List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States

This is a list of people who may or may not have worked for intelligence organizations of the Soviet Union and Soviet-aligned countries against the United States.

For more information, see:

Czechoslovakia (StB)

Hungary

Poland

Soviet Union

NKVD and KGB

NKVD

KGB

Buben group

Mocase

Perlo group

Redhead group

Rosenberg ring

Silvermaster group

Sound and Myrna groups

Ware group

The "Berg" – "Art" Group

KGB Illegals

GRU (Soviet military intelligence)

Karl group

Portland ring

Sorge ring

Naval GRU

GRU Illegals

Others

See also

References

  1. ^ Leonard Doyle (10 May 2009), "New spy book names Engelbert Broda as KGB atomic spy in Britain", Daily Telegraph
  2. ^ Ben Macintyre (10 June 2009), "The spy who started the Cold War", The Times
  3. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2009). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  4. ^ Andrew Lownie (2016). Stalin's Englishman: Guy Burgess, the Cold War, and the Cambridge Spy Ring. St. Martin's Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-250-10099-3.
  5. ^ Sherrill, Robert (16 Oct 1983). "A Life Devoted To A Lost Cause". New York Times. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  6. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr (1999), Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, Yale University Press, p. 357, ISBN 0300077718
  7. ^ a b Richard Polenberg (2002). In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing. Cornell University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8014-8661-6.
  8. ^ Rober L. Benson, The Venona Story, Center for Cryptological History, National Security Agency.
  9. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr (1999), Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300077718
  10. ^ a b Bruno Navasky. "Koval, George Abramovich (1913-2006)". DocumentsTalk.com. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. [Koval] drastically reduced the amount of time it took for Russia to develop nuclear weapons.
  11. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  12. ^ Agence France-Presse (Nov. 3, 2007), "Russia: Award for a Soviet Spy". The New York Times p. A11
  13. ^ William J. Broad (Nov. 12, 2007), "A Spy’s Path: Iowa to A-Bomb to Kremlin Honor", The New York Times
  14. ^ A.P. (Jan. 25, 2003), "Alan Nunn May, 91, Pioneer In Atomic Spying for Soviets", The New York Times
  15. ^ Jeevan Vasagar (27 Jan 2003), "Spy's deathbed confession: Atom physicist tells how secrets given to Soviet Union", The Guardian
  16. ^ David Stout (26 Sep 1996), "Pavel Sudoplatov, 89, Dies; Top Soviet Spy Who Accused Oppenheimer", The New York Times
  17. ^ Victor Cherkashin (Author), Gregory Feifer (2005), Spy Handler: Memoir of a KGB Officer, Basic Books ISBN 0-465-00968-9, pp. 246–247.
  18. ^ Elliston, John (7 Mar 2001). "Spy Like Us?". Indy Week. Durham. Retrieved 23 Sep 2018.
  19. ^ "Reino Häyhänen". FBI History - Famous Cases. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  20. ^ Richard Polenberg (2002). In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing. Cornell University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8014-8661-6.
  21. ^ Special to NYTimes front page (March 2, 1976), "Spy Said He'd Kill Himself If Exposed, Then Did So", The New York Times, p. 1
  22. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  23. ^ Richard Polenberg (2002). In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: The Security Clearance Hearing. Cornell University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8014-8661-6.
  24. ^ Jeff Stein (8 Dec 2010), "Spy Talk — Ex-intelligence official blasts Pollard lobbying", The Washington Post
  25. ^ Nancy Skelton (9 June 1985), "Jerry Whitworth, Accused in Espionage Ring: No One Really Knew Fourth Spy Suspect", Los Angeles Times
  26. ^ Alan Cowell (Nov. 10, 1999), "Theodore Hall, Prodigy and Atomic Spy, Dies at 74", The New York Times, p. C31
  27. ^ Romerstein, Herbert; Breindel, Eric (2001). The Venona Secrets: Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors. Regnery Publishing. pp. 295–6. ISBN 978-0-89526-225-7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2011.
  28. ^ Price, David (1998). "Obituary for Mark Zborowski". Anthropology Newsletter (39(6):31). Retrieved 21 Sep 2018.
  29. ^ "More Cold War Espionage Transcripts Unsealed". National Security Archive. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  30. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  31. ^ Sibley, Katherine A. S. (2003). "Soviet Military-Industrial Espionage In the U.S.". American Communist History. 2: 21–51. doi:10.1080/1474389032000112582.
  32. ^ "Guilty". Time. 4 Dec 1950. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  33. ^ Mead, Rebecca (29 Nov 2010). "Setting It Straight". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  34. ^ "More Cold War Espionage Transcripts Unsealed". National Security Archive. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  35. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr (2006). "The Red Bomb and the Postwar Trials". Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154–56. ISBN 978-1-139-46024-8. Retrieved 25 Sep 2018.
  36. ^ NOVA (2002). "Secrets, Lies, and Atomic Spies — Read Venona Intercepts". PBS.org. Retrieved 23 Sep 2018.
  37. ^ National Counterintelligence Center. "A Counterintelligence Reader" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. Vol. 4, Ch. 2. p. 83. Retrieved 23 Sep 2018.
  38. ^ Underground Soviet Espionage (NKVD) in Agencies of the U.S. Government Archived February 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12987-8.
  40. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr (2000). "Harry Dexter White: A Most Highly Placed Spy". Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12987-8. Retrieved 23 Sep 2018.
  41. ^ Steil, Benn (2013). The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. Princeton University Press. pp. 4, 23. ISBN 9780691149097.
  42. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  43. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr (2000). "Harry Dexter White: A Most Highly Placed Spy". Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-300-12987-8. Retrieved 23 Sep 2018.
  44. ^ Earl M. Hyde, Bernard Schuster and Joseph Katz: KGB Master Spies in the United States, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, Volume 12, Issue 1 March 1999.
  45. ^ Underground Soviet Espionage (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government, FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 82, pg. 327 pdf, October 21, 1946.
  46. ^ *Alexander Vassiliev, Notes on A. Gorsky's Report to Savchenko S.R., 23 December 1949. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-09-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  47. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.
  48. ^ Haynes, John Earl (February 2007), Cover Name, Cryptonym, CPUSA Party Name, Pseudonym, and Real Name Index: A Research Historian's Working Reference, retrieved 2007-04-29
  49. ^ Mike Gruntman (2010). Enemy amongst Trojans : a Soviet spy at USC. Figueroa Press. ISBN 9781932800746.
  50. ^ John Earl Haynes; Harvey Klehr; Alexander Vassiliev (2010). Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15572-3.

