List of Fleet Commanders of the Ottoman Navy

This list includes Fleet Commanders (Turkish: Donanma Komutanı) of the Ottoman Navy.[1]

On March 13, 1867, the title of Kapudan Pasha (list) was abolished, and the Naval Minister (Bahriye Nazırı) and the Fleet Commander (Donanma Komutanı) were instituted.[1]

Name Took office Left office Time in office
Ottoman Navy Fleet Commanders (1877-1920)
1
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Paşa [tr]
Admiral
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Paşa
(1832–1903)
1877189416–17 years
2
Hüseyin Pasha
Admiral
Hüseyin Pasha
189418972–3 years
3
Hasan Rami Pasha
Admiral
Hasan Rami Pasha
(1842–1923)
1897190810–11 years
4
Sir Douglas Gamble
Ferik Admiral
Sir Douglas Gamble
(1856–1934)
19088 February 19101–2 years
5
Ford
Ford
Head of the first British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire
February 1910April 19102 months
6
Hugh Pigot Williams
Liva Amiral
Hugh Pigot Williams
(1858–1934)
Head of the second British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire
April 1910December 19108 months
7
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
Kalyon Kaptanı
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
20 December 191024 July 19121 year, 217 days
8
Sermet Fazıl Bey
Kalyon Kaptanı
Sermet Fazıl Bey
24 July 191218 August 191225 days
9
Selanikli Ramiz Numan Bey
Kalyon Kaptanı
Selanikli Ramiz Numan Bey
19 November 19126 February 1913171 days
(7)
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
Kalyon Kaptanı
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
6 February 191314 November 1913281 days
10
Arthur Limpus
Liva Amiral
Arthur Limpus
(1863–1931)
Head of the third British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire.
14 November 19133 August 1914262 days
11
Arif Ahmed Bey
Fırkateyn Kaptanı
Arif Ahmed Bey
3 August 19143 September 191431 days
12
Wilhelm Souchon
Admiral
Wilhelm Souchon
(1864–1946)
Head of the German naval mission to the Ottoman Empire.
3 September 191424 August 19172 years, 355 days
13
Hubert von Rebeur-Paschwitz
Admiral
Hubert von Rebeur-Paschwitz
(1863–1933)
24 August 19173 November 19181 year, 71 days
(11)
Arif Ahmed Bey
Liva Amiral
Arif Ahmed Bey
3 November 191822 April 19201 year, 171 days
Turkish Navy Fleet Commanders (1922-1924)
14
Hamdi Tevfik Bey
Liva Amiral
Hamdi Tevfik Bey
22 December 192223 January 19241 year, 32 days
15
Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan
Fırkateyn Kaptanı
Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan
(1879–1963)
23 January 192411 May 1924109 days

Sources

  1. ^ a b Bernd Langensiepen, Ahmet Güleryüz, The Ottoman Steam Navy, 1828-1923, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1995, ISBN 1-55750-659-0, p. 197.

External links

Kapudan Pasha

The Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان پاشا‎, modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as the Kapudan-ı Derya (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان دریا‎, modern: Kaptan-ı Derya, "Captain of the Sea"). Typically, he was based at Galata and Gallipoli during the winter and charged with annual sailings during the summer months. The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include Derya Bey ("bey of the sea") and Re'is Kapudan ("head captain").The title Derya Bey was first granted during the reign of Bayezid I as an official rank within the state structure. Following the Conquest of Constantinople, Mehmet II raised Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey to the status of sanjak bey for his efforts against the Byzantines in the Golden Horn. Baltaoğlu received the sanjak of Gallipoli (the principal Turkish naval base) and the kazas of Galata (until the Conquest a Genovese colony) and İzmit (whose tax remittance consisted of ship timber).The success of Hayreddin Barbarossa saw the Kapudan Pasha elevated to the ranks of beylerbey and vizier in 1535, with his territories expanded into the Eyalet of the Archipelago and Algiers. Hayreddin's successors succeeded to these holdings, but saw their rank drop to two-horsetail vizier for several centuries.The official residence of the Kapudan Pasha was in the Divankhane in the Imperial Arsenal in the Golden Horn, but he was often away as his governorship of the Eyalet of the Archipelago entailed visiting its various provinces in person every year. The post was one of great power and prestige within the Ottoman hierarchy: Evliya Çelebi reports that it had an annual income of 885,000 silver akçe. Additional income, to the amount of 300,000 kuruş in the 18th/19th centuries, came from leasing a number of Aegean islands to tax farmers (iltizam).The heyday of the post was in the 16th century, when a succession of capable holders brought Ottoman naval power to its height, and for a time ensured its supremacy in the Mediterranean. Although in theory the post could only be filled by a serving admiral (Kapudan-i Hümayn), a chief of the Imperial Arsenal (Tersane Kethüdasi) or, at the very least, by the sanjak-bey of Rhodes, from the turn of the 17th century the appointment of court favourites and/or persons lacking in military or naval experience marked the beginning of Ottoman naval decline.As a part of the Tanzimat reforms, the Eyalet of the Archipelago was reduced in rank and granted to the wali of Rhodes in 1848. The Kapudan Pashas retained their rank but were thereafter solely military servicemen.

A total of 161 captains served until 13 March 1867 when the post was abolished and replaced by ministers (Bahriye Nazırı) of the Ottoman Naval Ministry. After 1877, these were replaced by the Fleet Commanders.

List of Kapudan Pashas

The Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان پاشا‎, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. Around 160 captains served between the establishment of the post under Bayezid I and the office's replacement by the more modern Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nazırlığı) during the Tanzimat reforms.

The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include derya begi ("beg of the sea") and re'is kapudan ("head captain").

Ottoman Navy

The Ottoman Navy (Ottoman Turkish: Donanma-yı Humâyûn‎ or Turkish: Osmanlı Donanması), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy. During its long existence, it was involved in many conflicts and signed a number of maritime treaties. At its height, the Navy extended to the Indian Ocean, sending an expedition to Indonesia in 1565.

For much of its history, the Navy was led by the position of the Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral; literally "Captain Pasha"). This position was abolished in 1867, when it was replaced by the Minister of the Navy (Turkish: Bahriye Nazırı) and a number of Fleet Commanders (Turkish: Donanma Komutanları). After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Navy's tradition was continued under the modern Turkish Naval Forces.

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