List of Italian concentration camps

Italian concentration camps include camps from the Italian colonial wars in Africa as well as camps for the civilian population from areas occupied by Italy during World War II. Memory of both camps were subjected to "historical amnesia". The repression of memory led to historical revisionism in Italy[1] and in 2003 the Italian media published Silvio Berlusconi's statement that Benito Mussolini only "used to send people on vacation".[2][3]

Colonial wars

Name of the camp Location of camp Present-day country Date of establishment Date of disestablishment Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Nocra Nocra Eritrea 1930s 1941    
Abyar Abyar Libya 1930 1933 3,123[4]  
Agedabia Ajdabiya Libya 1930 1933 10,000[4]  
El Agheila El Agheila Libya 1930 1933 10,900[4]  
Marsa Brega Brega Libya 1930 1933 21,117[4]  
Sid Ahmed el Maghrun El Magrun Libya 1930 1933 13,050[4]  
Soluch Suluq Libya 1930 1933 20,123[4]  
Danane Mogadishu Somalia 1935 1941 6,000[4] 3,175[5]

World War II

Name of the camp Location of locality Present-day country Date of establishment Date of disestablishment Estimated number of prisoners Estimated number of deaths
Bakar Bakar Croatia 31 December 1942 1 July 1943 893[6]  
Bolzano South Tyrol September 8, 1943 April 29 and May 3, 1945 11,000  
Campagna Salerno 15 June 1940 19 September 1943    
Chiesanuova Padua June 1942      
Ferramonti di Tarsia Cosenza summer 1940 4 September 1943 3,800  
Giado Jadu, Libya Libya January 1942 24 January 1943 3,146[7] 562
Gonars Palmanova March 1942 8 September 1943 7,000 453; >500
Mamula Mamula island Montenegro 30 May 1942 14 September 1943 2,322 130
Monigo Treviso June 1942      
Molat Molat island Croatia 28 June 1942 8 September 1943 20,000[8] c. 1,000[8]
Rab, separate camps for Slovenes/Croats and Jews Rab (Arbe) island Croatia July 1942 11 September 1943 10,000; 15,000 2,000; >3,500; 4,000
Renicci di Anghiari Arezzo October 1942      
Risiera di San Sabba[9] Trieste October 1943 April 1945 > 11,500 4,000–5,000[10]
Visco Palmanova winter 1942      
Zlarin Zlarin Croatia March 1943 June 1943 2.500 26
Campo di Fossoli Carpi May 1942 March 1944    

References

  1. ^ Alessandra Kersevan 2008: (Editor) Foibe – Revisionismo di stato e amnesie della repubblica. Kappa Vu. Udine.
  2. ^ Survivors of war camp lament Italy's amnesia, 2003, International Herald Tribune
  3. ^ Di Sante, Costantino (2005) Italiani senza onore: I crimini in Jugoslavia e i processi negati (1941–1951), Ombre Corte, Milano. (Archived by WebCite®)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Michael R. Ebner. Geoff Simons. Ordinary Violence in Mussolini's Italy. New York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2011. P. 261.
  5. ^ Donatella Strangio. The Reasons for Underdevelopment: The Case of Decolonisation in Somaliland. Springer, 2012. P. 5.
  6. ^ Bakar concentration camp, Online Research project
  7. ^ Maurice M. Roumani: The Jews of Libya. Sussex Academic Press 2007, ISBN 978-1-84519-137-5, p 34.
  8. ^ a b Bašić 2008, pp. 196.
  9. ^ "English - Risiera di San Sabba – Monumento Nazionale – Comune di Trieste". risierasansabba.it. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03.
  10. ^ "Trieste ebraica » La Risiera di San Sabba". moked.it.

External links

  • campifascisti.it, Online Research project
  • "The Last Witnesses", 2013 Exhibition at National Museum for Contemporary History (Slovenia) documenting photos and interviews with survivors
Campagna internment camp

Campagna internment camp, located in Campagna, a town near Salerno in Southern Italy, was an internment camp for Jews and foreigners established by Benito Mussolini in 1940.

The first internees were 430 men captured in different parts of Italy. Most of them were Jewish refugees came from Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Dalmatia, there were also some British citizens and a group of 40 French and Italian Jews. The number of inmates, during the three years varied considerably, ranging between 230 (February 1941) and 150 (September 1943).

The camp was never a concentration camp in the German sense of the term. Internees were allowed to receive food parcels and visit sick relatives. In addition, there were no mail restrictions. None of the internees were killed or subjected to violence. In fact, the internees were constantly protected from deportation to Germany, as the Nazis requested. Prisoners were allowed to organize a library, school, theater and a synagogue.

In September 1943 Italy capitulated and the Allied troops invaded South Italy. In response the German troops invaded Italy from the North. However, by the time they got to the Campagna concentration camp, all the inmates had already fled to the mountains with the help of the local inhabitants.

Domenikon massacre

The Domenikon Massacre (Greek: Σφαγή του Δομένικου, Italian: La strage di Domenikon) was a violent reprisal by the Italian Royal Army's 24th Infantry Division Pinerolo during the Axis Occupation of Greece. On 16–17 February 1943, Italian troops executed a total of 175 male civilians from Domeniko, Thessaly, Greece. Also executed local native civilians from the Mesohori, Amouri and Damasi villages. Domenikon and Mesohori were also set ablaze.

Ferramonti di Tarsia

Ferramonti di Tarsia, also known as Ferramonti, was an Italian internment camp used to intern political dissidents and ethnic minorities. It was located in the municipality of Tarsia, near Cosenza, in Calabria. It was the largest of the fifteen internment camps established by Benito Mussolini between June and September 1940. Over 3,800 Jews were imprisoned at the camp.

Gonars concentration camp

The Gonars concentration camp was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established on February 23, 1942, near Gonars, Italy.

Many internees were transferred to this camp from the other Italian concentration camp, Rab concentration camp, which served as equivalent of final solution in Mario Roatta's ethnic cleansing policy against ethnic Slovenes from the Italian-occupied Province of Ljubljana and Croats from Gorski Kotar, in accord with the racist 1920s speech by Benito Mussolini, along with other Italian war crimes committed on the Italian-occupied territories of Yugoslavia: When dealing with such a race as Slavic - inferior and barbarian - we must not pursue the carrot, but the stick policy.... We should not be afraid of new victims.... The Italian border should run across the Brenner Pass, Monte Nevoso and the Dinaric Alps.... I would say we can easily sacrifice 500,000 barbaric Slavs for 50,000 Italians....

The first transport of 5,343 internees (1,643 of whom were children) arrived two days after its establishment, on February 23, 1942, from the Province of Ljubljana and from the other two Italian concentration camps, the Rab camp and the camp in Monigo (near Treviso).

The camp was disbanded on September 8, 1943, immediately after the Italian armistice. Every effort was made to erase any evidence of this black spot of Italian history. The camp's buildings were destroyed, the materials were used to build a nearby kindergarten and the site was turned into a meadow.Only in 1973 a sacrarium was created by sculptor Miodrag Živković at the town's cemetery. Remains of 453 Slovenian and Croatian victims were transferred into its two underground crypts. It is believed that at least 50 additional persons died in the camp due to starvation and torture. Apart from the sacrarium no other evidence of the camp remains and even many locals are unaware of it.

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