External links

1976 Argentine coup d'état

The 1976 Argentine coup d'état was a right-wing coup that overthrew Isabel Perón as President of Argentina on 24 March 1976. A military junta was installed to replace her; this was headed by Lieutenant General Jorge Rafael Videla, Admiral Emilio Eduardo Massera and Brigadier-General Orlando Ramón Agosti. The political process initiated on 24 March 1976, took the official name of "National Reorganization Process", and the junta, although not with its original members, remained in power until the return to the democratic process on December 10, 1983.

The coup d'état had been planned since October 1975, and the United States Department of State learned of the preparations two months before its execution. The American secretary of state Henry Kissinger would meet several times with Argentinian military leaders after the coup, urging them to destroy their opponents quickly before outcry over human rights abuses grew in the United States.

ASEAN Declaration

The ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was signed in Bangkok on 8 August 1967 by the five ASEAN founding members, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and communist insurgency within their own borders. It states the basic principles of ASEAN: co-operation, amity, and non-interference. The date is now celebrated as ASEAN Day.

Anti anti-communism

The phrase anti anti-communism has been noted by Clifford Geertz, an American anthropologist at the Institute for Advanced Study as a term applied, in "the cold war days" by "those who … regarded the [Red] Menace as the primary fact of contemporary political life" to "[t]hose of us who strenuously opposed [that] obsession, as we saw it … with the insinuation – wildly incorrect in the vast majority of cases – that, by the law of the double negative, we had some secret affection for the Soviet Union."Stated more simply by Kristen R. Ghodsee and Scott Sehon: "In 1984, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote that you could be ‘anti anti-communism’ without being in favour of communism."Jonathan Chait, in a critique of Stephen F. Cohen used a fully hyphenated form of the term, calling Cohen: "… an old-school leftist who has carried on the mental habits of decades of anti-anti-communism seamlessly into a new career of anti-anti-Putinism."

Arms race

An arms race occurs when two or more nations participation in interactive or competitive increases in "persons under arms" as well as "war material". Simply defined as a competition between two or more states to have superior armed forces; a competition concerning production of weapons, the growth of a military, and the aim of superior military technology.

The term is also used to describe any long-term escalating competitive situation where each competitor focuses on out-doing the others.

An evolutionary arms race is a system where two populations are evolving in order to continuously one-up members of the other population. This concept is related to the Red Queen's Hypothesis, where two organisms co-evolve to overcome each other but each fails to progress relative to the other interactant.

In technology, there are close analogues to the arms races between parasites and hosts, such as the arms race between computer virus writers and antivirus software writers, or spammers against Internet service providers and E-mail software writers.

More generically, the term is used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal, only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors in rank or knowledge. An arms race may also imply futility as the competitors spend a great deal of time and money, yet end up in the same situation as if they had never started the arms race.

Asian Relations Conference

The Asian Relations Conference took place in New Delhi in March-April 1947. It was hosted by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who then headed a provisional government that was preparing for India's Independence, which came on 15 August 1947. The Asian Relations Conference brought together many leaders of the independence movements in Asia, and represented a first attempt to assert Asian unity. The objectives of the conference were "to bring together the leading men and women of Asia on a common platform to study the problems of common concern to the people of the continent, to focus attention on social, economic and cultural problems of the different countries of Asia, and to foster mutual contact and understanding."

