^For elections held prior to 1804, this column represents the share of electors who cast a vote for the candidate. For elections held since 1804, this column represents the share of the total electoral vote for president won by the candidate.
^For elections held prior to 1804, this column represents the share of electors who cast a vote for the candidate. For elections held since 1804, this column represents the share of the total electoral vote for vice president won by the candidate.
^Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between votes for president and votes for vice president. Federalist leaders agreed to support a ticket of John Adams and Thomas Pinckney, though it is unclear whether they formally nominated the ticket at a congressional nominating caucus. Ultimately, Adams won the most electoral votes and became president. Because Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson won more electoral votes than Pinckney, he was elected as vice president.
^Prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804, each member of the Electoral College cast two votes, with no distinction made between votes for president and votes for vice president. The Federalist congressional nominating caucus nominated a ticket of Adams and Charles C. Pinckney. Though the party did not officially nominate either candidate for president or vice president, most Federalists favored Adams for president and Pinckney for vice president. Ultimately, Adams won 65 electoral votes and Pinckney won 64 electoral votes.
^Clinton was a Northern Democratic-Republican who challenged the incumbent Democratic-Republican president, James Madison, in the general election. Clinton was nominated for president by a legislative caucus of New York Democratic-Republicans, and much of his support came from Democratic-Republicans dissatisfied with Madison's leadership in the War of 1812. The Federalist Party did not officially nominate Clinton, but most Federalist leaders tacitly supported Clinton's candidacy in hopes of defeating Madison.
^The Federalists did not nominate a ticket in 1816, though some Federalists were elected to serve as presidential electors. A majority of the Federalist electors cast their presidential vote for King and their vice presidential vote for Howard.
Deskins, Donald Richard; Walton, Hanes; Puckett, Sherman (2010). Presidential Elections, 1789-2008: County, State, and National Mapping of Election Data. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472116973.
Morgan, William G. (1969). "The Origin and Development of the Congressional Nominating Caucus". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 113 (2): 184–196. JSTOR985965.
Siry, Steven Edwin (1985). "The Sectional Politics of "Practical Republicanism": De Witt Clinton's Presidential Bid, 1810–1812". Journal of the Early Republic. 5 (4): 441–462. JSTOR3123061.
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