird genera. For birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and usually known from specimens not completely fossilized, see List of Late Quaternary prehistoric bird species.Over 190 species of birds have become extinct since 1500, and the rate of extinction seems to be increasing. The situation is exemplified by Hawaii, where 30% of all known recently extinct bird taxa originally lived. Other areas, such as Guam, have also been hit hard; Guam has lost over 60% of its native bird taxa in the last 30 years, many of them due to the introduced brown tree snake.

Currently there are approximately 10,000 living species of birds, with an estimated 1,200 considered to be under threat of extinction.

Island species in general, and flightless island species in particular, are most at risk. The disproportionate number of rails in the list reflects the tendency of that family to lose the ability to fly when geographically isolated. Even more rails became extinct before they could be described by scientists; these taxa are listed in List of Late Quaternary prehistoric bird species.

The extinction dates given below are usually approximations of the actual date of extinction. In some cases, more exact dates are given as it is sometimes possible to pinpoint the date of extinction to a specific year or even day (the San Benedicto rock wren is possibly the most extreme example—its extinction could be timed with an accuracy of maybe half an hour). Extinction dates in the literature are usually the dates of the last verified record (credible observation or specimen taken); for many Pacific birds that became extinct shortly after European contact, however, this leaves an uncertainty period of over a century, because the islands on which they lived were only rarely visited by scientists.

New Zealand raven

The New Zealand raven (Corvus antipodum) was native to the North Island and South Island of New Zealand but has been extinct since the 16th century. There were two subspecies: the North Island raven (Corvus antipodum antipodum) and the South Island raven (Corvus antipodum pycrofti). Another closely related species, the Chatham raven (Corvus moriorum), occurred on the Chatham Islands.

The holotype of the South Island raven (Corvus antipodum pycrofti) is in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.New Zealand ravens were large corvids with long, broad bills that were not as arched as those of some of the Hawaiian crows (Corvus hawaiiensis). They were significantly smaller than the Chatham Island raven, and the South Island subspecies was rather larger than the North Island subspecies.

Remains of New Zealand ravens are most common in Pleistocene and Holocene coastal sites. On the coast, it may have frequented seal and penguin colonies or fed in the intertidal zone, as does the Tasmanian forest raven Corvus tasmanicus. It may also have depended on fruit, like the New Caledonian crow Corvus moneduloides, but it is difficult to understand why a fruit eater would have been most common in coastal forest and shrubland when fruit was distributed throughout the forest.

Birds (class: Aves)
Anatomy
Behaviour
Evolution
Fossil birds
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Neornithes

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