In his writings and speeches, Nehru had laid great emphasis on the manner in which post-colonial India would rebuild its Asia connections. At this conference Nehru declared: "... Asia is again finding herself ... one of the notable consequences of the European domination of Asia has been the isolation of the countries of Asia from one another. ... Today this isolation is breaking down because of many reasons, political and otherwise ... This Conference is significant as an expression of that deeper urge of the mind and spirit of Asia which has persisted ... In this Conference and in this work there are no leaders and no followers. All countries of Asia have to meet together in a common task ..."

Eisenhower Doctrine

The Eisenhower Doctrine was a policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East". Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a Middle Eastern country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism". The phrase "international communism" made the doctrine much broader than simply responding to Soviet military action. A danger that could be linked to communists of any nation could conceivably invoke the doctrine.

Exercise Verity

Exercise Verity was the only major training exercise of the Western Union (WU). Undertaken in July 1949, it involved 60 warships from the British, French, Belgian and Dutch navies. A contemporary newsreel described this exercise as involving "the greatest assembly of warships since the Battle of Jutland."

Frozen conflict

In international relations, a frozen conflict is a situation in which active armed conflict has been brought to an end, but no peace treaty or other political framework resolves the conflict to the satisfaction of the combatants. Therefore, legally the conflict can start again at any moment, creating an environment of insecurity and instability.

The term has been commonly used for post-Soviet conflicts, but it has also often been applied to other perennial territorial disputes. The de facto situation that emerges may match the de jure position asserted by one party to the conflict; for example, Russia claims and effectively controls Crimea following the 2014 Crimean crisis despite Ukraine's continuing claim to the region. Alternatively, the de facto situation may not match either side's official claim. The division of Korea is an example of the latter situation: both the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea officially assert claims to the entire peninsula; however, there exists a well-defined border between the two countries' areas of control.

Frozen conflicts sometimes result in partially recognized states. For example, the Republic of South Ossetia, a product of the frozen Georgian–Ossetian conflict, is recognized by eight other states, including five UN members; the other three of these entities are partially recognized states themselves.

Glasnost

In the Russian language the word Glasnost (; Russian: гла́сность, IPA: [ˈɡɫasnəsʲtʲ] (listen)) has several general and specific meanings. It has been used in Russian to mean "openness and transparency" since at least the end of the eighteenth century.In the Russian Empire of the late-19th century, the term was particularly associated with reforms of the judicial system, ensuring that the press and the public could attend court hearings and that the sentence was read out in public. In the mid-1980s, it was popularised by Mikhail Gorbachev as a political slogan for increased government transparency in the Soviet Union.

Guerrilla Army of the Poor

The Guerrilla Army Of The Poor (EGP – Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres) was a Guatemalan leftist guerrilla movement, which commanded a lot of support among the indigenous Mayan people during the Guatemalan Civil War.

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.

Hoxhaism

Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978. The ideology is named after Enver Hoxha, a notable Albanian communist leader.

Jamaican political conflict

The Jamaican political conflict is a long standing feud between right-wing and left-wing elements in the country, often exploding into violence. The Jamaican Labor Party and the People's National Party have fought for control of the island for years and the rivalry has encouraged urban warfare in Kingston. Each side believes the other to be controlled by foreign elements, the JLP is said to be backed by the American Central Intelligence Agency and the PNP is said to been backed by the Soviet Union and Fidel Castro.

Johnson Doctrine

The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson after the United States' intervention in the Dominican Republic in 1965, declared that domestic revolution in the Western Hemisphere would no longer be a local matter when "the object is the establishment of a Communist dictatorship". It is an extension of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Doctrines.

Le Cercle

Le Cercle is a foreign policy think-tank specialising in international security. Set up after World War II, the group has members from twenty-five countries and meets at least bi-annually, in Washington, D.C., United States.

Nixon Doctrine

The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969. According to Gregg Brazinsky, Nixon stated that "the United States would assist in the defense and developments of allies and friends", but would not "undertake all the defense of the free nations of the world." This doctrine meant that each ally nation was in charge of its own security in general, but the United States would act as a nuclear umbrella when requested. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies. The Nixon Doctrine implied the intentions of Nixon shifting the direction on international policies in Asia, especially aiming for "Vietnamization of the Vietnam War."

Titoism

Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.It usually represents Tito's Yugoslav doctrine in Cold War international politics. It emerged with the Yugoslav Partisans' liberation of Yugoslavia independently of, or without much help from, the Red Army, resulting in Yugoslavia being the only Eastern European country to remain "socialist, but independent" after World War II as well as resisting Soviet Union pressure to become a member of the Warsaw Pact.

Today, Titoism is also used to refer to Yugo-nostalgia, a longing for reestablishment or revival of Yugoslavism or Yugoslavia by the citizens of Yugoslavia's successor states.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
Frozen conflicts
Foreign policy
Ideologies
Organizations
Propaganda
Races
See also

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