|№||Name||Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|Ottoman Navy Fleet Commanders (1877-1920)|
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Paşa
Hasan Rami Pasha
Sir Douglas Gamble
|1908||8 February 1910||1–2 years|
Head of the first British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire
|February 1910||April 1910||2 months|
Hugh Pigot Williams
Head of the second British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire
|April 1910||December 1910||8 months|
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
|20 December 1910||24 July 1912||1 year, 217 days|
Sermet Fazıl Bey
|24 July 1912||18 August 1912||25 days|
Selanikli Ramiz Numan Bey
|19 November 1912||6 February 1913||171 days|
Cibalili Tahir Mehmed Bey
|6 February 1913||14 November 1913||281 days|
Head of the third British naval mission to the Ottoman Empire.
|14 November 1913||3 August 1914||262 days|
Arif Ahmed Bey
|3 August 1914||3 September 1914||31 days|
Head of the German naval mission to the Ottoman Empire.
|3 September 1914||24 August 1917||2 years, 355 days|
Hubert von Rebeur-Paschwitz
|24 August 1917||3 November 1918||1 year, 71 days|
Arif Ahmed Bey
|3 November 1918||22 April 1920||1 year, 171 days|
|Turkish Navy Fleet Commanders (1922-1924)|
Hamdi Tevfik Bey
|22 December 1922||23 January 1924||1 year, 32 days|
Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan
|23 January 1924||11 May 1924||109 days|
The Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان پاشا, modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as the Kapudan-ı Derya (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان دریا, modern: Kaptan-ı Derya, "Captain of the Sea"). Typically, he was based at Galata and Gallipoli during the winter and charged with annual sailings during the summer months. The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include Derya Bey ("bey of the sea") and Re'is Kapudan ("head captain").The title Derya Bey was first granted during the reign of Bayezid I as an official rank within the state structure. Following the Conquest of Constantinople, Mehmet II raised Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey to the status of sanjak bey for his efforts against the Byzantines in the Golden Horn. Baltaoğlu received the sanjak of Gallipoli (the principal Turkish naval base) and the kazas of Galata (until the Conquest a Genovese colony) and İzmit (whose tax remittance consisted of ship timber).The success of Hayreddin Barbarossa saw the Kapudan Pasha elevated to the ranks of beylerbey and vizier in 1535, with his territories expanded into the Eyalet of the Archipelago and Algiers. Hayreddin's successors succeeded to these holdings, but saw their rank drop to two-horsetail vizier for several centuries.The official residence of the Kapudan Pasha was in the Divankhane in the Imperial Arsenal in the Golden Horn, but he was often away as his governorship of the Eyalet of the Archipelago entailed visiting its various provinces in person every year. The post was one of great power and prestige within the Ottoman hierarchy: Evliya Çelebi reports that it had an annual income of 885,000 silver akçe. Additional income, to the amount of 300,000 kuruş in the 18th/19th centuries, came from leasing a number of Aegean islands to tax farmers (iltizam).The heyday of the post was in the 16th century, when a succession of capable holders brought Ottoman naval power to its height, and for a time ensured its supremacy in the Mediterranean. Although in theory the post could only be filled by a serving admiral (Kapudan-i Hümayn), a chief of the Imperial Arsenal (Tersane Kethüdasi) or, at the very least, by the sanjak-bey of Rhodes, from the turn of the 17th century the appointment of court favourites and/or persons lacking in military or naval experience marked the beginning of Ottoman naval decline.As a part of the Tanzimat reforms, the Eyalet of the Archipelago was reduced in rank and granted to the wali of Rhodes in 1848. The Kapudan Pashas retained their rank but were thereafter solely military servicemen.
A total of 161 captains served until 13 March 1867 when the post was abolished and replaced by ministers (Bahriye Nazırı) of the Ottoman Naval Ministry. After 1877, these were replaced by the Fleet Commanders.List of Kapudan Pashas
The Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان پاشا, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. Around 160 captains served between the establishment of the post under Bayezid I and the office's replacement by the more modern Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nazırlığı) during the Tanzimat reforms.
The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include derya begi ("beg of the sea") and re'is kapudan ("head captain").Ottoman Navy
The Ottoman Navy (Ottoman Turkish: Donanma-yı Humâyûn or Turkish: Osmanlı Donanması), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy. During its long existence, it was involved in many conflicts and signed a number of maritime treaties. At its height, the Navy extended to the Indian Ocean, sending an expedition to Indonesia in 1565.
For much of its history, the Navy was led by the position of the Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral; literally "Captain Pasha"). This position was abolished in 1867, when it was replaced by the Minister of the Navy (Turkish: Bahriye Nazırı) and a number of Fleet Commanders (Turkish: Donanma Komutanları). After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Navy's tradition was continued under the modern Turkish Naval Forces.
|Fleet organisation (by conflict)|